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Vol. LI. No. 1. 


4, loyo. Office, 220 Market Street. 

California Midwinter Scenes. 

Newton B. Pierce of Santa Ana, so well known 
for his studies of California vine diseases, writes to 
Something must be done to offset the chill which M. W. Motheral, herticultural commissioner for 
the Truckee ice palace monstrosity will send to the I Kings county, that he has searched for the Anaheim 

bone of all who are looking to California as a winter 
escape. The Boundary Commission utterly refuse 
to amend the State line so as to make Truckee a 
part of Alaska. She must evidently remain a freez- 
ing thorn in the east side of California until the in- 
clination of the earth's axis again makes Greenland 
the home of tree-ferns and bananas. Then the 
Truckee ice palace will melt down, and California 
will be warm all through. 

But to meet the Truckee menace to the fame of 
California, what better can we do than to show our 
real midwinter sceDery, which is marked by soda- 
water fountains and lemonade lakes and not by ice 
palaces ? For instance, look at Del Monte and 
forget Truckee for the moment, at least. Our pic- 
tures show the leafy trees and grass-bordered road- 
ways, the cleanly cut lawns — a landscape innocent 
of the touch of snow and on which frost, except in 
the form of jewel-set grass blades in the early morn- 
ing, never falls. These are the 
scenes which delight the winter- 
fliers from the East. It is beneath 
these trees that the tourist gathers 
the January violets. It is along 
these roads that he spins, with hat- 
brim turned down to escape the 
kiss of a too fervent sun. It is on 
the verandas of this great winter 
resort that he quaffs his cooling 
beverages after a coatless tramp 
along the charming walks through 
the woods and along the shore of 
the sunset ocean. If such things 
are held closely in mind the Truckee 
affair, with all its blood-chilling pos- 
sibilities, can avail nothing. 

There is to be a river improve- 
ment convention in San Francisco 
beginning on the morning of Janu- 
ary 15th. The delegates will consist 
of the Supervisors from Shasta, 
Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa, 
Yuba, Sutter, Yolo, Sacramento, 
Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joa- 
quin, Santa Clara, Napa, Solano, 
Merced, Stanislaus, Madera and 
Sonoma counties, and the Super- 
visors of San Francisco, with five 
citizens to be selected by each 
board and five each to be chosen 
by the Trustees of Oakland, Stock- 
ton, Petaluma, San Jose, Ala- 
meda, Napa, Redding, Sacramento, 
Marysville and the Chamber of 
Commerce and Merchants' Associ- 
ation of San Francisco. The con- 
vention will elect the Executive 
Committee, which will serve for the 
next two years, and the Executive 
Committee will appoint the delegates who are to 
watch legislation at Washington. Two years ago 
the assessment on each county was $300, but this 
year it will be less. 

disease in Fresno county and has not found it, though 

The Argentine Minister at Washington suggests 
that the new tariff regulation on wool, which it is 
hoped to enact, shall be made to apply only to coun- 
tries other than those of South America. He says 
the wool exports from South America are compara- 
tively small, and instances the statement of the Na- 
tional Wool-Growers' Association that its open com- 
plaint is against Australian wool, and suggests that 
all the desired ends could be accomplished by exempt- 
ing South American countries from the operation of 
the bill. He adds that in this way the relations of 
the sister republics would not be affected, and the 
Argentine Republic would supply in a moderate de- 
gree the wants of this market, while the United 
States, taking advantage of the field opened to 
American manufacturers in that country, could con- 
tinue to expand its operations there. This is very 
pretty, especially at this time, when Uncle Sam is 
supposed to be ready to embrace all the southern 
republics to protect them from John Bull, but we 
are not much in doubt of the outcome of the affair. 
Argentine has sheep range of unmeasured area, and 
we do not see that it makes so very much difference 
whether we are cut out of the wool 
business by an Australian colony or 
a South American republic. 

Prune growers of Idaho want the 
chance to make prune brandy, pro- 
viding other disposition of the fruit 
is not satisfactory, and Idaho's rep- 
resentatives at Washington have 
introduced in Congress a bill to 
give prune growers the same chance 
to make fruit brandy that growers 
of other fruits have. The measure 
provides that the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue, with the approval 
of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
may exempt distillers of brandy, 
made exclusively from peaches, ap- 
ples, grapes, prunes, plums, or 
pears, from any provision relating 
to the manufacture of spirits, ex- 
cept as to the tax thereon, when in 
his judgment it may seem expedient 
to do so. Hitherto, all growers of 
the fruits named, except prunes, 
have had this privilege, and the 
new measure merely takes in prunes 
with the rest. It is possible that 
some California prune growers may 
wish to profit by this measure. 

It is reported from Washington that several cases 
have been assigned for hearing before the Supreme 
Court during the week of January 6th. Among 
these is a case involving the Wright irrigation law, 
which has been on the docket since last November a 
year ago. 


he has found it in both small and large vineyards in 
northern California. He gives a symptom to use in 
prospecting any district for this disease. He says it 
is characteristic of the vine disease to kill the 
Mission, variety early, suddenly and quite generally 
in the affected regions. You may then use this fact 
as an index to the situation in a region, viz: if the old 
Mission vineyards are living aud thrifty there is no 
danger of the other varieties dying in that neighbor- 
hood and at that time. The Mission dies one or two 
years ahead of all other varieties known. 

Skimmed milk is apparently to 
be knocked out of local trade. The 
city Board of Health had the ques- 
tion up this week and a hearing was 
given. Out of three hundred men 
in the Milkmen's Association only 
fifteen sell or profess a desire to 
sell skim milk. The other two hun- 
dred and eighty-five are opposed 
to the sale of skim milk altogether, 
I and the fifteen who want to sell it insist that they 
should be allowed to carry it on wagons with other 
milk. Both these factions were represented at the 
meeting and the discussion was warm. The board 
finally decided to yield to the majority and will rec- 
ommend that the ordinance be amended prohibiting 
the sale of skim milk alto^etner. 

Oakland will soon be the center of. milk raids 
similar to those which San Francisco has been ex- 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 


Office, No. 2.10 Market St.; Elevator, No. 12 Front St. .San Francisco, Cal. 


Advert is i nu rate* made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the Rl kai, 
Prkss, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latent forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. P. Postofflce as Becond-class mail matter. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 4, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Midwinter Scenes at the Del Monte, 1. 

EDITORIALS — California Midwinter Scenes; River Improvement 
Convention; The Anaheim Disease; Wool Exports of South 
America; Prune Brandy, t. The Week; To the Readers of the 
Rural Press, 3. ' ,- . 

HORTICULTURE. — Pruning of the French Prune, 4. Deciduous 
Trees in San Fernando Valley, 5. 

ARBORICULTURE.— Walnut Grow ing in Upper Napa Valley. 5. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— Irrigation of Citrus Fruit Orchards ;|«rass for 
Banks and Levees, 6. 

THE POULTRY YA RD. — The Opportunity in Poultry, 7. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Fault of the Age; A Man of Sense; 
John Aler's Whim. 8. Gems of Thought; Two Kinds of Boys; 
Fashion Notes, 9. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY'.— Domestic Hints: Hints to Housekeep- 
ers, 9. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— A Happy New Y'ear: Grange Elec- 
tions, 14. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Pith of the Week's News; Gleanings; Labor 
in the Beet Fields; Clans Spreckels on the Sugar-Beet Industry ; 
Concerning the Consignment of Dried Fruits. 3. The Dried Fruit 
Industry; Temperature and Rainfall. 4. What Edison Thinks; 
Power of the Brain; Metalloids, 1U. Railroad Statistics. 13. An 
Electric Rifle; Solidifying Petroleum; Recent Patents; Iron from 
Curious Facts; Columbian Exposition Medals, 15. 

MARKET REPORT.— The Fruit Market; Local Markets. 13. 


{New this issue.) Pai/e. 

Cultivators— Deere Implement Co 16 

Smilh's Cash Store 9 

Fruit Trees, Etc.— E. Gill. Oakland, Cal 15 

Seed— J. J. H. Gregory & Son. Marblehead, Mass 15 

Planet, Jr., Tools— S. L. Allen & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 16 

Cultivators— Geo. W. Forbes, Gubserville. Cal 16 

Wheeler's Carbon Bisulphide 13 

Harrows— Baker & Hamilton 13 

Home Supply Co . 13 

The Week. 

Fruit Trees. 


The meeting of the State Horti- 
cultural Society on Friday last in 
this city was exceedingly interest- 
ing as showing the changing beliefs and practices of 
California fruit growers in the matter of pruning. 
The leading address was upon pruning the prune, by 
Mr. S. P. Sanders, of San Jose, which will be found 
upon another page of this issue. It presents its own 
contents so clearly that it is not necessary to at- 
tempt to indicate its main points at this time though 
we may review them jointly with other related con- 
siderations at another time. It will be clear to close 
readers that it involves several matters of almost 
revolutionary tendency in pruning policies. Another 
topic presented at the meeting was the advantage of 
pruning earlier in the season, by Mr. J. C. Shinn, of 
Niles. This also has radical points, as its publication 
in next week's Rural will show. The State Horti- 
cultural Society is doing valuable work in its effort 
to bring out up-to-date practices for the advantage 
of all. 

Fruit growers will learn with re- 
gret that Porter Brothers & Co. 
of Davis street, San Francisco, 
are temporarily embarrassed. Fortunately, how- 
ever, the aspect of their affairs is such that a satis- 
factory outcome from the trouble is anticipated. 
This lirm is not connected with the fruit shipping 
corporation of similar name which has headquarters 
in Chicago. Porter Brothers & Co. are among the 
oldest and most extensive dried fruit dealers on the 
Pacific coast. They have been established eighteen 
years, and it is said that they have done an annual 
business of $1,500,000. They own extensive fruit 
farms in Fresno and Santa Clara counties, and have 
their own warehouses at the central points of supply 
in both sections. One of the firm, in speaking of 
the causes which have made it necessary for the 
house to seek the favor of its creditors, said: 

Heavy advances in the country, inability to make collections 
and slowness of movement in the dried fruit trade were the 
factors that composed the problem with which the house has 
to deal. Seven or eight years ago they had expended a great 
deal of money in the purchase of fruit lands in different parts 
of the State, anil the cost of cultivating these lands, setting 
them to trees and maintaining the orchards during the time 
they were barren, had been a heavy and constant burden. 
During the past two months there has been practically no 
movements in dried fruit. Rather than sell at a ruinous 
sacrifice in order to meet present accounts, they thought it 
best to make a frank explanation to the creditors and ask time 
in which to realize upon his assets, which he claims are fully 
twice the amount of its liabilities. If the creditors will grant 
the desired extension of time, there was no doubt that the 
house would be able to pay 100 cents on every dollar of its in- 

This view seems to have been accepted by the 
creditors at a meeting held in this city, at which 

and Fruit 

About 02,000 more immigrants arrived at Ellis 
island, New York, the past year than in 1894. The 
character of the immigrants is much better than in 
previous years. This improvement is due to the 
rigid enforcement of the immigration laws. The 
immigrants of last year brought $4,000,000 with 
them. The immigrants of this year have brought a 
much larger sum. 

A carload of hulled almonds went East from 
Livermore last week. The shipment was neatly 
packed in twenty-five pound boxes. 

more than fifty were present. An exhibit from the 
books of the firm was made as follows : 


Bills receivable $4,590 54 

Fowler ranch 50,000 00 

San Jose ranch 25,000 00 

Armona ranch 30,000 00 

Helena property 12,500 00 

Gordon ranch 5,000 00 

Kern county land 3,000 00 

Yuba City lots 400 00 

Stock and" merchandise 31,94!) 19 

Stock in warehouse 15,000 00 

Amounts due as per statement 29,730 44 

Total $180,170 17 


Bills payable $10,247 11 

Bills payable Sather Banking Co 30,000 00 

Amount due per statement 82,715 41 

Total $122,962 53 

These assets were looked into at the creditors' 
meeting and were evidently well thought of, for up- 
on the showing made the creditors determined to 
appoint a committee to confer with Porter Brothers 
relating to a settlement. The committee consisted 
of Frank S. Johnson of the Johnson-Locke Mercan- 
tile Company, as chairman; J. K. Wilson, president 
of the Sather Banking Company: James Brown of 
Brown Brothers; A. B. Field of Field & Stone; W. 
A. Donaldson of the Truckee Lumber Company, and 
W. F. Wilson. Porter Brothers made their propo- 
sition and it was accepted at a conference with this 
committee. They will continue business, and will 
give every creditor, whatever the indebtedness, four 
notes at six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four 
months, without interest, for the face value of the 
claims. The real estate, stock and other assets will 
be assigned to trustees for the benefit of creditors, 
and, as such, S. E. Biddle of the Bank of Hanford 
and J. K. Wilson of the Sather Banking Company 
were chosen. 

It is expected that a final settlement will be made 
on this basis. The advantage of a good reputation 
in troublous times is clearly shown in the experience 
of this firm. To those who called upon him at his 
office in this city, Mr. Porter exhibited a stock of 
telegrams three inches in height which were full of 
sympathy. Among those who wired the firm offer- 
ing assistance or snowing good feeling were: J. K. 
Armsby, Chicago; A. R. Hall, Los Angeles; McCord- 
Braydon Grocery Company, Pueblo; P. Duff & Sons, 
Pittsburg; McClellan & Green, Dallas; W. S. Knight 
& Co., Chicago; Edgcomb & Co., Chicago; W. H. 
Dudley & Co., New York; N. C. Barwise & Co., 
Pueblo, and W. H. Stevens, Milwaukee. 

Frosts ^ ms °l ear > bright season is bring- 
ing a frost visitation upon Califor- 
nia citrus orchards the effects of 
which cannot yet be measured, but which, fortu- 
nately, observations do not yet warrant very serious 
apprehensions. There has been in some parts of 
southern California, in addition to frosts, a wind and 
sand storm which has done some harm. As stated, 
it is too soon to tell just what injury has been done. 
It is telegraphed from Riverside that about mid- 
night on Sunday night the mercury started down- 
ward and reached 25° in a short time. About an 
hour before sunrise it fell to 22°. In some localities 
the result is that oranges in exposed places are 
partly frostbitten, but the fruit sufficiently colored 
to ship at once and is not thought to be hurt enough 
to spoil it for the market. Some say ten per cent of 
the fruit is injured; some say fifty per cent in ex- 
posed places. In other southern California orange 
regions a higher minimum is claimed, but it is too 
soon to discriminate closely. The cold wave seems 
to have reached nearly everywhere in the great 
orange districts, and some who claim less frost 
acknowledge more injury by the wind storm. Citrus 
fruit regions in the central part of the State do not 
seem to have participated in the present trouble to 
any serious extent. Porterville owns up to 28*, 
however, and other places are still to be heard from. 
It will be well to reserve conclusions in the whole 
matter until later and more careful observations can 
be made. 

California citrus fruits at Atlanta seem to have 
frightened the Florida people out of competition, 
if the telegraph says truly. California had previous- 
ly won seventy-five premiums, and it now looks as 
though the total number of awards made to Califor- 
nia will aggregate nearly 100, and between forty 
and fifty of them will be the highest in their class, 
and carry with them each a gold medal. 

To the Readers of the 11 Rural Press." 

On the first day of the year the Pacific Rural 
Press was twenty-five years old; and it makes the 
event notable by reducing its subscription price to 
two dollars per year. This is in line with a policy 
long established. The original price of the paper — 
$4.00— has been successively cut to $3.50, to $3.00, 
and now to $2.00, as the cost of production has de- 
clined and as the edition has increased in numbers. 
While the two-dollar rate is hardly justified by exist- 
ing conditions, still we have determined to establish 
it, in the faith that there will be compensation in an 
increase in the number of subscribers. At the new 
rate the Rural is cheaper than any similar paper 
printed anywhere which carries an equal amount of 
original special matter. 

The primary aim of the publishers of the Rural 
Press is to make a journal which will aid practically 
in their daily work the farmers, fruit growers, stock- 
men, dairymen, poultrymen and gardeners of the 
Pacific coast. To this end we endeavor to give to 
the public whatever is currently developed, either in 
the realm of practice or the realm of theory, in rela- 
tion to these lines of industry. Our own view is that 
the main strength and value of the Rural Press is 
its steady stream of communications from persons 
who, either in field, orchard, garden, dairy, stock 
yard or poultry yard, are engaged practically in 
doing the things they write about. It has come to 
be the good habit of those who are most active in 
promoting, progressively, the interests of rural in- 
dustries in California to write out their experiences 
for the Rural Press. From this habit the paper 
has come to have a character highly practical ; and 
it is none the less so from the fact that the work of 
practical farmers is supplemented in its columns by 
the work of the best available professional writers. 

In its departments of more general interest, the 
Rural Press aims to be straightforward, thorough 
and, above all, strictly clean and wholesome. Its 
department of general literature for the home 
circle is edited carefully with reference to the re- 
quirements of family life. Its brief outline of current 
news covers the history of the world for the week. 
Its discussions under the heading — From an Inde- 
pendent Standpoint — contain just what the editor 
thinks; and its review of the week's news in the 
fields of direct rural interest is very carefully com- 
piled. The making of a market report is, from the 
nature of things, the most difficult work of a con- 
scientious editor. This we hope to do during the 
coming year more completely than hitherto. We 
shall spare no pains to be thorough; and as always 
with the Rural Press, the standpoint of the market 
report will be that of the producer. 

In its career of twenty-five years, the Rural 
Press has made many thousands of steadfast friends 
whose co-operation has been and continues to be its 
main support. Its purpose has been always to be 
genuine, faithful and useful, rather than brilliant; 
no matter how fashions and times may change, it 
aims to hold steadfast to the principles and tradi- 
tions out of which its character and its friendships 
have grown. 

take notice.- Subscribers who have paid in ad- 
vance for periods extending beyond the date of the 
reduction in price will, of course, be allowed the 
benefit of the reduction from that date. For ex- 
ample, a subscriber who has paid to May 31st, 18!)6, 
will be credited to July 1st following; one who has 
paid to October 31st will be credited to January 1st, 
1897. In this way the advantage of the two-dollar 
rate will be given all who have paid on their 1890 
subscriptions at the old rate. Owing to the immense 
labor of altering the dates on the wrappers, these 
changes will not be thus recorded until our issue of 
11th inst. — next week. 

January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

Pith of the Week's News. 

The value of the Jay Gould estate, as shown in a New York 
court this week, is $82,934,500. 

It is claimed that during the past week one hundred Chi- 
nese have been smuggled into this city. 

Secretary Olney has demanded from Turkey full indem- 
nity for property losses suffered by American missionaries in 

The San Francisco Harbor Commissioners have determined 
to use Oregon stone in the construction of the projected Union 
depot at the foot of Market street. 

The killing goes on in Armenia, A Christmas day report 
records a death list of 12,200 "Druses." The loss on the Turk- 
ish side was seventy killed and fifty wounded. 

On Friday night of last week twenty-four persons were 
tramped to death in a panic in a Baltimore theater. The cry 
of fire which started the stampede was a false alarm. 

Confidence is now general on both sides of the Atlantic 
that there will be no war. There is hardly a doubtthat Eng- 
land will find a diplomatic way out of the quarrel with Ven- 

It is hardly creditable to the enterprise of San Francisco 
builders that the contract for building a steam launch for the 
San Francisco custom house has been let to a Seattle firm in 

Du. West, convicted last year of the murder in San Fran- 
cisco of Miss Addie Gilmore, of Colusa, was acquitted last 
week on a retrial of the case. It is universally believed to be 
a miscarriage of justice. 

Tub decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in the Stanford 
case is expected early in February. Attorney-General Har- 
mon recently said publicly that in his judgment the decision 
would go against the estate. 

In the discussion of the bond bill in the House of Repre- 
sentatives last week the California members were solidly in 
opposition. Grove Johnson made a most effective speech 
against going further into debt. 

Nine cities — New York, San Francisco, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis, Chicago, Buffalo, Pittsburg, Minneapolis, Boston — not 
to mention a score or more of ambitious smaller places, are 
contending for the Democratic national convention. 

It is now declared that Wm. Waldorf Astor is to marry the 
widow of Lord Randolph Churchill who was formerly Miss 
Jerome, of New York. Neither Astor's late wife nor Lady 
Churchill's late husband have yet fairly had time to get cold 
in their graves. 

Contracts for building two battleships were given out last 
week to Eastern bidders. The contract price is 12,250,000 
each. This does not include the cost of armor or of armament. 
The Union Iron Works of San Francisco was among the unsuc- 
cessful bidders. 

Reports from Cuba are so mixed that it is impossible to de- 
termine just what is being done, but it seems clear that the 
patriots are getting rather the best of the fighting. They are 
now threatening Havana, and the defenses of the city are 
being strengthened by the Spaniards. 

Samuel Gompeks, head of the American. Federation of La- 
bor, declares that the war scare is nothing more nor less than 
an artful scheme on the part of capitalists to increase the arm- 
ament of the country. This will undoubtedly be one of its 
effects, no matter how matters turn out. 

The Republicans have succeeded in organizing the Senate 
without the aid of the Populists. It is a victory of doubtful 
value achieved by the "young blood," in contempt of the ad- 
vice of Sherman, Hoar, and the more experienced old heads. 
Before the session is over they will probably wish the respon- 
sibility had been left with the Democrats. 

Secretary Lamont has rebuked certain officers of the army 
who have been too freely discussing the probabilities of war 
with England. Expressions from such sources, he says, are 
not only given undue significance but they are injurious to 
the good reputation of the army and harmful to the country, 
in contributing to an unwarranted apprehension. 

The Truckee ice palace was finished on Christmas day, and 
the carnival of winter sports will begin this week. The pro- 
gramme includes skating, tobogganing, sleighing, etc., for 
which complete arrangements have been made. How all this 
is going to affect California's reputation as the land of perpet- 
ual summer and of winter roses, remains to be demonstrated. 

A dozen Japanese, sent last week to Gold Bluff, Humboldt 
county, to take place of white miners, were not permitted to 
go to work. A committee of miners told the Japs they could 
stay over night, but that in the morning they must go back to 
where they came from or there would be trouble. The Jap- 
anese beat a hasty retreat. It is reported that they were un- 
der contract to work for $5 per month and board. 

The Earl of Dunraven appeared on Friday of last week be- 
fore the committee investigating his allegation of fraud in 
the ballasting of the yacht Defender; out he had no proofs to 
offer. The charge was wholly unsubstantiated and the com- 
mittee cannot fail to make a report that will prove him a liar. 
It was developed in the testimony that the problem of the 
Defender was" not to sink but to raise her in the water. 

The House has this week been discussing a proposition for 
an issue of bonds to relieve the emergency in the treasury, but 
Mr. Cleveland believes that there is no time for talk and will 
issue a new series of bonds under the same authoritv evoked 
last summer. The amount will probably be $100,000,000. It 
is believed that the bulk of the new issue will be sold in Eu- 
rope, but not until American investors had been given the 
first call. 

On the evening of Christmas day four masked men held up 
an electric car near the Ingleside race track, San Francisco. 
R. H. Clarke, treasurer of the Ingleside wine rooms, 
was robbed of a big sack of coin after being shot in the foot in 
an effort to save the money. Later, the sack and its contents 
were found buried in the sand near the Cliff House. Three 
arrests have been made, but it is by no means certain that 
the right men have been found. 

The St. Louis hotel men are going in for a great harvest in 
connection with the Republican national convention in June. 
Prices have been doubled and trebled. The manager of one 
of the Presidential candidates will pay $500 a day for a large 
parlor to be used as a headquarters. The McKinley and Reed 
management will have to pay not less than $40,000 for the 
accommodation of boomers. It is said that the Harrison agents 
have been slow in making arrangements, and now find that 
all the first-class places are filled up. 

The grand jury of Sutter county has officially declared that 
"the prohibition ordinance as enacted by the Board of Super- 
visors of this county has proved of great benefit to the 
county, that immunity from crime, in comparison with ad- 
joining counties, is directly traceable to said ordinance." 
With reference to the mining debris menace the same jury 
declares : "That the granting of permits to mines to run be- 
hind brush dams, which are liable to decay or to burn at any 
time, should be universally condemned by all residents of this 

President Cleveland has named Justice David J. Brewer 
of .the U. S. Supreme Court, Hon. E. J. Phelps, ex-minister to 

England, and Hon. Robert T. Lincoln, also ex-minister to 
England, as members of the commission to examine the ques- 
tion as to the true divisional line between Venezuela and 
British Guiana. This choice is generally commended. Its 
entire freedom from partisan motive is shown in the fact that 
of the three men Phelps alone is of the President's politics. 
Both Phelps and Lincoln are well known and highly popular 
in England. 

The House Committee of Ways and Means has answered 
the President's appeal for legislation increasing the national 
revenues by presenting an emergency tariff bill. It proposes 
to suspend the existing tariff law for a period of two and a 
half years, and to substitute for it a temporary law calculated 
to raise $40,000,000 more revenue per year. The proposed law 
puts upon wool and woolens 60 per cent of the McKinley tariff 
and adds 15 per cent to all the schedules of the existing law. 
Sugar alone is excepted. This plan, under the energetic urg- 
ing of Speaker Reed, is bound to pass the House, and will 
probably carry in the Senate, but it is not believed that Mr. 
Cleveland will sign it. It is, of course, bitterly denounced 
by the low-tariff advocates, who demand further time for the 
Wilson-Gorman scheme to work itself out. 

In an interview for publication, President Dole proclaims 
that the Hawaiian government is "working for annexation to 
the United States." Continuing, he said: "As to the form of 
annexation that would best meet our requirements, it is diffi- 
cult to say. A territorial form of government unmodified 
from the form obtaining in the United States Territories 
would scarcely be suitable. Probably the best course would 
be to gradually develop from our present system, the Federal 
authorities, of course, having from the beginning jurisdiction 
over custom-houses, postoffices and Federal courts. Our own 
government should not be limited by the United States the 
same as a territory. A new system would have to be invented 
to suit our conditions, much the same as is the practice of 
England in establishing a new colony. There is no system. 
Each new colony is organized as the necessity of the case de- 


Up to the 27th inst. Riverside had shipped 205 carloads of 
oranges this season. 

At a mass meeting of the citizens of San Juan on the 24th, 
a committee of beet growers was appointed to induce Claus 
Spreckels to extend the Pajaro valley road to the San Juan 
valley. Three thousand acres can be contracted for and free 
right of way is offered. 

The San Bernardino Board of Supervisors has passed an 
order abolishing the Horticultural Commission, and will here- 
after place the work of exterminating the bugs in the hands 
of one man only. It is the intention to reduce the cost of the 
commission to a minimum. 

Visalia has been awarded the highest mark of merit— a 
gold medal— by the Atlanta Fair Association for an exhibit of 
peaches, dried and in fluid, superior to any for flavor, size and 
color, and the only medal given for that grade. The big peach 
district of Georgia received a silver medal for the same thing. 

The Custom House authorities at New York have revised 
the appraisals of foreign olives to a degree that will increase 
the price of all grades, varying from 8 to 35 per cent. This' in- 
crease in appraisals is due to higher values in Europe owing 
to short crop. It will, of course, be a help to California 

Tremont letter in Dixon Tribune : Our farmers have come 
to the conclusion that there will not be an over abundance of 
rain this season, and are putting in their crops accordingly. 
The most experienced among them tell us that they have 
always noticed that a moderately dry winter produces better 
crops than a wet one ; that it is better for the grain to suffer 
a little drought than be half drowned out, thus allowing 
weeds, cheat and such undesirable growth to outstrip the 
grain and thus render harvesting more difficult. 

Watsonville Pajaronian: Good apples are going to be a 
scarce article even in the Pajaro valley before the berry sea- 
son opens. The crop was small, much of it has been sold, and 
the keeping qualities are not good this year. The loss in the 
packing houses has been heavy on account of lack of usual 
keeping qualities. The softness is supposed to be due to the 
excess of rain last winter and the warm spell during the ma- 
turing season. * * * Good apples are bringing good prices 
and are scarce in the New York market. The foreign demand 
has taken largely of the first quality of fruit. The shipments 
to Europe are not as heavy as they were last season, but they 
have been heavy. In the meantime the home market is good 
for Pajaro valley fruit. The Eastern shipments from this val- 
ley will not reach the figures of last year, but there will be a 
market for all the apples. The crop is light all over the State, 
and the San Francisco and other California markets have been 
coming this way with a rush. 

The Passing of the Plow. — Readers of the Rural Press 
who give due attention to the evolution of improved agricul- 
tural implements, and no progressive agriculturist can afford 
to do otherwise, must have been deeply interested in an ac- 
count which we gave in our issue of December 14th, describ- 
ing a new implement which bids fair to revolutionize the 
method of plowing. The old theory of very (Uep plowing, 
which announced to the farmer that he had a "new farm 
under the old one," and that he must turn it up to the sur- 
face, was misleading, because the subsoil is often unfitted to 
take the place of the surface soil. The idea which is now be- 
ing urged is much nearer the truth, viz. : that there is really 
a new farm under the old one and that it should be properly 
tilled and left where it is, so that roots can penetrate it and 
water can percolate into it, and fertility thereby greatly 
increased. The article in our issue of December 14th gave 
many cogent reasons why this is the case, and why proper 
subsoiling is the secret of up-to-date field farming. Of course 
much interest pertains to the implement which is to accom- 
plish this result, and we are glad to state that it can be seen 
at the warerooms of the Deere Implement Co., 305 and 307 
Market street, San Francisco. It is the latest thing out in 
farming, and is a matter of absorbing interest, both because 
of its peculiar design and construction, and because of the 
wonders which it promises to accomplish. 

ployes. The commercial interests of the towns and cities 
must likewise be enhanced, and the consumer share in the 
general result. The producers and manufacturers of this 
State by an association which is active in its efforts desire 
the patronage of home products and home manufactures. 
Now, the sugar-beet industry is directly in line with this 
principle, and doubly so, in fact, because 'it comprehends not 
only the production of the raw material in California but also 
the manufacture of the article ready for the market and for 
consumption. Should the industry grow, as I hope it will, to 
such an increase of acreage as to demand the advent of more 
farmers into the State, then it will become an indirect ad- 
junct to the Half-Million Club in aiding the increase of the 
population of California, if not of San Francisco. 

I am willing to add to my investments in this State by the 
establishment of beet-sugar manufactories, in the hope of 
arousing the people of California to the due importance of this 
great subject, as well as for personal profit. 

Claus Spreckels on the Sugar-Beet Industry. 

In a letter on the material interests of California, 
printed in the Call's special Christmas number, Mr. 
Claus Spreckels speaks as follows of the sugar-beet 

Too much stress can hardly be laid upon the importance of 
this industry and its growth to the general prosperity. It 
may be contended by persons not familiar with all the details 
of the industry and the benefits accruing from it that there is 
in its greater development profit only for the manufacturer. 
But this will not be the result. The producer and the em- 
ploye must in the nature of thiugs share with the manufac- 
turer. As the sugar industry will add to the tilled acreage 
of California, so will it add to facilities of the farmer for the 
accumulation of wealth and demand an added number of em- 

Concerning the Consignment of Dried Fruit. 

Fresno, Cal., Dec. 28, 1805. 
Editor Pacific Rural Press — Dear Sir: I have read 
with interest the article on above subject in your is- 
sue of December 14th, and also the observations 
thereon by Messrs. Banks of Cleveland, Ohio, in your 
issue of this week. As you express the wish to ven- 
tilate this subject, I will try to answer Messrs. 
Banks from the standpoint of a grower. Let me 
say first of all that my sympathy is entirely with the 
writer of the first article referred to. He did not 
put the case too strongly. In fact, judging from the 
article itself and the knowledge it shows of the situ- 
ation, it is altogether probable that the writer could 
have furnished details enough of shipments on con- 
signment to have satisfied the grower, at least, of 
the pernicious habit of the system. 

I have talked with many growers in this State on 
this very subject. It is indeed a leading subject of 
conversation among all fruit growers wherever two 
or three are gathered together; and as the experi- 
ence of nearly every one who has ever consigned 
fruit to the East has been disastrous, they do not 
stop long to choose their words in condemnation of 
of the system. The language is generally more forci- 
ble than polite. 

Messrs. Banks say the consignors are saying noth- 
ing. Well, the shouting may not have been heard 
in Cleveland, but if these gentlemen would visit this 
State they wouid not need to go farther than San 
Francisco. The shouting and the groaning of the 
farmers in the interior of the State have often been 
heard in that city. The.y also say that the con- 
signors are not all fools. Well, no; but the fools are 
not all dead, and it is those very foolish ones who are 
hurting the fruit industry, themselves first and 
directly, and their neighbors indirectly, by forcing 
them to consign. For a very few consignments 
every year are sufficient to demoralize the whole 
business. We growers, each and every one, have 
acted the fool in the handling of our crops at some 
time or other of our experience, and as this industry 
has been developing for years by the advent of new 
men and increase of bearing orchards, the supply of 
fools has been perennial hitherto, and I presume will 
continue so for some time to come. 

Messrs. Banks say "supply and demand are the 
only regulators of prices." This dictum of the econ- 
omists is only true under conditions. If it refers to 
cash transactions between producer and purchaser it 
is correct, but the handling of supply may be so 
managed as to introduce a new element into the reg- 
ulation of prices. Take, for instance, the example 
they give us of a poultry house handling raisins. 
Did supply and demand regulate the prices they got? 
Ignorance had more to do with it, it seems to me. 
And, again, Eastern commission men have been 
known to be purchasers on their own account, as 
speculators in dried fruit, while they were at the 
same time consignees of the same class of goods. 
Now, in the case of change in the market price of 
these goods, whose interest is going to be protected 
first? Are these gentlemen so magnanimous as to 
protect their clients at their own expense? Hardly. 
It is not human nature. 

Then when the grower has consigned his fruit he 
has to a very great extent lost control of it. Of 
course he may stipulate for a price, but what is the 
use? He has no means of controlling any market, 
and if he has received advances, as in most cases he 
has, the goods will be disposed of, whether he wills it 
or not, to protect the advances and any charges that 
may be against the goods. 

Consigned goods cannot, as a general proposition, 
bring the top prices or even as good as f.o.b. sales. 
When goods are landed in any town, say Cleveland, 
the buyers know that in the event of no sale at the 
stipulated price the car cannot be moved elsewhere 
without incurring additional expense, and that if 
they adopt a waiting policy they can buy for less 
money — in fact in some cases get the fruit at their 
own figure. 

Another point, which, however, may seem trivial 
to the Eastern man is this: How is the farmer to 
know responsible houses which will always get the 
top prices for his goods and deal justly with him ? 
I suppose they will say he ought to make it his busi- 
ness to know. But his business is farming, not 
keeping track of the thousand and one commission 
men in Eastern cities, some of whom are here to-day 
and away to-morrow. Cash f. o. b. is a good house 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 

to deal with, even if it does not in all cases produce 
the top price. 

In conclusion, I would strongly recommend the 
grower to sell only on an f. o. b. cash basis; and 
whether the goods are bought by local men or East- 
ern houses, he will be more likely to get his price. 
For, if there is a demand by the people for the article 
he produces, merchants will buy; and if there is no 
demand, no amount of consigning will create it. 

The Eastern commission men are advised to pon- 
der over the famous saying of Lincoln: " You can 
fool all of the people some of the time, some of the 
people all of the time, but not all the people 
all the time." The first part of that saying has 
been proven true in our case. The second is still in 
process of proof, and will continue until all the peo- 
ple are gifted with more sense than Lincoln gave 
them credit for. The feeling against consigning 
goods East is widespread over the whole State, and 
where there is so much smoke, of necessity there 
must be some fire. 

I trust that the discussion of this very important 
subject will be productive of good to the grower. 
He is certainly the one who needs it most. I sub- 
scribe myself, A Grower. 

The Dried Fruit Industry. 

To the Editor. — Mr. Thissell's article in your 
last issue is good as far as it goes, but does not go to 
the soul of the trouble. I have no question that those 
people who hire no labor, do all their work on their 
own fruit ranches, will be — are to-day the only people 
who are making anything in the dried-fruit business. 
Last year I had two carloads of dried fruit from 
fruit grown on my rauch, and would not consign to 
commission men and had to keep it until March be- 
fore I found a satisfactory cash buyer. I and a few 
of my near neighbors have now three or four car- 
loads of dried fruit; all, as far as we know, remain- 
ing in the valley; the balance has gone East — con- 
signed; cash paid down by commission agents, 2 to 
2* cents on prunes and a little more on peaches. 

Many were not forced to consign, but replied to 
my inquiry. "Ob, I didn't want to be bothered with 
it." Well, I said, you get nothing for your labor 
and you hurt us who are keeping our fruit. Why 
cannot humanity see that what affects one affects 


Most all the fruit men here have small places, very 
few have to hire help, and these small growers are 
as eager to consign as the larger growers elsewhere. 

Several years ago I told a young man who wanted 
me to consign, that, "your company may be as hon- 
est as God. but I didn't know it." If the fruit men 
are going to work all the year and then hand their 
product to some man they never saw before, to send 
to a firm they never expect to see and trust to their 
great honesty and profound integrity, and the great- 
ness and honor of their house, according to Brad- 
street's report, etc., etc., and the profoundness and 
credit of their long standing in commercial circles, 
then, gentlemen, the fruit industry will be just 
where the raisin industry is; not in fifty years, but 
in one or two years. 

I cannot see — and 1 cannot see why others cannot 
see, if their head is not all bone — that when this con- 
signed stuff gets to the distributing point that it en- 
ters into competition with itself, one commission 
man undersells his neighbor, and, who cares, they 
do not have to stand the loss, and if they >/>> care, they 
can't help it, for to sell under this present competitive 
system, this cheap regime, this insane borrowing 
and bond-buying system of selfish government for 
the few, you must Bell cheap. Co-operation is the 
only way I see that this and all other labor problems 
can be solved. E. A. Boxine, 

Lamanda Park, Los Angeles county, Cal. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
Dec. 31, 1895, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 


Total Rainfall for the 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 

Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Maximum Temperature 

Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 



15 53 


14 37 



Red Bluff 


16 98 









San Francisco 


12 30 










San Luis Obispo. . 






Los Angeles 








3 59 






1 77 




indicates no record. 

Pruning of the French Prune. 

By S. P. Sandkrs of San Jose at meeting of Stale Horticultural 

The French prune tree is naturally an erect and 
symmetrical grower, having one main center stem, 
from which side branches put out at varying heights 
along the trunk — never two opposite each other — 
but, taking any given limb to start with, the next 
above it will be one-sixth of the way around the 
stem. The limbs come out at nearly a right angle 
with the stem, and always have support from the 
wrinkled and knotty enlargement at their base. 
Thus, however thick and bulky the trunk may be- 
come, the side limbs that put out when the trunk- 
was only a whipstock are found reaching from the 
very pith to the outer bark as a hard knot. It 
stands in the same position to uphold weight that 
you would give a nail driven into a post to hang 
your coat upon. 

The limbs, although set at right angles in the 
trunk, soon take an upward curve and grow nearly 
erect, with the center stem, which is always the 
highest, a graceful cone. 

If the seed could be planted where the orchard 
tree is wanted, and the prune graft inserted into the 
seedling at the crown of the root, and allowed to 
make its growth unmolested, the tree at four years' 
growth would be nearly as described. The main 
limbs would be studded with twigs and spurs, which 
would be set with fruit buds, and the orchardist's 
heart would be glad in the promise of a crop in the 
fifth year. It would be wise, however, to tend the 
young tree and not allow more than six main limbs 
to remain, and these spaced along the trunk, the 
lowest one two and a half feet above the ground, the 
next one six or eight inches higher and a quarter 
way around the stem — observing the same system 
with the other limbs until the five or six limbs 
allowed to remain are located, each one clearly in 
possession of its rightful share of the parent stem, 
and not interfering at all with the equal right of 
the rest. 

A tree thus started, and not cut or distorted, will 
at the age of five years begin to bear fruit. 

I show a photograph showing such a tree, one of a 
large orchard, that has never been pruned. The 
trees were, however, grown in nursery and trans- 
planted, instead of being started from the seed 
where they now stand. The natural form of the 
limbs is plainly seen. Perhaps there are too many 
of them, but they will bear up without breaking or 
splitting away with any weight of fruit they will 
ever produce. 

Tin Common Practice. — Very seldom an orchard is 
seen in which the trees have been allowed to grow 
in their natural form. The common practice has 
been, after setting an orchard of yearling trees 
which are whip-stock size, to cut the stem back to 
from eighteen inches to a foot from the ground, thus 
destroying forever the plan of getting a center 
stem, but compelling all the limbs to come out at one 
height, often one directly opposite another: and, 
however many may be allowed to grow, they all 
shoot up straight, forming sharp and weak crotches, 
which are very easily split when the tree is large 
enough to bear fruit, for then the limbs begin to lean 
outward under the weight of foliage and fruit, and 
the power exerted by a constant down pull of hun- 
dreds of pounds of limb, foliage and fruit, on the end 
of a fifteen-foot lever, is vastly out of proportion to 
the resistance offered by the limbs when they spring 
from the trunk and are bound together by only a 
tissue growth of bark. 

The mischief was only begun, however, when the 
yearling was cut back to a foot from the ground, 
for, thus started, it has been kept growing in the 
prevailing fashion, which dictates that the following 
year's growth must be cut back at least two-thirds. 
Wherever a limb is cut off, you multiply by three the 
limbs in the next year's growth. There is scarcely 
an orchardist who will not be convinced by the third 
year that his trees are becoming too thick in the 
top, so he will begin to subtract, taking out some 
limbs, but still cutting back the ones that are left, 
thus multiplying by three again a little higher up. 
I have counted thirty-seven limbs on a tree at a level 
of five feet above ground, and it was one of many 
such in the orchard. 

Object*. In Pruning. — Now the manner of training a 
prune tree is not merely a matter of fancy; most 
people want it to bear fruit for revenue. 

It does uot fill its mission if it is trained to form a 
very thick, brushy top, that shuts out the blessed 
sunshine from the small twigs that grow on the 
limbs lower down. They would bear fruit and remain 
a permanent, asset of the tree, but being deprived 
of sunshine they perish and fall away without ever 
bearing a prune, leaving the main limbs naked and 
putting the duty of bearing upon the outer twigs, 
which struggle outward into the sunshine. 

Neither does the tree fulfill its mission if it is 
allowed to break down or split apart when its crop 
is half grown, for the fruit being thus arrested in its 
development lacks some essential element, and turns 

out in curing what are termed " frogs, ' or other 
small, inferior fruit, of which it will take a hundred 
to a hundred and eighty to make a pound. 

According to Mr. Bioletti's report, read at the 
last meeting of this society, prunes from broken 
limbs make the poorest showing. Those from the 
same tree but from unbroken limbs were scarcely 
better ; that is, they were all under-developed, were 
small, and gave the largest proportion of frogs in 

The breaking of limbs, the inferior size of the fruit, 
resistance to the action of lye and consequent ten- 
dency to frog in curing, are all directly traceable to 

How to Prevent Overhearing. — Now, is it not better 
to avoid all these troubles by relieving the tree of 
part of its task, and by doing so get a smaller crop 
of better fruit, and extending its usefulness indefi- 
nitely, or is it better to crowd the tree to its utmost 
bearing capacity now, regardless of its length of life, 
and try to devise some method of masking the inferi- 
ority of its product, such as pricking the fruit to 
disguise the frogs? 

The camera "doth nothing extenuate nor set down 
aught in malice," and by its aid I am able to show 
the trees from which the prunes were taken, which, 
at the solicitation of San Jose Grange, were exam- 
ined at the University experiment station at Berke- 
ley, and reported upon by Mr. Bioletti at your last 
meeting. I was too late in making the pictures to 
show some of the trees in their saddest plights, for 
the broken limbs had been removed, but nature has 
had her revenge, and they will not be likely to break 
again under a load of fruit for some years. They 
might have been saved for years of useful bearing by 
cutting away some of the forks and laterals in the 
top, thus removing a part of the weight from the 
end of the fifteen feet lever, reducing the bur- 
den to the capacity of the limbs, both to sustain the 
fruit and carry the supply of nourishment for its de- 

Repairing Old-Style Trees. — The fashion that used 
to prevail, of heading prune trees very low and al- 
lowing a large cluster of limbs to shoot up from one 
common head, then cutting back the new growth 
and multiplying the limbs from year to year, has 
happily gone out and better systems are now prac- 
ticed. The mistake made in heading, however, is 
not fatal or entirely beyond repair. No doubt it 
shocks a tree to cut severely among its large limbs, 
but heroic treatment is sometimes necessary; and it 
is better to reduce the bearing wood to the uphold- 
ing capacity of the limbs, so the clumsy and trouble- 
some ropes and props may be dispensed with. Sev- 
eral devices are used to prevent splitting in the 
crotch, such as bolting through the trunk and across 
through the butts of opposing large limbs. Ropes 
may be used high up among the limbs, to prevent 
them leaning away outward; but ropes are short- 
lived, require attention often to prevent strangling 
or cutting the bark, any may give way at the criti- 
cal time when most needed for support. 

A better plan is to use quarter-inch, smooth fence 
wire, which has been toughened in the fire. Bore 
with a five-sixteenths-inch bit through opposing 
limbs, where engineering judgment says it will do 
the most good. Cut off a wire the right length to 
protrude an inch and a half at each end, bend the 
ends down, using a bit of three-eighths-inch gas pipe 
about a foot long, taking care to leave the hook thus 
made lying lengthwise of the wood. If it is neces- 
sarp to strain a limb upwards out of the team's way, 
it is well to put a leather strap, having a ring at 
either end, under the limb and use a rope, with a 
hook and pulley, to draw it up to the position where 
it is to be held by the wire. The use of a rope 
around the limb in drawing it up would mar the 
bark. The limb should be in the right position before 
boring for the wire. In a short time the wire is 
grasped tightly by growth in the limb, and is a per- 
manent fixture. I think it will not wear, cut nor 
rust away, and maybe the iron is good medicine for 
the tree besides. 

Cutting Back Young Trees. — If young trees are cut 
back they will resent the treatment, and double their 
effort at growing to repair the damage done. It is 
a mistake to suppose you can throw the growth into 
the trunk, or roots, or make sturdy limbs by cut- 
ting back. Actual measurements show that trees 
at any period of their growth not cut back are 
larger than trees under exactly similar conditions 
that have had their "annual shearings;" be- 
sides, by cutting back you put afar off the fruiting 
year. Leave the trees severely alone, merely cut- 
ting out the vagrant growth, until it has gratified 
its ambition to become a tree and has declared its 
intentions of bearing, by setting with fruit buds; 
then, if the twigs have formed too thick a network 
and are well studded with fruit buds — not till then — 
shorten them in. Do not destroy them nor let the 
limbs above destroy them by too much shade. It is 
to be hoped no one has been so foolish as to have 
planted prune trees so recently as to profit by this 
advice, but it seems a pity to let this opportunity 
pass of showing that I know all about it. 

When a tree is in good bearing it may be short- 
ened, if necessary, to gratify one's taste for sym- 
metry. But if no radical changes are made, the tree 
will henceforth distribute its energies so widely that 

January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

while it is maturing a moderate crop of fruit it will 
also be extending its spurs and decorating them 
with buds of promise for future bearing. 

Some orchardists think it profitable to clip back 
in detail the new growth on bearing trees, and some 
even to thin the clusters of fruit, but it hardly seems 
practicable to do either in large orchards. 

The remarks here made are intended to apply only 
to the region to which my observations have been 
confined, which is the Santa Clara valley. While the 
natural form of the prune tree must be the same 
wherever planted, I will not claim that the treat- 
ment given it here is the only right, or even the best, 
one in other soil, climate and conditions. 

Results from Overburdened Trees. — Observations 
made at the University seem to point out that small, 
undeveloped prunes and tough-skinned frogs come 
from overladen trees. A tree may produce less 
than a hundred pounds of fruit and still be overladen. 
On account of lack of cultivation, moisture, or food 
which it can assimilate, the fruit may be pinched 
and tough; but, given a tree in good soil, with suffi- 
cient moisture, carefully conserved by thorough cul- 
tivation, yet breaking down under its weight of 
fruit — that tree is pleading for relief, and should be 
severely thinned in the top, to that extent that will 
enable it to plump out its fruit with delicious pulp, 
under a tender skin, which will easily wrinkle in a 
weak, scalding solution of lye, will cure readily in 
the sun, and when finished will take forty to seventy 
to a single pound. 

Whatever mistakes may have been made in shap- 
ing the young trees, and however much we may de- 
plore their misshapen and ungainly appearance, we 
may still hold them together by mechanical means 
and gather many crops of well-developed prunes if 
we will observe three points of care, which are: 
Feed the trees, cultivate the soil and keep the bear- 
ing wood reduced so that the trees are not too heav- 
ily laden. 

Superiority of Fruit from Well- Trained Trees. — In 
order to show that Mr. Bioletti's findings in the 
laboratory are sustained by tests made in the dry- 
ing ground, I have brought together some figures, 
" which never lie." At the West Side drier this 
year, we cured about fourteen hundred tons of 
prunes. We made five test weighings from each 
load delivered throughout the season, taking the 
samples " catch as catch can " as the boxes were 
being emptied into a hopper on their way to the 
dipper — manifestly a fair way of getting the aver- 
age size and weight of green prunes. In addition to 
this, we dipped and put out a sample load of the first 
time picking from each orchard (the load weighing 
from one to two tons and upwards) to ascertain the 
shrinkage in curing. In like manner, a load was 
treated, taken at mid-season, or at the time the 
bulk of the crop was being gathered, for the same 
purpose, viz., to ascertain the shrinkage. On tak- 
ing up from the trays, the prunes were carefully 
graded in tens, from forty to the pound to a hundred 
and upward to the pound, and the quantity running 
in each size was carefully noted. 

In this connection, I will make no account of ex- 
pense for sorting out frogs, although time was 
noted. It is fair to state, however, that proof is 
always present that by far the larger proportion of 
frogs come from orchards that bore a big crop. 

It would make a cumbersome mass of figures if I 
embodied them all in a table to show the quantity in 
each side, so I will use the middle size, which is 70 to 
the pound, and give in per cent the proportion which 
ran larger than 70's and smaller than 70's. For the 
purpose of making the comparison, I have taken the 
accounts of the adjoining orchards, with which I am 
familiar, and which furnished tne material for Mr. 
Bioletti's tests, similar in situation, soil, age, etc., 
but which this year were very unequal in yield, one 
having so great a burden that many of the limbs, 
despite ropes and props, were broken, and some 
trees split apart, while the others bore only a mod- 
erate crop; and thus we find as follows: 


Small Crop Big Crop 

Orchard. Orchard. 

Average of 30 weighings 20 to the lb. 30 to the lb. 

Shrinkage in curing 2.58 to 1 3.12 to 1 

Dry grade better than 70 96 per cent. 80 per cent. 

Smaller than 70 4 per cent. 20 per cent. 


Average of 30 weighings, green. . .17 to the lb. 

Shrinkage 2.00 to 1 

Dry grades better than 70 92 per cent. 

Smaller than 70 8 percent. 

If proper thinning will save the trees 
ing, do away with frogs and furnish prunes 92 
cent of which will grade out better than 70 to 
pound, is it not worth while to thin ? 

San Jose. S. P. Sanders. 

24 to the lb. 

2.74 to 1 
51 per cent. 
49 per cent. 

from break- 

Deciduous Trees in San Fernando Valley. 

By A.M. Jones, of Toluoa, at Glendale Fanners' Institute. 
Id speaking of the deciduous fruits of this neigh- 

borhood, I shall limit myself to those which we raise 
in commercial quantities, viz., the peach, apricot, 
pear, apple and prune, and shall give my views as to 
what kinds and varieties are the most profitable to 

The Peach.— The peach at the present time is the 

fruit which is raised in greatest amount. It is al- 
most a sure bearer every year, is the least subject 
to attacks from scale and gophers, and, were it not 
for the lamentable drop in prices for the last few 
years, would still be the most popular fruit with the 

In naming varieties of peaches, I omit altogether 
the white peaches, as we cannot sell them either to 
canners or driers: they are good only for the local 
market, and that is a limited one. 

A Novel Argument for Clings. — Of the yellow 
peaches, the clings are, in my opinion, much the 
more profitable to plant. They have held their 
value up much better than the freestones and even 
this last year, when peaches seemed certainly to have 
reached bedrock, good yellow clings, 2}-inch grade, 
opened at $14, and some of our growers, by holding, 
got $18 per ton— certainly a satisfactory price. The 
reasons the clings are more popular are that they are 
firmer and hold their shape better in the process of 
canning; second, they are good shippers and do not 
have to be packed in a green state to carry well to 
the Eastern market, and, third, they are rather shy 
bearers, and for that reason have not been planted 
to such an extent as freestones, and those that are 
planted do not produce such immense crops. Shy- 
bearing may be objected to as anything but a recom- 
mendation for a tree, but where a tree has held up 
the price and saved the grower much labor and ex- 
pense in trimming, and has also insured fine fruit, I 
say it is a recommendation. 

Varieties of the Peach. — In regard to the best var- 
ieties to plant, I do not think it matters much, pro- 
viding you raise a large cling, a high-colored cling 
and a yellow cling. Perhaps the Tustin is the very 
best: it comes in the earliest of the clings and gen- 
erally fills all of the above requirements. The Or- 
ange cling, or its varieties, Runyon's and Seller's 
Golden, are both very fine. The Lemon cling is good 
where it can be grown large, but it is apt to produce 
small fruit. The Henrietta is perhaps the most 
risky to plant. It ripens in October and can be sold 
at a large profit only when the canners have sold 
short, otherwise, being very late it is very hard to 
dispose of. The cling is not a good drying peach. Tt 
is expensive to handle, apt not to be very bright and 
a small cling is absolutely useless except for hog 
feed. [This comment on the drying value of clings 
is at variance with the experience of many growers 
in other parts of the State. — Ed.] 

Freestone Peaches. — In coming to the freestones we 
are met by a different condition of affairs. The vari- 
eties differ more than do the cling varieties, and a 
planter on deciding on a selection of varieties will 
have to determine how he intends to handle the fruit. 
Freestones have hitherto been bought in large quan- 
tities both by the canners and the fresh fruit ship- 
pers, but from now on, as the bearing area of 
peaches has increased so much, the freestone will 
become more and more a drier's peach. Among the 
most popular varieties are the Early and Late Craw- 
ford, Foster, Wheatland, Globe, Muir, Susquehanna, 
Salway and Smock. The Early Crawford is perhaps 
the most luscious peach for eating that we have; as 
a shipper it has to be picked too green for it to get 
to a distant market in a palatable condition. It is a 
favorite with canners when they are buying free- 
stones. It is a poor drier; apt to dry dark, with 
ragged edges, and it shrinks in weight heavily. The 
Foster is a very similar peach to the Crawford but 
it is a better drier so far as color goes. Both of 
them are heavy bearers, and generally have to be 
thinned. The Globe, Wheatland and Susquehanna 
are all average driers, both in looks and in shrink- 
age, and as freestones, will sell readily to the canner 
or shipper. The Muir is the most profitable of all 
the freestone varieties. It is rapidly becoming the 
most popular with the canners, and as a drying 
peach it is easily first. It always retains a bright, 
golden color and shrinks nearly one-quarter less than 
any other peach. The Salway and Smock are both 
late peaches. They are good driers and next to the 
Muir show the smallest shrinkage. They are not 
popular on the fresh fruit market on account of their 
ugly color. The Smock is practically unsalable at 
the cannery as the red color of the pit turns the 
syrup red. 

The Apricot. — The apricot is, I think, about the best 
fruit we have here. It is a rapid grower and a fairly- 
regular bearer, and produces large crops to the acre 
and is undoubtedly the best dried fruit we have. 
The way dried apricots have held up their price in 
the face of an immense supply of cheap apples, cheap 
peaches and cheap prunes is one of the most encour- 
aging features of an otherwise discouraging year. 
Apricots can only be grown in a few States of the 
Union and there is consequently less danger of over- 
production and when dried the apricot is the first 
which, above all others, retains its distinctive flavor, 
and is always in good demand. Besides its popular- 
ity as a dried fruit, it is an easy seller to the canner 
and shipper. 

But apricots have some drawbacks: They are not 
as sure bearers as peaches and some other fruits. 
They are liable to be caught by late frosts; the trees 
are liable to split down uniess very carefully and ex- 
pensively thinned of fruit, and young trees when well 
pruned and looked after will sometimes break dewn 

from overgrowth, but in spite of all its drawbacks, 
as a commercial proposition the apricot amply com- 
pensates for all risks. 

The varieties most common here are the Royal, 
Blenheim and Moorpark. The Royal is an old-time 
friend, a heavy bearer and a desirable apricot even 
green or dried. The Blenheim is equally good fruit, 
though a rather shy bearer, while the Moorpark is 
the king of all apricots, either green or dried; it 
commands a higher price than the others and except 
for its reputation as a shy bearer and uneven ripener 
it would undoubtedly be more generally planted. I 
have about thirty Moorpark trees in my own orchard 
and for the last three years I have found that they 
equalled the Royal as a bearer, and have ripened 

The Prune. — The prune is a favorite fruit with the 
grower. The trees are easily grown and cheaply 
pruned and have always netted the grower good re- 
turns. But the prune crop of California is becoming 
immense, and some apprehension is expressed as to 
the profitable disposition of so great an amount of 
fruit as will be turned out. The French prune is the 
best and, in fact, about the only prune to grow for 
drying, although others now being tested may prove 
worthy of attention. 

The Pear. — Two kinds of pears are chiefly grown 
in this region, the Bartlett and Winter Nelis, though 
other kinds are grown in some quantity, such as 
Beurre Hardy, Clairgeau, Vicar of Winkfield, White 
Doyenne, Flemish Beauty, but from a commercial 
point of view only the Bartlett and Winter Nelis are 
to be considered. The Winter Nelis ripens in Octo- 
ber and November, a good and regular bearer, and 
as the local market has hitherto taken all we have, 
for cold storage, at prices ranging from $20 to $30 
per ton, it is a desirable fruit to have. The Bartlett 
is the most capricious of all fruits with us in price. 
In 1891, $30 per ton was readily paid; in 1892 they 
dropped to $15; in 1893 to $12, and in 1894 to $7 per 
ton. This year they went up again to $20. From 
1892 to 1894 the local canners were the ouly buyers 
and had things their own way. This year the north- 
ern shippers came for our fruit. 

Bartlett pears have been dried the last few years 
with some success. They shrink about the same as 
the peach. The cost of handling and the process are 
about the same. If the weather is hot, halve the 
fruit; if cloudy and cool, quarter them, not remov- 
ing the core in either case. They have sold the last 
two years at about the same price as the dried 
peach. The pear, however, is a tree which takes 
six years or more to come into commercial bearing, 
and even then the crops will not harvest nearly as 
heavily as peaches and apricots at the same age and 
this, added to the uncertainty in price, makes the 
pear of less promise to the planter in large planting. 

The Apple. — After taking a somewhat gloomy view 
of several of the fruits in this paper, it is quite a re- 
lief to turn to apples. For apples we have a local 
market that takes all our fruit readily at a good liv- 
ing price. The apple has been tried with varying 
success in California and there are not many places 
that will raise them to perfection. If you know 
you are in a place that will grow good apples, go 
right ahead and plant them. The early apples sell 
freely at 2 cents per pound this year. The late 
apples are more easily handled and the varieties 
mostly handled are the Bellefleur, White Winter 
Pearmain, Yellow Newtown Pippin, Ben Davis and 
Johnathan — all very good apples, heavy bearers and 
ready sellers. The main things to consider for suc- 
cessful apple growing are, first, to spray and keep 
down scale and worms; second, to thin and grow 
only large fruit. Wormy, scaly, or small apples are 
worse than useless. 

In conclusion, remember that success in fruit 
growing, whether you grow apples, peaches, pears, 
or any other kind of fruit, is only attained by con- 
stant care, watchfulness and work. 


Walnut Growing in Upper Napa Valley. 

To the Editor. — It is, I think, a well-known fact 
that up to the present time, at least, the growing 
of walnuts to any great extent has been confined al- 
most exclusively to what is now generally known as 
southern California. Just why this should be the 
case at this late day is perhaps more than anyone 
can fully explain. 

However, it has not been many years since it was 
thought that oranges could not be grown successfully 
unless it was in the immediate vicinity of Los An- 
geles, as it was there I believe they were first raised 
for export. 

Notwithstanding this, wide-awake horticulturists 
soon found that Placer, Butte, Sonoma, Sacramento, 
Tulare and Fresno, as well as many other middle 
and northern counties, could raise this most deli- 
cious and healthful fruit to perfection, and now a great 
many farmers, who formerly raised mostly grain, and 
a little stock, with perhaps a few fruit trees, have at 
last turned their attention in a great measure to the 
raising of the orange. 

After gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, in 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 

1848, thousands of miners rushed there, thinking 
that alone was the favored place to find the precious 
ore. They soon found, however, that the "gold 
diggin's" was not by any means confined to that par- 
ticular place, for very soon the country for hundreds 
of miles in extent was filled with industrious miners, 
many of whom were successful in filling their buck- 
skin purses with the shining "dust" and returned to 
their former homes with a competency for life. 

For reasons I have here given. I am led to believe 
that heretofore at least, whenever any kind of valu- 
able mineral is found, or any variety of fruit is first 
raised with exceedingly great profit to the grower, 
(as in the instance of the French prune in Santa 
Clara valley), a large majority of the inhabitants of 
that particular portion of country naturally come to 
the conclusion that there, and there alone, is the 
vicinity in which to mine, or to engage in fruit-rais- 
ing, as the case may be. 

From my own careful observation, as well as con- 
versation with many of my friends who live in differ- 
ent parts of this State, as well as correspondence I 
have lately received from those who have seen my 
walnut trees during the past year, making inquiry 
of me as to the probabilities of growing walnuts suc- 
cessfully in their section of country, I certainly think 
I am on the right track as to why the raising of this 
excellent nut has been so utterly neglected outside 
of southern California. 

As far as my personal knowedge is concerned, but 
a very few walnut trees of any variety have been 
planted in this portion of Napa valley up to the 
present time, and 1 do not know of a single one of 
the French Proeparturien variety being planted in 
this vicinity before I planted mine in the spring 
of 1883. 

A friend of mine who settled in this valley in the fall 
of 1846 planted some twenty-five years ago or more 
(I have not the exact date at hand) a few common 
English walnuts on the hillside near his house. He 
obtained the nuts, if I remember rightly, in San 
Francisco. The young trees (so he informed me) 
grew with astonishing rapidity, and in five or six 
years commenced to bear. They are now very large 
trees, and have produced an abundance of nuts for 
many years past, and he has always found a ready 
sale for them here. Hundreds of people, residents 
of this valley and elsewhere, have in the hot, sultry 
days of summer sat in the shade made by the wide- 
spreading branches of these beautiful trees, bending 
with their load of nuts, and, doubtless, but few, if 
any, of them ever thought of planting any on their 
own broad acres, or, if such an idea did enter their 
minds, it was never carried out. One man, however, 
proved to be an exception, and planted quite a row 
just inside of his place by the public road. These 
trees are now quite as large as those I have men- 
tioned, and generally bear well, I am told, every 
other year. 

Planting I'm jut rt miens. — I bought my present 
home in the fall of 1882, and in the spring' of 1883 I 
sent to Felix Gillet of Nevada City for a few of his 
proeparturien walnut trees. They were from six to 
eight feet in height and about one inch in diameter, 
and looked more like a good-sized whipstock than a 
tree, with the exception of their small fibrous roots. 
I was told by my friend of 1846, before I sent for 
these trees, that it would be altogether useless for 
me to plant walnut trees on my land, as they would 
certainly die, or at least never amount to anything, 
unless planted on a hillside or high upland. Not- 
withstanding his advice, as well as other friends of 
mine, who coincided with him in this matter, I 
bought the trees and set them out on my land, where 
in a wet winter I can get the water from my well 
with a long-handled dipper. 

My largest tree, near the ground is now 16 inches 
in diameter, 25 feet in height and 26 feet across the 
top, and the largest limb is 6* inches through. This 
tree has been in bearing six years and bore about 75 
pounds of nuts in 1894, and fully as many the past 
season. So far the trees have not shown the least 
sign of any disease and they bear well every year, 
which is not the case here with the common English 
variety. I am very sorry that I did not, at the time 
of purchase, make a memoranda for my own satis- 
faction of the different names of the trees, as they 
were carefully marked. I have six different varie- 
ties; the smallest nut, which is nearly round and 
grows on the smallest tree I have, proves to be the 
sweetest and best flavored of all, and is remarkably 
prolific. I have one tree that is five years old, that 
bore twelve very fine nuts the past season; I raised 
it from a nut that grew on my largest tree. It is 
the largest nut I raise, and differs somewhat in shape 
from any of the rest. I have another tree, three 
years old from the seed. Last spring it was ex- 
actly 3i feet in height; it is now 13 feet and 8 inches, 
having grown the past season just 10 feet and 2 
inches, without irrigation. At six feet from the 
ground it has one limb which is about two feet in 
length. I never saw trees of any kind make a faster 
growth than these of mine, and 'some of the leaves 
last spring were remarkably large. If I remember 
rightly, the largest one was' exactly 13i inches long 
and 6? inches wide, the leaf alone, not the leaf and 

For reasons that I have already given in this arti- 

cle, as well as for very many more that I could ad- 
duce if time permitted, I am satisfied that walnuts 
can be successfully grown, not only in the valley 
here, but on the hillsides and uplands, and especially 
on the northern slopes, where the soil is often many 
feet in depth, and not only in this valley and county 
but in most of the middle and northern counties of 
the State, and without irrigation. In my judgment, 
wherever native trees and shrubs grow strong and 
vigorous the walnut will thrive equally as well, pro- 
viding the altitude is not too great nor the winter 
too severe. I remember distinctly seeing two large 
English walnut trees in my native town (Dorchester, 
Mass.. which is now a part of Boston) more than 
fifty years ago, and I often had the pleasure of pick- 
ing up the nuts after a severe frost. 

Pret ention of Sunburn. — I find it very necessary to 
protect the stem of the young trees for a few years, 
especially on the southwest side, from the scorching 
rays of the sun. If not protected in some way they 
will soon turn black on the exposed side, and finally 
die or become worthless. This I do in several ways, 
by winding part of an old grain or potato sack 
around them, and sometimes use newspapers in the 
same manner. I also drive a piece of board or shake 
near the tree, or give them once or twice during the 
spring or summer a good coat of whitewash. I often 
find it becomes necessary to whitewash an exposed 
limb, even when it is three or four inches in diam- 
eter. I mix the lime with skim or sour milk, which 
causes it to adhere, as well as to remain on the tree 
much longer than it would mixed with water, even 
when large quantities of salt are used with it. I 
find this kind of whitewash more durable than any 
other preparation I have ever tried for my trees, 
sheds, fences, etc. 

Local Sahs. — I find no difficulty whatever in sell- 
ing my walnuts at 12* cents a pound to my friends 
here, notwithstanding they can get the sulphured or 
bleached ones from San Francisco for 10 cents a 
pound. They think the sulphur destroys in a great 
measure the sweetness of the nut; at any rate they 
all agree that the sulphured nuts are very much in- 
ferior to mine, and so do I. 

Some of my friends who have lived in this valley a 
great many years have bought walnuts from me this 
season with the intention of planting many of them, 
and one nurseryman bought ten pounds mostly for 
that purpose. I am satisfied that in the near future 
thousands of walnut trees will be planted, not only 
in this county, but in a great many other portions of 
this highly famed State where to-day not a single 
tree is to be found and where the inhabitants 
scarcely dream they can be grown with success. 

Ira W. Adams. 
Bay State Garden, Calistoga, Dec. 18, 1895. 


Irrigation of Citrus Fruit Orchards. 

By G. B. Wood berry at Glendale Farmers' Institute. 

Should we take a trip among the citrus orchards 
of Los Angeles county during the irrigation season 
we should find a diversity of methods employed, all 
of which are modifications of two systems: the basin 
and the furrow systems. Let us first examine the 

The Basin System. — If your trees are on smooth, 
nearly level ground, back-furrows are run both 
lengthwise and across the orchard, at a distance 
from the trees varying with their age and the 
amount of water available, though when the trees 
are in full bearing the basins should occupy all the 
ground. One man fills these basins with water, 
allowing it to stand around the trunks of the trees, 
while another is careful to throw up a little dirt 
around the trunk of each tree. One man fills the 
basins once, his neighbor twice, and of the two his 
heighbor has the better of it, and I think any one 
who fills up a basin but once will acknowledge a sur- 
prise if he will take a spade and dig into the ground 
just before he cultivates. Once well done is twice 
done here most assuredly. 

Tn regard to protecting the trunks of the trees 
from water, it seems to be the generally accepted 
belief that gum disease is often caused by a failure 
to do so. 

Jin si us on Uneven Ground. — If trees are on uneven 
ground or hillside the basin will require the expendi- 
ture of a great deal of extra labor in the making 
and much care in filling. A row of washed-out 
basins is like a pea in one's shoe, irritating in the 

When one's supply of water is limited or confined 
to a schedule of perhaps but few hours, the basin 
system seems best, if, indeed, it is not absolutely 
necessary, as each tree irrigated receives its pro- 
portion of water, and the remainder, if any, can wait 
for next time. 

The Furrow Method. — The second method, that of 
the furrow, is par excellence for results obtained, 
provided you are fortunate enough to command a 
sufficient supply of water and providing you are suf- 
ficiently thorough in your preparations. On smooth, 
nearly level orchards a main flume is carried across 
the highest end or side of the tract, so arranged 

with a series of auger holes and sliding covers as to 
discharge a small amount of water at intervals of a 
few feet. The ground is prepared by plowing 
parallel furrows from the flume to the lower part of 
the tract. For the best results these furrows should 
be about 18 inches apart, and a machine on wheels 
called a marker will make four each trip, enabling 
the operator to cover the ground rapidly. Each 
furrow ends at a discharging point in the flume and 
the water, being turned on enough, is allowed to 
escape at each furrow to reach the other end as 
rapidly as possible, when the slide is shut sufficiently 
to discharge only such amount of water as wiil 
nearly or quite be absorbed by the soil during its 
journey toward the other end of the furrow. Now, 
if your arrangements are just right, you can lean on 
the fence and talk politics with your neighbor and in 
twelve hours you will find that capillary attraction 
has caused the water to mount the sides of the fur- 
rows until it meets in the center, thoroughly 
moistening the ground without saturating it, and if 
you can run the water for another twelve hours 
your irrigating is equal to a good rain storm in the 
results obtained. 

Should your ground be uneven or hilly the same 
method may be employed, but much care must be 
exercised in first laying out the courses for the fur- 
rows so that no part runs uphill or so rapidly down- 
hill as to cause washing. 

To Ascertain Safe Grades. — This is most expedi- 
tiously done by means of an arrangement formed of 
two strips of narrow lumber naiied together in the 
form of an obtuse angled triangle, with its feet about 
twenty feet apart. Two feet from the ground, when 
the triangle is standing upright, nail a cross strip 
and from the apex suspend a weight by a cord 
reaching nearly to the ground. Now place the feet 
of your triangle on a perfectly level surface and cut 
a notch where the line crosses the cross piece. This 
is the level mark. If you want a fall of one inch in 
twenty feet place a one-inch block under one foot of 
the triangle and make another notch for the new 
position of the line. This is the grade notch. In 
using this triangle have the grade notch always on 
the downhill side of the center notch and move the 
downhill foot of the triangle until the line is opposite 
the grade notch. Stick a stake and repeat the 
operation, with the upper foot occupying the former 
position of the lower. This simple arrangement is 
also useful in laying out storm ditches for winter 
use, pipe laying, etc. 

Frequency of Irrigation and Amount of Water. — In 
regard to frequency of irrigation and amount of 
water used, opinions differ widely, but the opinion 
seems to prevail among well-posted authorities that 
the general practice when water is abundant is to 
over-irrigate and under-cultivate, or else to irrigate 
in a superficial manner, calling the feeding roots to 
the surface, where the supply is soon exhausted and 
the tree must have more. 

If the water runs in furrows evenly over the 
whole surface for twenty-four hours at a time, pene- 
trating deeply into the soil, and the after-cultiva- 
tion thorough, once in six weeks, or even more, is as 
often as will be required, while your orchard will 
speak for itself in results. 

To Use Waste from Furrows. — One objection to irri- 
gation by furrows is that a little water will trickle 
from the ends, and uniting makes quite a volume of 
waste. The ideal ten or twenty-acre citrus orchard 
should have a half-acre alfalfa patch at the lowest 
corner and enclosed by ridges. Into this alfalfa run 
your waste water furrow and perfection in irrigat- 
ing is as nearly obtained as is possible, and the work 
becomes a pleasure. 

Irrigation Without Cultivation. — Some advocate and 
practice irrigating more frequently and dispensing 
with cultivation. What with weeds running riot 
and baking of the soil, the appearance of such an 
orchard is not inviting. In fact, one large orchard 
thus treated, which I chanced to see last year, gave 
me a severe attack of that tired feeling, in contem- 
plating the vast amount of work required if those 
weeds were ever to be subdued. 

Time of Irrigation. — One other point in the irri- 
gating of citrus trees is to so time the periods as to 
have the trees dormant, if possible, during the early 
winter, as thereby less danger may be apprehended 
from a visitation of frost. During some seasons, 
however, late irrigating becomes necessary, owing 
to a lack of rainfali, but whenever possible it should 
be avoided. 

Grass for Banks and Levees. 

To the Editor :— Will you please tell me through the col 
umns of the Press what kirjd of grass is the best to hold the 
river bank where it is inclined to wash !— Subscriber, Red 

We know nothing that will compare for this pur- 
pose with Bermuda grass {Ounodon dactylon). It is 
considerably used for this purpose and affords some 
pasture. If the adjoining field is used for pasturage, 
the spreading of the Bermuda grass is no detriment; 
but if it is cultivated ground, it is a serious affair, 
for Bermuda grass will spread and it is very hard to 
keep it in check. Bermuda grass is planted by root 
pieces, and on a large scale they can be plowed or 
raked in. 


The Opportunity in Poultry. 

We recently expressed our opinion of the oppor- 
tunity for profitable production in poultry, provided 
the producer would get right down to an under- 
standing of details and had the grit and devotion to 
persistently carry them out to the last item. Jacob 
Kreger, writing for the Call, gives advice in the 
same line, which we commend to the attention of our 
readers. He writes: There is more poultry raised 
in southern California than any other part of Uncle 
Sam's domain that it has been my good fortune to 
see. The reasons of this are various. One is the 
average hen fruits well there, provided she does not 
get the blind staggers in both eyes or the mites eat 
her up alive. Another reason is that many men of 
small means come here, buy some land, set out or- 
chards and then keep a few cows and some poultry 
until their trees begin to bear, and others have land 
not good for fruit; and small farming is not always a 
howling success, for farm products get very low at 
times. Poultry raising used to pay well when eggs 
were bringing from 20 to 50 cents and hens $8 to $9 
per dozen, but those prices are gone, and gone for- 
ever. Our railroads are great equalizers of farm 
products, so whenever corn in Kansas and Nebraska 
is selling for 25 cents or less per bushel we may look 
for sharp competition in the poultry products on 
this coast. What confront us here are not theories 
but conditions; not mere assertions but solid, stub- 
born facts. 

What To Bo. — Now, what shall we do about it ? 
Sit down and howl about the hard times ? Blame 
the Administration at Washington ? Start a new 
political party or join the socialists ? Nothing of 
the kind. Simply go to work, improve our stock 
and improve our methods of caring for the same, and 
continue on that line until we arrive at the point to 
where we get three eggs to where we get two now. 
Then we will be able to accept the reduced prices, 
and more than that, we will widen the field, for many 
poor people in the cities will be enabled to use our 
poultry products, which they could not afford if 
prices were high. There is abundant room for im- 
provement in the farm methods of caring for our 
feathered pets. I have never yet become reconciled 
to the style of poultry houses generally seen in this 
country. The main object seems to be to give as 
little protection against cold and wind as possible. 
Some even go so far as to give none at all. They 
put up some poles five or six feet from the ground 
and the hens have to roost on them in summer and 
winter. Now, this may do for turkeys, but for hens 
it is certainly not suitable. I think they ought to 

have houses with good roofs, and at least three sides 
boarded up tight. The south side might be left open 
in order to get all the sunshine possible. I have no 
use for slats all around, where, during some of our 
blowing rains, not a square foot of space is left dry, 
not to mention the cold winds during the long winter 
nights of our rainy season. I may be mistaken, but 
I believe many cases of roup and kindred diseases 
might be traced to this source. 

Vermin.— But what is worse yet are the insect 
pests. Some people allow them to multiply at will, 
until they literally overrun the premises. Last sum- 
mer one of my neighbors told me he had to keep his 
horses outside because the chicken mites overrun 
the stable. Now, just imagine a flock of poultry go- 
ing to roost in such a place. How much rest will 
they get after a long day of activity when annoyed 
all night by these little bloodsuckers, who will then 
seek their hiding places, only to emerge again next 
evening ? The efforts of the hens dusting themselves 
are of no avail, because these little fellows live in 
the cracks and crevices of the perches and sides of 
the house. Various remedies have been suggested, 
such as coal oil, creosote, carbolic acid and many 
others. My advice would be to take out the perches, 
convert them into stove-wood and then put up a sys- 
tem of perches entirely disconnected with the sides 
of the house. 

Twice a year I whitewash the inside of the house. 
Now, there is no patent on this. Any one who reads 
this can adopt that style, and doubtless many can 
improve on it. In regard to the height of perches, I 
would say that the above is intended for Leghorns. 
If I kept any of the heavier breeds I would provide 
| lower perches. I never allow hens to lay in the hen- 
j house. Nest boxes are in the way there and help to 
i shelter vermin. In the East, where it gets very 
I cold in winter, it is necessary at times to feed and 
water and allow them to lay in the house, but not so 
I in California. The weather here ia never so inclem- 
| ent but what an able-bodied hen can go out and 
attend to all of her duties, and then the house can 
I easier be kept clean, which is of great importance, 
' for no flock of poultry will ever do their best unless 
they have clean quarters, and then they should be 
trained to use said quarters. I never allow a hen to 
roost on a tree, fence or anywhere else except the 
henhouse, where I can close them up at night and 
let them out in the morning. They should be let out 
early in the morning. I have seen people keep their 
hens shut up in the henhouse till seven or eight 
o'clock, even in summer time. Now, this is down- 
right cruelty to have the poor things all huddled up 
together for two or three long hours trying to get 
out. Hungry and thirsty, the weaker ones abused 
and trampled on, with innumerable quarrels and 
fights and the house badly fouled, how much better 
to turn them out about sunup, give them a light 

I feed and let them begin the day aright. There is 
| always a right way and a wrong way, and the say- 
| ing is, "Whatever is worth doing is worth doino- 
| right." " 

j Nest Eggs. —Now, a word about nest eggs. Some 
j people use rotten eggs. This is nasty.'filthy and 
| should never be thought of for a moment; others 
| leave an egg. This is objectionable because the 
| same egg may be left for several days in succession 
and thus be unfit for human food; again, others sim- 
j ply rob the nests. This is bad because it inclines 
1 the hens to seek other places, and nest-hiding is 
prevalent enough without being encouraged. I 
always provide patent nest eggs and gather the eg»s 
each evening. Then I know that each egg I offer for 
sale is Al, just as I would want it to be° if I were 
purchasing. If every one would follow that rule we 
would get more for our eggs, for most people buying 
eggs would be willing to pay a little more were they 
sure that every egg was good; but some people are 
careless, some are very careless, and with some it is 
hard to tell just where their carelessness ends and 
dishonesty begins. 

Feeding.— One of the most important problems is 
that of feeding. It were easy enough to tell what is 
good, but here the question of economy comes in and 
complicates matters seriously. For instance, I aim 
to feed my hens meat once or twice a week during 
the dryest part of the season. Now, I am well 
aware that porterhouse steak or tenderloin sausage 
would be good, but, alas ! the cost is too much, so I 
have to resort to cracklings, which cost two cents 
per pound. It is so to some extent with grain. We 
all know that a No. 1 article of wheat is good for 
hens, but it costs from one to one and a half 
cents per pound. Whole barley is now sixty-five 
cents and corn, which most of us raise to sell, is now 
only fifty cents. Egyptian corn is between wheat 
and barley. Potatoes often go down to twenty- 
five cents per sack. Bran I consider an excellent 
feed, but the price in our local market is one cent 
per pound, which is rather high. Thus it will be 
seen that of the staples wheat is highest and corn 
lowest. Now, an all corn diet will not do, as I know 
from experience it is too fattening. Barley the hens 
do not seem to relish, owing, perhaps, to the beards. 
Egyptian corn I have not had much experience with. 
The hens and chicks seem very fond of it. I intend 
to raise more of it after this when potatoes are low 
and just after digging. When I have a surplus of 
little tubers I feed them for breakfast. I wash, cut 
up, boil till soft, season with salt, then stir in bran 
or unboiled cornmeal. At this time I feed about 
half corn and the balance wheat, barley and Egyp- 
tian corn. I find poultry keeping pleasant work, 
and, considering the time occupied and the capital 
invested, it is by far the most profitable of anything 
I can do on a ranch. 





FOR F»0\A/ER. 


Will furnish power for one-tenth of a cent per horse power per honr. It Is the cheapest 
power ever produced, as shown In the following table, and which ig based upon a test of ten 
hours' run with one of our five-horse power Gasoline Engines, using gasoline (74°), coal gas, com- 
mon domestic coal oil, crude petroleum, asphaltum base, crude petroleum, parafflne base, as follows: 

Coal Gas, ten hours' run. 1000 feet *2 00 

Gasoline ("4 deg.), ten hours' run. &% gallons @ 14c 1 25 

Coal Oil. ten hours' run. Hi gallons @ 10c J5 

Crude Petroleum, asphaltum base, IB gallons @ 3c 48 

Crude Petroleum (36 deg.), parafflne base. 13 gallons @ 5c B5 

On the crude petroleum with asphaltum base we had an over-product of 7 gallons of asphaltum; the 
market price is 3 cents per gallon=21 cents. This deducted from the first cost of the crude petroleum 
for ten hours' run leaves a net balance of 27 cents. And from the crude oil with a parafflne base we 
had an over-product of 3 gallons of good lubricating oil, which we consider equal to any we have ever 
used, but will estimate its value conservatively at 20 cents per gallon, making 60 cents; this deducted 
from the first cost of the crude oil leaves a balance of 5 cents, total cost of running ten hours. 

It will be readily seen that the operation of these Engines with crude petroleum reduces the cost 
of operation to aminimum. Crude petroleum with parafflne base at l-10c per horse power per hour; on 
crude petroleum, asphaltum base, hie per horse power per hour; on domestic coal oil, P/4c per horse 
power per hour; and on gasoline, 2>4c per horse power per hour. 



San Leandro, Cal. 

Anderson Orchard Brush rake 

(Patent Allowed.' 


Orchard and 
Brush Rakes 

Were sold in Santa Clara 
County alone during the 
month of October. 

Write for circulars and prices 
—to — 


SrtfN JOSE. CA L. 





• California Midwinter Interna- 

FIRST PRIZE — Medal and Diploma - 
tional Exposition. 

Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sun- 
burn, rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them, send for descriptive 


Sole Manufacturer of PATENT TULE COVERS, 


First patented by Jacob Price. 
I have just received a new lot of these machines, with a steel box and other improvements, which 
make it one of the most complete and compact sowing machines in the market. 

This Seed Sower will sow wheat 100 feet wide (working width 80 ftet). elevating just enough grain 
to distribute it properly, whether the team walks fast or slow. Price 835. For sale by 

WH. U. GRAY. Agent San Leandro, Cal 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 4, 1896. 


The Fault of the Age. 

The fault of the age is a mad endeavor 

To leap to heights that were made to climb; 
By a burst of strength or a thought that is 

We plan to outwit and forestall time. 

We scorn to wait for the thing worth having, 
We want high noon at the day's dim dawn; 

We find no pleasure in toiling and saving 
As our forefathers did in the good times 

We force our roses before their season 
To bloom and blossom that we may wear; 

And then we wonder and ask the reason 
Why perfect buds are so few and rare. 

Wr crave the gain, but despise the getting; 
We want the wealth, not as a reward, but 

And the strength that is wasted in useless 

Would fell a forest, or build a tower. 

To covert the prize, yet shrink from the win- 
ning ; 

To thirst for glory, yet shrink from the 
fight— . . 

Why, what can it lead to at last but sinning, 
To mental languor and moral blight i 

Better the slow old way of starving. 
And to count small gains when the year is 

Than to use our forces all in contriving, 
And to grasp for pleasures we have not won. 

—Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

A Man of Sense. 

The man who makes the best of things 

With riches can dispense. 
Since heaven has endowed him with 

A fund of common sense. 
Though he may live in poverty, 

He has a happy lot, 
Because he doesn't sit and mourn 

For what he hasn't got. 
The man who makes the best of things 

Is tolerably rare. 
But when you find him you will see 

A man devoid of care. 
His rule of life is simple— just 

To do his level best, 
And then he does some resting 

And lets others do the rest. 
The man who makes the best of things. 

He knows where he is at, 
He is a true philosopher, 

And to him I doff my hat. 
But when I run across a man 
m always finding fault 
I know, without your telling me, 

He isn't worth bis salt. 

Somerville Journal. 

John Aler*s Whim. 

By Fix>eiince B. Haixowkix. 
" It's snowin', aint it ? " 
"Yes, it's been snowin sometime 

" Ye aint goin' out, be ye ? " 

" Yes; I'm goin' down ter Sill's. I 
want to see if he aint sold none o' them 
things yet." 

The old man lying on the disordered 
bed in the corner of the cabin gave a 
kind of groan. 

"I c'n tell ye that 'thout your 
ploughin' through all this snow ter Sill's. 
It aint no use ter go. Folks don't 
want feather work V your hair chains. 
I don't wonder at 'em neither. I get 
sick ter death o' seein' 'em round as 
'tis, let alone wantin' ter buy 'em. If 
we aint goin' ter hev no Christmas 
dinner lessen ye sell them things down 
to Sill's, we'll go hungry, 1 guess." 

The old woman standing by the little 
stove tying on her faded red hood did 
not answer. She put an extra stick of 
wood on the fire and then went out. 

At the little dilapidated gate she 
turned and looked back a moment. 
The cabin was on the outskirts of the 
town, in a thinly-settled neighborhood 
and was not much in the way of a 
shelter. The roof was sunken, and in 
rainy weather it leaked so badly that 
old Mahala had to put all the cooking 
utensils she owned around on the floor 
to catch the water. In winter the 
wind found its way in through a hun- 
dred cracks and knotholes. Mahala 
had plastered them up with mud 
and stuffed them with rags, but still 
could not keep out the cold. Her irri- 
table old husband complained from 
morning till night of how he suffered 
from it. 

But still the cabin was home — the 
only home she had known for twenty 
years, and she did not expect ever to 
own a better one. 

She worked very hard. Whenever 

she was not sewing, or house-cleaning, 
or washing she was busy making flow- 
ers of paper and wax, feather wreaths, 
hair chains, and bunches of fluffy balls 
from the silk of the milk-weed pod. 
Some she left the natural color, others 
she dyed pink, yellow, blue and laven- 
der. She had done a great deal of this 
sort of work through the fall, and had 
given it the previous week to a store- 
keeper in town to sell for her on com- 

He had told her the day before that 
he hadn't sold anything of hers yet and 
she had gone home heavy-hearted. 

But hope had risen in her heart again 
to-day and she walked along sturdily 
now, unmindful of the wind that drove 
the sleet in her face and filled her eyes 
with tears. 

Her coarse shoes made a crunching 
sound on the snow, the wind whipped 
the strings of her hood across her face 
like a lash, and she shivered under the 
old blanket shawl which she had pinned 
about her stooping shoulders. But still 
she kept on and soon came to the prin- 
cipal street of the town. 

It was full of people, for it was the 
day before Christmas, and those who 
had not finished their shopping felt 
that there was no time to lose. Stock- 
bridge was a small place, and the 
stores were not many, but all were 
making a display of holiday gifts, and 
before the provision stores small ever- 
greens were piled up half way to the 
second story, waiting to be sold for 
Christmas trees. 

Through the windows of the houses 
one could see bright fires burning in 
open grates, women busy in kitchens 
making pies and cakes; and little chil- 
dren with eager, excited faces pressed 
against the window panes, as they im- 
agined the contents of variously shaped 
bundles they saw carried by, or caught 
a glimpse of a rocking horse or a doll's 

Sill's store was crowded, for it was 
the leading one of the town and a good 
stock of Christmas novelties had been 
laid in. John Aler, strolling in to buy 
a cigar, stood at one end of the long 
counter idly watching the people com- 
ing and going so incessantly and try- 
ing to forget his annoyance in having 
been kept for two days waiting the ar- 
rival of a manufacturer of Stockbridge, 
who was off on a trip to the West, and 
could not reach home until Christmas 

Tin' druy had ruined all John Aler's 
plans, for his home was three hundred 
miles from Stockbridge, and there was 
no chance now of his reaching it in time 
to eat tiis Christmas dinner at his own 
table. He had just sent a telegram to 
his wife telling her not to expect him, 
and he knew how deep would be her 
disappointment. But there was no 
help for it; he must keep his business 
engagement at uo matter what cost of 

"And I must spend Christmas day on 
the cars," he thought, "and eat my 
Christmas dinner at a railway restau- 

It was no wonder that he was in any- 
thing but a Christmas mood, and felt 
just a little irritated that every one 
else should seem so happy. That stout, 
rosy-cheeked woman with the cottage 
bonnet and the circular cloak, for in- 
stance, how her eyes sparkled as she 
pushed her way close to the toy coun- 
ter and picked up a wax doll with yel- 
low hair and pink cheeks. She looked 
as if fairly overflowing with good na- 

"Lor, Mrs. Roper, what be you a 
doin' with a doll?" queried a thin voice, 
as a tall woman with her arms full of 
bundles stopped on her way out of the 
store. " You ain't got no children ter 
look out fer." 

"No, more's the pity," responded 
the woman with the rosy cheeks. "But 
that ain't no reason why I shouldn't 
buy dolls 'n toys. I'll find children ter 
give 'era to, ye c'n be sure o' that. All 
I buy is goin' ter children that ain't 
got nobody in particular to see after 
'em such times. If everybody looked 
out for just one person, there wouldn't 
be nobody neglected. Trouble is, so 
many keep their hands in their pock- 
ets Christmas, or else they give ter 
those that has plenty a'ready. '' 

"That's so," acquiesced the tall wo- 
man, and pushed her way out. 

John Aler looked at Mrs. Roper with 
some interest now, and was sorry when 
she completed her purchases and went 
out. She was a good woman, he felt 
sure of that. 

He looked from one counter to the 
other, wondering what direction his 
fancy would take if he were to buy a 
present here for Kitty. What if he 
took her one of those wonderfully un- 
natural bunches of wax flowers, or that 
feather wreath in the cheap gilt frame? 
What would Kitty say? Kitty, who 
had always had every wish gratified ! 
Who was such a lover of the artistic ! 
He had not bought her a Christmas 
present yet. It seemed as if she al- 
ready had everything the heart of wo- 
man could desire. 

There was a sudden lull in the rush 
of trade. The store was empty of cus- 
tomers except for two little girls who 
were selecting marbles from a box held 
by the younger clerk. The other clerk 
and Mr. Sill were straightening the 
disordered counters. 

The door opened slowly, pushed very 
evidently by a timid hand, and an old 
woman came in. Her face was purple 
with the cold, her old shawl was 
flecked with snow, and the wind had 
blown her scanty gray hair back from 
her sunken temples. John Aler, look- 
ing at her carelessly, thought she 
seemed to breathe very heavily, like 
one who was tired out. Her face inter- 
ested him. There was an impassive 
look upon it that was unusual. 

She went straight to Mr. Sill, who 
looked up with a little frown. 

"No; I ain't sold nothin' of yours 
yet," he said, before she had time to 
speak. "I guess you'll hev your stock 
back on yer hands this year. But you 
might as well leave it here till termor- 
row. There was a man lookin' at one 
o' them hair chains, 'n he might come 
back. I guess it ain't very likely; still 
he might." 

The old woman nodded and turned 
away. She didn't say a word, but John 
Aler thought he saw her lips quiver 
slightly. Just before she reached the 
door she paused to look at something 
on the counter. It was a wax cross 
under a glass cover. It had been 
pushed back behind some books and 
photographs. She pulled it out a little 
way where it could be easily seen, 
stood staring at it a moment as if to 
ask herself if its beauty would strike 
any one else and then went out. At 
the window she paused again and 
looked in. John Aler saw that ber 
eyes were fixed on a great bunch of 
red and yellow paper flowers stuck in 
a gaudy glass vase. 

"Who may that old woman be?" he 

" Mahala Jackson, I b'lieve her name 
is," answered Sill. "Lives some way 
out o' town on the mill road. Her hus- 
band used ter work in the mill onct, 
but he's laid up with rheumatism now 
— ain't done a stroke of work for ten 
years I guess. The old woman, she 
makes these feather 'n wax thing6. I 
sold a good many last Christmas, but I 
ain't sold a piece this year — people got 
all they want of 'em I guess." 

John Aler was silent. He remem- 
bered what the rosy-cheeked woman 
had said about each person remember- 
ing just one other at Christmas time. 
No one would then be neglected. He 
didn't keep his hands in his pockets, of 
course — he gave freely, but he had cer- 
tainly given always to those who had 
been bountifully supplied already with 
this world's goods. 

Suppose, for a change, just to gratify 
a whim, he bought all this feather, 
wax, and paper stuff ? Wouldn't that 
bring Christmas into one heart at 
least? Old Mahala didn't look as if 
she had many to remember. Kitty 
would laugh at him, of course. She 
would say that he was "utterly ridicu- 
lous," but he could afford to do a rid- 
iculous thing if he chose, and he didn't 
mind being laughed at. He would 
never feel the purchase of this old 
woman's trumpery, and she — very 
likely she needed the money. She 
looked so old, so sad, so cold and des- 
olate. Perhaps Christmas had never 
come into her life, and now — thi» 

chance. She was only a common old 
woman of course, but— 

" Look here," he said, crossing over 
to the counter with sudden energy. 
"I think I'll buy all these feather and 
wax things. I'll send 'em home to my 
wife. Got a box anywhere?" 

"Yes; I c'n give ye a box," an- 
swered the storekeeper, "but ye don't 
want all the things, do ye ? " 

"Yes, I do. Make out the list and 
figure it up." 

"You want all them paper flowers? " 


"An' them hair chains — there's 
three of 'em — 'n that wax cross, 'n the 
two feather wreaths, 'n — 

"Everything, I tell you. Pack 'em 
all. I'll pay you for it." 

"You don't want them fluff balls, I 
guess ? " 

" Yes, I do. How many bunches are 
there?" Seven. Put 'em in." 

The shopkeeper stared a moment as 
if he thought the young man had sud- 
denly taken leave of his senses. 

"I can't get such things where I 
live," said Aler carelessly. "They'll 
be curiosities there." 
»** ** *•* 

It was eight o'clock when old Mahala 
entered old Sill's store again. She had 
a basket on her arm and walked slowly 
as if tired out. Outside it was snow- 
ing heavily, and the streets were 
almost deserted. 

" I come to see if that hair chain — " 
the old woman began and then stopped, 
her face growing suddenly gray. 
" Ye've — ye've took down all my 
things, ain't ye ? " she went on in a 
dry, husky voice. "That's all right. 
It don't matter. I brung a basket to 
take 'em home." 

" Ye c'n take this home in your bas- 
ket instead," said Sill, who had been 
prepared for her coming; and leaning 
over the counter he dropped in the 
basket sixteen jingling silver dollars. 

Old Mahala stood and looked at him 
a moment. Her lips were quivering; 
she seemed dazed. 

"Ye didn't — ye can't hev sold 'em 
all," she said at last. 

" Every last one of em. There was 
a stranger here, jest stoppin' over for 
a day or two on business, 'n he took a 
fancy to 'em. Said he couldn't get 
such things where he lived. Yes, he 
took 'em all; sent 'em off by express ter 
his wife." 

Old Mahala nodded, and taking a 
handkerchief from her neck, tied the 
money up in it. Then she nodded again 
and went out. 

As the door closed behind her she 
stood still a moment in the falling snow. 
Down her withered, reddened cheeks 
the tears were trickling. 

"God bless that man, whoever he 
was," she whispered, huskily. Then 
she walked on, one hand raised to wipe 
away her tears with a corner of the 
old gray shawl. 

When John Aler reached home the 
day after Christmas and entered his 
handsomely furnished sittingroom, 
some one sprang up from an easy chair 
and rushed to meet him with a glad 

" Oh, John, to think you weren't here 
for dinner yesterday!" Kitty cried. 

lighest Honors — World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 




Most Perfect Made. 
40 Yean the Standard. 

January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

"I almost died I was so disappointed ! 
And John, what possessed you to send 
home that ridiculous box of feather 
and wax things ? Such atrocious flow- 
ers ! I sent them all up garret. Where 
did you get them, John ? " 

"Bought them from an old woman in 
a country town," he answered. "It 
was just a whim of mine. I knew you'd 
laugh at me. But, look here, I know 
you won't send this up garret," and he 
took a little blue velvet box from his 
pocket and held it out to her. 

Kitty opened it eagerly. "A dia- 
mond ring?" she cried. "I am so 
glad ! I really needed another diamond 
ring ! John, this is a whim I can under- 

Gems of Thought. 

Two Kinds of Boys. 

The true way of softening one's 
troubles is to solace those of others. — 
Mme. de Maintenon. 

Life is for action. We can not wait 
for proof, we shall never begin to 
obey. — James A. Froude. 

Never to tire, never to grow cold, to 
be patient, sympathetic, tender, to 
look for the budding flower and the 
opening heart, to hope always, to love 
always — this is duty. — Amiel. 

And thou wilt give thyself relief if 
thou doest every act of thy life as if it 
were the last, laying aside all careless- 
ness and passionate aversion from the 
commands of reason, and all hypocrisy, 
and self love, and discontent with the 
portion which has been given thee. — 
M. Aurelius. 

To recognize with delight all high 
and generous and beautiful actions, to 
find a joy even in seeing the good qual- 
ities of your bitterest opponents, and 
to admire those qualities even in those 
with whom you have the least sympa- 
thy — this is the only spirit that can 
heal the love of slander and calumny. — 
F. W. Robertson. 

The Love which created possesses 
and rules the world. It is not the 
devil's world, but God's world; and he 
is in it, bringing out the permanent 
good against the dark foil of the tran- 
sient evil, prompting every right en- 
deavor, conserving every righ achieve- 
ment and suffering no pure purpose 
and aspiration to fail of their final 
aim. — Philip Moxom. 

Yesterday's conscience will not do 
for to-day's' need, nor to-day's for to- 
morrow's. Conscience is a thing which 
must be growing all the time — must 
grow with our growth, strengthen 
with our strength. If it be station- 
ary it becomes stagnant, it deterio- 
rates, it may die. It must be kept up, 
its tone always equal to our best indi- 
vidual advances. — The Presbyterian. 

Little things are often the hardest 
things. It is comparatively easy to do 
a momentary deed of daring that will 
startle everybody; it is not so easy to 
do little deeds of quiet courage from 
day to day, unheeded by all and un- 
heeding all. Perhaps you are not 
called to do the great deed. But you 
are called every day to do the little 
deeds, which more surely wear out life 
and strength in the long run. Be glad 
that you are called to this, for this is 
the harder task, and he who is faithful 
here will not be unfaithful in the easier 
great things.— S. S. Times. 

The state of marriage fills up the 
numbers of the elect, and hath in it 
the labor of love, and the delicacies of 
friendship, the blessing of society, and 
the union of hands and hearts; it hath 
in it less of beauty, but more of safety, 
than the single life; it hath more care, 
but less danger; it is more merry, and 
more sad; it is fuller of sorrows, and 
fuller of joys; it lies under more bur- 
dens, but is supported by all the 
strength of love and charity, and those 
burdens are delightful. Marriage is 
the mother of the world, and preserves 
kingdoms, and fills cities, churches and 
heaven itself. — Jeremy Taylor. 

" My idea of the infernal regions," 
said the reporter, who was starting 
out on a late assignment, "is a place 
where everybody is perpetually hunt- 
ing for news and everlastingly getting 
scooped. "—Chicago Tribune 

Two little boys I have in mind — 
Equal talents in each you'll find ; 
Mischief loving, to sport inclined 

And full of noise. 
All these, and more, are here combined 

In my two boys. 

One of these boys your patience tries; 
The faults he has you must despise ; 
Be he handsome, well clothed or wise, 

Tall, fat or gaunt ; 
It is the one who always cries: 

"I can't ! I can't !" 

Instead of doing with his might 
All that he can before the night, 
He'll try to push it out of sight — 

To sulk and shirk; 
One-half the force expended right 

Would do his work. 

The other is a little man 

Who lays his work out by a plan, 

Thus getting done all that he can 

As moments fly ; 
He has no other motto than : 

"I'll try ! I'll try ! " 

In heat or cold in shade or sun. 
All that he does is promptly done ; 
But when it's o'er and leisure won 

He plays his best ; 
This is the boy that has more fun 

Than all the rest. 

Which will you be, my bonnie lad ? 
The friends of one are often sad, 
The other makes his always glad 

By loving work ; 
So choose the good and shun the bad 

And never shirk. 

Fashion Notes. 

The little sable animals are very pop- 
ular again. They keep the neck warm, 
encircle muffs, trim garments and do 
all manner of wonderful things. They 
are mounting these little animals very 
cleverly now, and devastating the for- 
ests of Russia to keep the supply equal 
to the demand. It is not difficult to 
distinguish the real animals from the 

The favorite fur garment to be worn 
over a street suit is a little "col" 
reaching to the tips of the shoulders, 
and made with a very high collar and 
long ends in front. The longer the ends 
are, the better, and the most fashion- 
able reach to the hem of the skirt. The 
princess form of street gown is much 
worn now, and is well suited to this 
style of fur "col." The skirt may 
be most elaborately trimmed along 
the seams (any other form of trim- 
ming would be out of place on this style 
of gown), but if the bodice is not se- 
verely plain, it generally has a jacket 

Whether or not one shall wear mourn- 
ing is a question that depends entirely 
upon personal ideas and prejudices. A 
great many families do not approve of 
it, and under no circumstances would 
they appear in sombre garments heav- 
ily trimmed with crape. It is said in 
defence of this custom that it saves 
comment and question, but this, as a 
rule, amounts to very little as a reason. 
One's friends are likely to know of 
illness and death, and it is thought 
somewhat ostentatious to advertise by 
deep mourning the fact that one has 
met with the loss of a near relative. 
In such occurrences strangers are not 
supposed to have any interest, there- 
fore the evident superfluity of mourn- 
ing so far as the public are concerned. 
It certainly can make very little differ- 
ence in one's grief what the attire may 
be, and it is an unquestioned fact that 
too much time and money are spent on 
the preparation of mourning dresses 
for such occasions. The only apology 
for this can be that it furnishes the be- 
reaved ones with a much-needed diver- 
sion. This, however, would be much 
better if taken in another way. But 
the fact remains that mourning dresses 
and crape are worn by many people, 
especially by the English, who, to an 
extent, seem to set the pace of the 

A stylish hat is low crowned, narrow 
brimmed and has a roll of velvet around 
the edge. The trimming is of pompous 
of curled ostrich tips, and a scarf of 
velvet laid loosely over the crown and 
fastened with gold pins. 

A very elegant cape of figured vel- 
vet has a collar of Alaska sable. This 
collar stands high around the throat, 
is curved around at the sides and back 
to the shoulder points, and has tabs in 

front falling two-thirds the length of 
the cape. 

A stylish cape is of rich silk in Per- 
sian colors. It is trimmed with ruch- 
ings made of two-inch wide double- 
faced satin ribbon. The edge of the 
ribbon is gathered on a draw string 
and pulled up tight. The fullness is 
then adjusted so as to form a ruche. 


Domestic Hints. 

Apple Butter. — Boil three gallons 
of cider down to one-fourth of the 
quantity. Pare and core as many ap- 
ples as the cider will cover, divide the 
cider and put equal parts in two ket- 
tles on the fire. Place the apples in 
one kettle, and as they boil down pour 
over them the cider from the other 
kettle. Boil twelve hours until smooth, 
add ground cloves, allspice, cinnamon, 
brown sugar. Then boil again, stir- 
ring constantly. When sufficiently 
done it will stick to the spoon when 
held up. 

Stuffed Tomatoes. — Take large to- 
matoes and scald and skin them care- 
fully. Remove the insides. Take the 
dust of three crackers, the white of one 
egg, two slices of onion minced very 
fine, a little parsley, salt to taste, add 
a little cayenne pepper, mix with the 
inside of the tomato and stuff the to- 
mato well up to the top with your mix- 
ture and bake in a quick oven. 

Pumpkin Pies. — Pare a small pump- 
kin, take out the seeds, steam until 
soft and press through a colander, 
beat in three eggs, three tablespoon- 
fuls of molasses, two tablespoonfuls of 
cinnamon, one of ginger, two teaspoon- 
fuls of salt and two quarts of hot milk. 
If more sweetening is needed add a 
little sugar. Bake with an under crust 

Poached Eogs. — Take as fresh eggs 
as you can get. Have your water 
boiling, and drop in your eggs gently. 
With watch in hand, boil just three 
and a half minutes, then have a tum- 
bler of ice-cold water into which you 
immerse the egg, allowing it to remain 
two minutes; then take out and gently 
pick the point, taking off small bits of 
the shell, being very careful not to 
break the white; when you have gotten 
half the shell off in this way, reverse 
the egg and remove the other half of 
shell; when finished, place on a slice of 
well-buttered toast and send to the 
table with a dash of salt and pepper. 
These eggs should be done one at a 
time to insure perfect success. The 
greatest care should be observed in re- 
moving the shells and time yourself to 
the second. It is a rather difficult 
thing to do, and experience is a great 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Use soapy water for making starch. 
The clothes will have a glossier appear- 
ance, and the irons will be less likely 
to stick. 

Chemists say it takes more than 
twice as much sugar to sweeten pre- 
serves, sauces and the like if put in 
when they begin to cook, as it does to 
add it after the process is accom- 

It is not always easy to start a fruit 
jar cover. Instead of wrenching the 
hand, bringing on blisters, simply in- 
vert the jar and place the top in hot 
water for a minute. Then try it and 
you will find it turns quite easily. 

A valuable assistant on silver-clean- 
ing day is a lemon. If silver, after it 
is cleaned, is rubbed with a piece of 
lemon and then washed and well dried, 
it gets a white brilliancy which it sel- 
dom has otherwise, and will keep clean 
longer than with the ordinary cleans- 

Silk must never be ironed, as the 
heat takes all the life out of it, and 
makes it seem stringy and flabby. If, 
however, you wish to press out bits of 
silk and ribbon for work, use an iron 
only moderately hot, and place two 
thicknesses of paper between that and 
the silk. 




Our friends in Philadelphia have sent 
us a big lot of Ladies' and Children's 
Fine Sunday Shoes 


Ladies' are square toe, tipped, latest style, 
cloth or kid top, sizes 4 to 8, all EE wide, with 
heels, all at 


Per pair. Now these are not five-dollar shoes, but 
such as sell at about $2 in other stores here. 
Children's are same style, only all spring heels 
and E wide. 

5 to 8 we offer at 85 cts. 

8(4 to 11V4 we offer at 95 cts. 

13 to 2. Misses', at SI lO 

KVt to .314, Ladies', plain toe 1 35 

2y t to 7, Ladies', opera tipped 1 50 

3V4 to 7, Ladies', square tipped 1 50 

In higher cost Sunday shoes, at $2.00, $2.50 and 
I3.0H, we have various styles and different widths. 
Shoes at $1.25 and $1.50 are mostly EE wide. 

Shoes advertised above are like this out. 


If a cheaper shoe Is wanted for the little tots, 
who are always born barefoot, we have decided to 


All sixes in our little shoes up to 50 cents at even 

25 Cents 

A pair— 1, IK, 2, 2H, 3. 3'/ 2 . 4, 4V4, 5, W4i 6. Now we 
can only say they are all right and all cheap— but 
the trouble is they will not go around, especially 
the large sizes; only about 

700 PAIR, 

All counted. A few small ones, 1 to 2i4, have been 
75 cents but are to too heavy for little folks. None 
o< these shoes have heels or wedge heels. They 
are for infants— not narrow, not extra wide — 
standard or common width. 

Infants' high cost shoes, 1 to 5 50c to 75c 

Infants', double sole, 5 to 7Vs **5c to SI 35 

Child's Sunday styles. 8 to 11 95c to SI 35 

Child's strong shoes. 8 to IOK. SI 00 to SI 15 
Girls' Sunday shoes, 1 1 to 3 .... SI 15 to St 50 

Girl's strong shoes, 11 to 2 St 35 

Heavy, every day, lace, 11 to 3, SI 25 to SI 50 
Heavy, every day, lace, 3 54 to U, S 1 50 to 81 75 


Overshies for children, 11 to 2, with heels— closing 
about 100 pairs at 15 cents, regular price is 35c. 

Ladies' cloth top line Rubbers or Overshoes, 2V4 
to 4— closing these r'-"-s at 50 cents, regular 
price 75c to $1.10. . 

Girls' footholds, 11 to 1)4, free with every pair of 
shoes above 50 cents, if asked for; regular price, 
35 cents. 

These shoes will not be sent by mail unless you 
add for postage. 
Do you get our complete list ? 


414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., CaL 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 

What Edison Thinks. 

Talking of horseless carriages, T. 
A. Edison thinks that the horse is 
doomed, yet this animal shows 
greater economy of force than man, 70 
per cent of the energy of the horse be- 
ing available for work. "But the 
horseless vehicle is the coming won- 
der. The bicycle, which ten years ago 
was a curiosity, is now a necessity. It 
is found everywhere. Ten years from 
now you will be able to buy a horseless 
vehicle for what you would have to pay 
to-day for a wagon and a pair of 
horses. The money spent for the 
keeping of the horses will be saved, 
and the danger to life will be much re- 

"Will these vehicles be run by elec- 
tricity ?" 

" I don't think so," said Mr. Edison. 
" As it looks at present, it would seem 
more likely that they will be run by a 
gasoline or naphtha motor of some 
kind. It is quite possible, however, 
that an electrical storage battery will 
be discovered which will prove more 
economical, but at present the gaso- 
line or naphtha motor looks more 
promising. It is only a question of a 
short time when the carriages and 
trucks of every large city will be run 
with motors. The expense of keeping 
and feeding horses in a city is very 
great, and all this will be done away 
with, just as the cable and trolley cars 
have dispensed with horses. Every in- 
vention of this kind which is made 
adds to the general wealth by intro- 
ducing a system of greater economy of 
force. A great invention which facili- 
tates commerce enriches a country 
just as much as the discovery of vast 
hoards of gold." 

Power of the Brain. 


The brain of mankind has been de- 
fined as a kind of phonographic cylin- 
der, which retains impressions made 
upon it through the medium of the 
senses, particularly through the eyes 
and ears, says the Family Doctor. If 
this be true, memory must depend for 
its intensity and retentive qualities 
upon the degree of observation with 
which the record is made. 

Nor is this all. If memory's record 
is kept in the shape of indentations 
upon the folds of brain matter, are 
they ever entirely effaced? In other 
words, do we ever really forget any- 
thing? May it not be that in the depths 
of the brain, memory has stored up a 
collection of things which are never 
again purposely turned to perhaps, 
but which instantly springs into being 
and flash through the mind whenever 
we hear or see something which recalls 

There are several well-known mental 
phenomena which strengthen this the- 
ory. We know that memory often 
brightens during the last moments of 
life, and there are cases on record 
where Germans, French, Spaniards 
and others who, falling ill in this coun- 
try years after having entirely forgot- 
ten their native languages, recovered 
and used them upon their deathbeds. 

There is a theory that in all such 
cases the brain folds have relaxed, just 
as do the muscles and cords of the 
limbs and body, and that by so doing 
they expose to the mind's monitor in- 
dentations (recollections) which were 
long since folded up and put away as 
material that could not be of any par- 
ticular use. 

The share of land falling to each in- 
habitant of the globe, in the event of 
partition, might be set down at twenty- 
three and a half acres. 

#100 Reward #100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure In all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure known to the medical fraternity 
Catarrh being a constitutional disease, requires 
constitutional treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure is 
taken internally, acting directly upon the blood 
and mucous surfaces of the system, thereby de- 
stroying the foundation of the disease, and giving 
the patient strength by building up the constitu- 
tion and assisting nature in doing its work. The 
proprietors have so much faith in its curative 
powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars for 
any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 

Address, F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo, O. 

Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Hall's Family Fills are the best, 

Chemically pure iron is of no value to 
the manufacturer, for, strange as it 
may seem, it is the impurities in iron 
which make it the most valuable and 
important of metals. These impuri- 
ties are metalloids. The metalloids 
which are particularly interesting to 
the foundryman are carbon, silicon, 
manganese, sulphur and phosphorus. 
A good foundry pig iron for general 
purposes should contain from 3.25 to 
.3.5 per cent of carbon, from 3 to 3.25 
per cent of silicon, from 5 to 75 per 
cent of manganese: the phosphorus 
may run as high as one per cent, but 
sulphur should never exceed .05 per 
cent. The blast furnace that supplies 
the pig iron to the foundryman is 
supposed to analvize its iron, and the 
foundryman, if he is conducting his 
business according to modern practices, 
orders iron with reference to carbon, 
silicon and manganese, according to 
the nature of the metal he desires to 
put into his casting. The market 
price of pig iron generally depends on 
the percentage of silicon it contains. 

A Builder Talks. 


A. N. Tompkins of Oregon C ity Relates a 
Wonderful Story. 

From the Enterprise, Oregon City, Oregon. 

A representative of the Oregon Uity Enter- 
prise visited Mr. A. N. Tompkins, the well- 
known carpenter and builder of Oregon City, 
and finding him hard at work, asked if he was 
the man who had been ill of rheumatism. Re- 
ceiving an affirmative answer, the reporter 
asked if he would have any objections to mak- 
ing a statement of his case, how he was 
cured, etc., for the benefit of the public. 

" No objections at all," said Mr. Tompkins. 
" I have suffered with lumbago for years, 
having bad spells off and on. Sometimes it 
would lay me up entirely. Whenever I did 
any heavy lifting, or got wet or caught cold, I 
would have a bad spell. Sometimes I would 
be so bad that I could not straighten up. I 
was always looking for something on which I 
could count for certain relief, if not absolute 
cure. I tried many physicians; one nearly 
succeeded in making a morphine fiend of me 
by injecting morphine into my body to relieve 
the pain he could not cure and was not honest 
enough to admit. All these medicines and 
doctors did me no good, some even, as in this 
case, doing me harm. 

" While working on the Barclay building, 
some months ago, I had an attack. I immedi- 
ately went to Charman & Co.'s drug store 
and told Mr. Charman to give me a box of the 
Pink Pills. Having bought them I com- 
menced taking them at once, and after the 
first day I experienced relief and in two 
weeks I was entirely well. I had in that time 
used part of the second box. Being at the 
home of my daughter-in-law, Mrs. Lena 
Tompkins, and hearing her complain of rheu- 
matism, I gave her the balance. 

"Now, I have worked right along and, in 
spite of the present wet weather and the fact 
that I have a heavy cold just now, I have no 
indication of the presence of my old disease, 
and any one of the three things (heavy work, 
wet weather and a cold) which I now have 
combined would have given me a bad spell 
heretofore. I consider Dr. Williams' Pink 
Pills a great remedy and I believe they have 
absolutely cured me. At least, if they have 
not, it is only a question of continuing the 
remedy long enough, and if I ever have a re- 
turn of the pain I shall fly to Pink Pills." 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills contain, in a con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
give new life and richness to the blood and 
restore shattered nerves. They are an un- 
failing specific for such diseases' as locomotor 
ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, nervous 
headache, the after effects of la grippe, palpi- 
tation of the heart, pale and sallow complex- 
ions, all forms of weakness either in male or 
female, and all diseases resulting from viti- 
ated humors in the blood. Pink Pills are sold 
by all dealers, or will be sent postpaid on re- 
ceipt of price (50 cents a box or six boxes for 
*2.50), by addressing Dr. Williams' Medicine 
Co., Schenectady, N. V. 


— Unequalled in 


TONE a n d IF I IN ISM. 

♦ ♦ Fully Guaranteed. + > 

Will be sent on trial to responsible people wishing 
to purchase. 

Catalogue* free on application. 


838 Post Ntreet gun Francisco, Cal. 

The most voluminous patent ever 
awarded was sent out from the patent 
office in October, '95. This patent was 
granted to James W. Paige, of Hart- 
ford, Conn., for a machine for distribu- 
ting, setting and justifying type. It 
took 1(53 steets, containing 41)1 draw- 
ings, and 55 sheets of long primer to 
describe this patent. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less la this directory at 60c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 


J. W. FOROEUN. Santa Cruz. Cal. Ii. P. Rocks. 
Bro. Leghorns. B. Mlnorcas. Pekln Ducks. The 
largest establishment on the coast. Lot of cocker- 
els cheap for farmers' flocks. Satisfactory hatches 
guaranteed in every sitting. Try good stock. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps It. 

MRS. .!.«;. FREDERICKS, Madison. Cal. HI. Mln- 
orcas and Br. Leghorn Eggs for sale at 50c per doz. 

WILLIAM NII.ES & CO. .Los Angeles. Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry. Dairy Cattle aud Hobs. 

Send for Illustrated and desert pti ve catalogue, free. 

MANHATTAN LOG FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale. Tillman k Bendel, S. F. 


F. H. BURKE, B2B Market St., S. P.— BERKSHIRES. 

Best Stock; Thoroughbreds. Win. Nlles He Co., 

Los Angeles. Cal. Established in 1R7S. 

A. P. HOTALINti — Berkshire's from Imported 

stock— Mayfleld. Santa Clara Co.. Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, PerklnB, Sac. Co.. Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden. San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWK, Stockton. Regist d Berkshires. 

TYLER HEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. H. GLIDE, Sacramento. Very largecholceSpan- 
ish. French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 


You Can Largely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging In the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting. Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the But it the Itteaput. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland. Cal. 


Eggs, Poultry, Butter, Cheese, Honey, Etc. 


207 Front Street San Francisco. 




and Head Noise* relieved by using 
Wilson's Common Sense Ear Drums. 

New scientific Invention ; different 
from all other devices. The only safe, 
simple, comfortable and Invisible 
Kai Drum in the world Helps where 
medical skill falls. No wire or string 
atta< liment. Write for pamphlet 


Offlcc: I SUSS !"' ,c " >>x- 
( Rnatwaj , .\e>r York. 

Short-Horn BULLS 


F. H. ISURKE, tD6 Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
stetus; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce. S. F. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Flue individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or In carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville. Cal. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

Butter and Milk Stock : also Thoroughbred Hogs 
and Poultry. William Nllcs & Co., Los Angeles. 
Cal.. Breeders and Exporters. Established in 18TB. 


Haileo Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The Baden Farm Herd was established in 18OT, 
with cows from then recent importations of the 
best English Milking Shorthorns, since which 
time improvement in dairy qualities has been 
steadily kept in view. 

■ Write now. I 
Dps Moines 
Incubator Co. j 
Box ?g DcsMoinee,Iu ' 



Oar magnificent 
ew cutulogue 
living fall in* 
formation re- 
arding artificial 
latching & Broodina 
and treatise on poul- 
try rniblnu sent for 4c 
stamt»4. Circular fren. 


Our 160 page, finely illustrated I 
Comhinea Poultry Guide and ( 
Catalogue will tell you what you C 
wish to know about c 


We manufacture a complete line of Incubators, r 
Rrooders and Poultry Appliances, (inide and Cata- I 
logue 10c. utanirw or silveri Worth one Dollar. { 
Kchahle Inruhal or A lirooiler Co., Q»I»>T. Ills. 1 


and Book uf Valuable Recipes, 64 large 

paces, contains 8 beautiful colored platen 
of fowls, gives description and prices of 
45 varieties, with imi>ortant hints on care 
of poultry, and pages of recipes of great 
value to even onc. Finest Poultry Book 
published fnrlwflfi Postpaid only lOctfl, 
C. N. Bowers* Box -1. Dakota, III 


Poultry Guide for I 890 Finest 
book ever published, contains nearly 100 
pages, all printed In colors, plans for best 
poultry houses, sure remedies and recipes 
for all diseases, and howto make poultry 
«*k » nd gardening pn v . Bent post paid for 18c. 
■prj ohn Banscher , Jr., box SOFreeport, 111. 

What is "INDURINE?" 


It is the CHEAPEST TAINT ever made. 


Why. for whitening, disinfect ini; and a tire- 
rctardaiit in factories, public buildings, etc. 

For painting wood. Iirlck Bod cemented buildings, 
electric light poles, fences, etc.. and for protecting 
shingle roofs from fire. 

It 1b a dry powder combined with a chemical 
binder, to be mixed only with cold water. 

It is the only satisfactory paint Tor cement 
work, »s It is not affected hy alkali. 

The kind sold for Inside use workB well over old 
whitewash and can In- applied with brush or spray 
pump. The "Outside " Is made in white and sev- 
eral colors. 


By using " lil'ARAXTEE " COI.U WATKK 
KALSOMINE- No suction, brush marks or laps, 
does not rub. scale or soften with age. Send for cir- 
culars, testimonials and prices to 

Mills Building, - - San Francisco, Cal. 




•ft General Commission Merchants, + 

310 CALIFORNIA 8T., 8. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

•8* Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 


World's Washer 

In its washing prin- 
ciple is like the 
Humboldt, but it is 
"chock full" of improvements. 
Chi id can use It. Clothes clean, 
sweet and white as snow. Lasts 
a lifetime. Sent freight paid. Circulars free. 
C. E. ROSS, 10 McLean St., Lincoln, 111. 


Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 688, Log Angeles, Cal. 


At the STATE FAIR our BERKSHIRES won Five 
Firsts and Three Sweepstakes Premiums. We have 
a few choice pigs on hand, also a few Jau'y aDd Fcb'y 
sows— just the age to breed. Correspondence solic'td. 


Use It once and you will USE IT ALWAYS. 
A Sure Preventive and Positive Cure for all Diseases of Poultry. Will make 
hens lay when eggs are high. 
1 lb., MM 3tt lbs., 75c; 10 lbs,, *2.00; SB lbs,, S4.0O. 

WILKINSON, Bay and Webster Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 


January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

Seeds, Pla nts, Etc. 

New Varieties of 

" Clairac 



Average size (cured). 

The FINEST and LARGEST prune ever intro- 
duced into this State, grading (cured) from 20 to 35 
per pound; splendid to ship East as a plum. 

The CLAIRAC MAMMOTH was originated 
from the seed; nothing "hybridized" about it. 
We can, therefore, guarantee the character of this 
remarkable prune to be " constant." All our trees 
of that prune are on Myrobolan root; on peach it 
is too liable to sever from the stock. Prices, $3, $4 
and $5 per dozen, according to sizes; $24, $30 and 
$35 per hundred. 


We would caution the public against buying 
trees purporting to be that New Prune of ours, 
under any name whatever, as we know of some 
unscrupulous nurserymen in the State trying to 
pass the " Robe Imperial " a large and juicy plum, 
under the name of "Imperial" short, for the 
Clairac Mammoth. We assure the public that 
those nurserymen are frauds, and contemptible 
frauds, they claiming to have bribed an employe 
of ours to obtain scions of that prune ! 

(Menay D'Ente Prune. 

This is another new variety of French Prune, 
earlier than the earliest. We particularly recom- 
mend this valuable variety to Oregon prune grow- 
ers, as it would permit them to dry their prunes to 
the sun. 

Two more new varieties of prunes uuder "ex- 
perimental test " test in our grounds. 

Nut Trees of All Kinds. 

23 Varieties of English Walnut (GRAFTED 

9 Varieties of French Chestnuts. 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 

8 Varieties of Filberts. 

241 Varieties of Grapes. 

62 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 

New Pears, New Cherries, New Apples, New 
Fruit in general, etc. 

Send for General Descriptive Catalogue and 
Price List. 

Felix Gillet, 

Barren Hill Nursery, Nevada City, Cal. 


Perfect seeds grow 
r paying crops. Perfect seed's ^ 
Tare not grown by chance. Noth-^ 
Ting is ever left to chance in grow- 1 
' tag Ferry's Seeds. Dealerssell 
them everywhere. Write fur 


for 1S96. Brimful of valuable t 
L information about best and new* 
, est seeds. Free by mail. 
D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Santa Rosa Nurseries. 

A Fine Stock of Clean, Unirrigated Trees. 

All the Standard Varieties. 

Also California Red (best, most prolific and 
largest early Plum), Wonderful Tennant 
Prune, Best New Japan Plums and 
Young-Bearing Apples. 

A?.?,« E i! R. W. BELL, 


Established 18/6. 

flyrobolan Nursery 


Offers for the season of 1895-6 a complete 
assortment of 

Fruit Trees. 

Plums, Prunes and Apricots on the true Myrobolan 
Root my specialty. No cut-backs or held over 
tree, dug-stock. No insect pests. 
JAS. O'NEILI,, Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Has on hand of his own growing a choice stock of 
yearling and two-year-old nursery trees, 
consisting of 

French Prunes, Tragedy Prunes. 

Royal, Blenheim, Moorpark, French and 
Newcastle Apricots. 

I. X. I... Nonpariel, Texas Prolific, Lanque- 
doc, La Prima and Ne Plus Ultra Almonds. 

Crawford, Salway, Susquehanna, Muir, Fos- 
ter and other Peaches in variety. 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Nectarines, 
etc., etc. 

Also Orange and Lemon Trees, Acacias, 
Texas Umbrella Trees, Grape Vines and Small 
Fruits in endless variety. 

Guaranteed true to label and free from insect 
pests. For particulars, prices, etc., address 

J. A. ANDERSON, Lodi, Cal. 

For Planting Season of 1896 

We offer for sale a choice lot of 

Budded Orange and 
Lemon Trees, 

One and two-year buds of the leading varieties, on 
sour or sweet stock. 

Prices to Suit the Times. 

SEEDLING ORANGE TREES at your own price. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 

Orovllle, Butte Co., Cal. 

Olive Growers Handbook 

and Price List Free 


Olive Trees. 

All Sizes. 


John E. Packard, 

Pomona, California. 




Union Nursery Sacramento, Cal. 

Frank Kunz, Proprietor. 


C. F. LOOP & SON. 
Send for Price List. Pomona. California. 


Sent Free on Application to 
F. M. HUNT Redlands, Cal. 


We have a very large stock of these of 2nd and 3rd grades of our own growing. Send 25c for a sample 
of 50 stoekB— postpaid. Can be shipped at once. 


Send for a complete price list to 

THOMAS MEEHAN & SONS, Germantown, Pennsylvania. 




Fruit Trees, Olive Trees, Grape Vines, 
Ornamental Trees and Roses, 





(Atrlplex semibaccatum) 

— S E E D.- 


Descriptive Circular sent on application. Correspondence invited. 


SEEDSMEN & NURSERYMEN. 419-431 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Largest and Most Complete Stock 

On the Pacific Coast. 



California Nursery Co., 

JOHN ROCK, Manager. 



RIO BONIT0 NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

<S~ Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and tree from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Biggs, Butte County, Cal. 

Special and Important to All Fruit Growers. 


We have been 
appointed by 
^t-fiTt. Stark Bros.. 
CAGEN, Louisiana, Mo.. 
£k or sole agents for 
the Splendor 
II. Prune on the 
kVH Pacific coast, 
^ ' Trees l'm <v. 1 1 
by us at our 
nurseries here. 
Every tree to 
I be sold under 
' their register- 
ed trade mark. 

The Splendor 
has the sweet- 
ness of the 
D'Agen. but Is 
several times 

Send for description and special order blank at once. Only a limited number left. larger. 

We have a large list of new varieties of Peaches. Plums and Prunes. Also a large list of Roses. 
Greenhouse Plants, etc. Catalogue and Price List sent upon application. 


Successors to Leonard Coates. N APA, CALIFORNIA. 


The Pacific 

Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 

Railroad Statistics. 

An epitome of the seventh annual re- 
port on the statistics of railroads in 
the United States for the year ending 
June 30, 1894, is furnished. The re- 
port, which is the work of Henry C. 
Adams, statistician of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, is of unusual in- 
terest. It shows that on June 30, 1894, 
there were 178,708.55 miles of road in 
the United States— an increase over 
the previous year of 2147.48 miles — 
the per cent of increase being smaller 
than during any year covered by the 
existence of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. There is little to war- 
rant the hope that the increase in mile- 
age for the year ending June 30, 1895, 
will exceed the figures of the previous 
year. Of the entire mileage, 40,818 
were in the hands of receivers. 

Illinois leads the country in the 
length of its lines. In that State the 
total mileage is 10,460.58. Pennsyl- 
vania follows with 9594.39 miles and 
Texas is a close third, having 9204.34 
miles of tracks. Tennessee has 3064.59; 
Mississippi, 2478.16. Louisiana's mile- 
age is the shortest of any Southern 
State, being 2050.51. Rhode Island, 
being the smallest State, has also the 
smallest trackage— 226.06 miles. 

The column showing the number of 
miles of tracks to 100 square miles of 
territory gives some peculiar results. 
New Jersey has 28.91 miles to every 
100 square miles. New York has 16.95, 
Illinois 18.68 and Texas only 3.53. Ne- 
vada has only 0.84 miles to the 100; 
Tennessee has 7.34, Mississippi 5.35 
and Arkansas 4.65. 

The number of miles to 10,000 in- 
habitants is calculated, and the results 
are equally as interesting. Montana 
has 191.73 to this number, Massachu- 
setts has 8.77, Illinois 25.32, Texas 
38.38, Tennessee 10.06, Arkansas 20.25, 
Mississippi 17.80. Rhode Island has 
only 6.06 miles for every 10,000 people 
in the State. 

The number of locomotives on June 
30, 1894, was 35,492, being an increase 
of 704 over the previous year. The 
total number of cars in use on June 30, 
same year, was 1,278,078. This does 
not include cars of companies or private 
individuals furnishing railways with 
equipment. The increase over 1893 
was 4132. This is a falling off in the 
ratio of previous years, but it is to be 
remembered that larger cars are being 
made and therefore capable of greater 

The section devoted to the employes 
of railroads shows that the number of 
men in the service for the year ending 
June 30, 1894, is less than for any other 
year as far back and including 1891. 
On June 30, 1894, 779,608 persons were 
in the service of railroads; in 1893 
there were 873,602; the previous year, 
821,415, and in 1891 there were 784,285 
persons in railroad service. In 1894 
there were 5257 general officers — a re- 
duction of 1400 from the previous year. 

Thus it will be seen that hard times, 
like death, slighted no class. The big- 
gest proportionate reduction was in 
this class. In 1893 there were four 
general officers to the 100 miles, while 
last year there were only three. Office 
clerks were reduced from 27,584 in 1893 
to 24,779 in 1894. Station agents in 
1894 numbered 28,199, but this class 
was increased 180 over the previous 
year. Other station men in 1894 were 
<1,1 50 — a reduction of 4000. Engineers 
in 1894 were 35,466; in 1893 they were 
38,781. Firemen were reduced from 
43,590 to 36,327 in 1894. In 1894 there 
were 24,823 conductors — a reduction of 
3000 in round numbers; other train- 
men, 63,417 — a reduction of about 
10,000. The following shows the num- 
ber of men in various other depart- 
ments, the first figures being for 1894, 
the second for 1893: Machinists, 29,245- 
30,869; carpenters, 36,328-41.878; 
other shopmen, 84,359-93,709; section 
foremen, 29,660-29,699; other track- 
men, 150,711-180,154; switchmen, flag- 
men and watchmen, 43,219-46,048; 
operators and dispatchers, 22,145- 
22,619; employes floating equipment, 
7469-6146; alf other employes, 85,276- 
105,166; unclassified, 284 for 1894. The 
total for 1894 is 779,608; for 1893 it 
was 873,602; total reduction, 93,994. 

What became of this number of persons 
thrown out of work by the hard times ? 
The greatest aggregate decrease was 
in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Michi- 
gan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and 

There was in most cases a reduction 
of salaries in 1894. 

Referring to the averages for the en- 
tire year, it appears that the only class 
of employees which received compensa- 
tions in excess of $3 per day are en- 
ginemen and conductors. General 
office clerks, firemen, machinists and 
carpenters received between $2 and $3 
per day; all other employees were in 
receipt of a compensation less than $2 
per day. In the case of employees as- 
signed to the operation of floating 
equipment the averages presented in 
the above table are somewhat mislead- 
ing, inasmuch as there is no attempt at 
classification between skilled and un- 
skilled labor. 

It may be an occasion of surprise that 
the commercial depression of the year 
1894 did not cause a more marked de- 
crease in the average compensation of 
employees. This is doubtless explained 
by the decrease in the number of men 
employed. The saving in the pay- 
roll was achieved by the reduction 
in wages. So far as the movement for 
the three years covered by the compi- 
lation is concerned, it appears that in 
most cases the average rate of com- 
pensation was higher in 1893 than in 
1892, and, although the year 1894 shows 
a decrease, it still remains higher in 
some groups, for quite a number of 
classes, than in 1892. 

The total railway capital on June 30. 
1894, was $10,796,813,000. The amount 
of capital to each mile of line was $62,- 
951. In 1893 it was $63,421. The 
funded debt per mile was $31,233. The 
aggregate of stock was $4,834,075,659. 
The amount of stock per mile is $28,186. 

For 1894 there were 540,688,199 pas- 
sengers carried, and 638,186,553 tons 
of freight hauled. The total earnings 
for 1894 were $1,216,178,602. This is a 
decrease of $154,222,887 from the pre- 
vious year, or 11.25 per cent. 

The chapter on the number of per- 
sons killed conveys some peculiar in- 
formation. The total of passengers, 
employees and others killed in 1894 was 
6447; injured, 31,889. These figures 
are lower than for three previous years. 
There was one trainman killed to every 
156 in the service, and one out of twelve 
was injured. The number of passen- 
gers carried for one killed last year was 
1,668,781. Last year 251 persons were 
killed in coupling and 7240 were in- 

Beecham's pills are for bilious- 
ness, bilious headache, dyspep- 
sia, heartburn, torpid liver, diz- 
ziness, sick headache, bad taste 
in the mouth, coated tongue, 
loss of appetite, sallow skin,etc, 
when caused by constipation; 
and constipation is the most 
frequent cause of all of them. 

Go by the book. Pilis toi and 
25$ a box. Book free at your 
druggist's or write B. F. Allen Co., 
365 Canal Street, New York. 

Annual sales more than 6,000,000 boxes. 

"Just as Good as Page" Won't Go! 

'Sell you a ticket over the J. A. G. A. P. for 
less money" said the Scalper. "Not If I 
know myself," said the traveller. "The Road 
that uses Page Fence will also use best rails 
and best equipment. Can't put me on the 
bargain counter yet." 



Those who desire to read law at home can ob- 
tain information as to what books to purchase at 
the least possible cost to complete the course, by. 
addressing CHAS. A. H. SMITH, 261 Second St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



Certain In Its effects and never blisters. 
Read proofs below : 


Shelby, Mich., Dec. 16, '93. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co. 

Sirs : — I have used your Kendall's 
Spavin Cure with good success for 
curbs on two horses and it is the best 
Liniment I have ever used. 

Yours truly, August Fredrick. 

For Sale by all Druggists, or address 



Tomatoes, Melons, Cabbage, 
Turnips, Lettuce, Peas, Beets, 
Onions, and all Vegetables, re- 
move large quantities of Potash 
from the soil. Supply 


in liberal quantities by the use 
of fertilizers containing not 
less than 10% actual Pot- 
ash. Better and more profit- 
able yields are sure to follow. 

Our pamphlets are not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain- 
ing latest researches on the subject of fertilization, and 




Famous Feather River Bottom Lands. 

Mainly In Peaches, with some Prunes and Al- 
monds. Trees in their sixth year, in fine condi- 

There is one large cannery at Gridley, three 
miles distant; another at Biggs, seven miles, who 
will use all the fruit raised in the adjoining or- 

Will lease for one or more years, as desired. 
Reason for renting— an estate with several minor 
heirs. For further information, address: 

ul.okMil THRESHER, 
GrWlley Batte Co., Cal. 


The regular annual meeting of the Stockholders 
of the "Grangers' Bank of California," will be 
held at the office of the Bank, in the City of San 
Francisco, State of California, on TUESDAY, the 
14th day of January, 1896, at one o'clock p. m., for 
the purpose of electing a Board of Directors to 
serve for the ensuing year, and the transaction of 
such other business as may come before the meet- 


Cashier and Manager. 
San Francisco, December 5th, 1895. 



586 California Street. 
For the half year ending December 31. 1895, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and 
twenty-six hundredths (4 26-100) per cent per an- 
num on Term deposits, and three and fifty-five 
hundredths (3 55-100) percent per annum on Ordi- 
nary deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
THURSDAY, January 2, 1896. 

GEO. TOURNY. Secretary. 


Business Colleges 

24 Post Street San Franrlaco. 


This College Instructs In Shorthand. Type-Writing, 
Bookkeeping. Telegraphy. Penmanship. Drawing, all 
the English branches, and everything pertaining to 
business, for full six months. We have 16 teachers 
and give Individual instruction to all our pupils 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY, Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER HAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, J25: Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
assaying, $50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 


suwa dowi 

BY ONE MAN. Send for free illustrated catalogue, 
Knowing testimonials from thousands who have sawed 
frou 6 to 9 cords dally. It «»■: down trees, folds like 
a pocket knife, easily carried on shoulder. One man can 
saw more timber with It than twu men with a cross cut 
saw. 84.0OOlnuse. We also 'nak.) larger slit I machine 
to carry 7 foot saw. 

37 Market Street San Francisco. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

Sole Agents. - • No. »86 Market Street, 

are really helpful to farmers. They are sent free for 
the asking. 


93 Nassau St., New York. 

flEYER. WILSON & CO., San Francisco., Cal. 
are our Agents for the Pacific Coast. 


Watsonvllle, Cal Manufacturers of the 

McLean and Dorsey Orchard 
and Field Cultivators. 

Both similar In construction of frame and teeth, 
but different lift for raising and lowering cultiva- 
tor, the Dorsey being the latest improved and lifts 
very easy. Both Cultivators are highly recom- 
mended by all who use them, either for field or 
orchard use. 

-T ME- 

Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented April 3. 1S83. Patented April 17, 1883 

Manufactured by G. LISSENDKN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this 
Scraper and the many varieties of work of which It 
is capable, such as Railroad Work. Irrigation 
Ditches. Levee Building-. Leveling- Land. Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This Implement will take up and carry Its load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deposit Its load In bulk as desired. It 
will do the work of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are In use In all parts 
of the country. 

BfThls Scraper Is all Steel— the only one manu- 
factured In the State. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, S40; Steel, two-horse, 
•31. Address all orders to 


r — r 


Gabled Field and Hog 


24toSR Inches blub; 8tee1 Web Picket Lawo Fence; 
Poultry. Garden and Rabbit Fence: Steel Gates, 
Steel Posts and Steel UailsiTree. Flower and Tomato 
Guards; Steel Wire Fence Board, etc. Catalogue f ree. 

DeKALB FENCE CO., 83 High St., DeKalb. III. 

JOHN W00DL0CK, General Agent, 

26 Beale Street San Francisco, Cat 


' No Castings to Break, NoWearOutto It. j 

• Adjnstment oneiest operated. Sare lt« cos' flr«t ■}> 
son. Adapted to general farm purposes. HAS Nu ' 
EQUAL. Write for proof. 

51 Park 8t., Mansfield, Ohio. > 
■»-»- « -»■ »-«-.-»• « »>^ - TV-rrrvrrrinrinr 

January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Dec. 31, 1895. 

FLOUR— We quote : Net cash prices for Family 
Extras, J3 50@3 60 ¥ bbl; Bakers' Extras, $3 30@ 
t3 40; Superfine, $2 50(3)2 75 ¥ bbl. 

WHEAT— Shipping Wheat is quotable at$1.01'4 
&l.02% per ctl for No. 1 and $1 («?■£ for choice. 
Milling Wheat, $1 07H@1 per ctl. 

BARLEY— Feed, fair to good, 67!4@68J£c; choice, 
70c; Brewing, 75@80c. 

OATS— We quote: Milling, 70(eil75c Hctl; Sur- 
prise, 90@97y,c; fancy feed, 80iSg5c: good to 
choice. fi7 1 4(ff80c; poor to fair. 57'^w65c; Black, 
for seed, $1 10tfn$l 30; Gray, 65@75c * ctl. 

CORN— We quote: Large Yellow, 82'/ 2 @85c; 
Small Yellow, 85@87(/,c f> ctl; White, 80(3 85c. 

RYE— Quotable at 77'/s@80c 1» ctl. 

BUCKWHEAT — Quotable at 75@85c $ ctl. 

CRACKED CORN— Quotable at $19@20 per ton. 

CORNMEAL— Millers quote feed at $18 50@19 50 
per ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— Quotable at $21 per ton from 
the mill. 

COTTONSEED OILCAKE— Quotable at $21 f> 

RICEMEAL— Quotable at $13(»15 per ton, ex 

MIDDLINGS— Quotable at $18@21 ¥ ton. 

BEANS— We quote: H'ivos, $1 10@1 15; Butter, 
$1 50M-1 80; I'ink, th/M 15: Red, $1 20B)1 60; Lima, 
$2 50fa'2 55; Pea, $1 50<a 1 75; Small White, $1 M)(n 
1 50; Large White, *1 10<ai 30: Blackeye. $1 75(ff 

I 90; Red Kidney, $1 75@1 95; Horse, $1 30(S1 75 

DRIED PEAS— We quote: Green, $1 25® 1 50; 
Niles. $1 90@1 40 $ ctl. 

SEEDS— We quote: Mustard, yellow. $1 25(6 1 60; 
Brown. $1 75(3-2; Trieste. *190(u2 20: Canary. 3(n 
3>4c; Hemp, 4c: Rape, IX@8c; Timothy, 6@6'/ 2 c; 
Alfalfa, 6(n 7c ; Flax, $1 75 1? ctl. 

POTATOES — Salinas Burbanks, 60ffl80c $ ctl; 
River Burbanks, 25(<f 35 H sack; Oregon Burbanks, 
45@60o f> ctl; River Reds, 35(»40c f> ctl: Earls 
Rose, 50@60c t> ctl; Sweet Potatoes,$2(« 225 ctl. 

ONIONS— Quotable at 60@80c f, ctl for Califor- 
nia; Oregon, 75(ff85 * ctl. 

VARIOUS— We quote : Cream Squash, 20@25c f 

box; Tomatoes, 25@50c; String Beans, c fb: 

Green Peas, fi(&8c ^ tb; Green Peppers, 25050c ~t 
box; Carrots. 30(ff40c; Cabbage, 50c Tft ctl; Garlic, 
4H@5VsC V lb; Dried Peppers, TffllOc * fb; Mush- 
rooms, c <P lb; Marrowfat Squash. $7@8 $ ton; 

Hubbard Squash. J6@7 f, ton; Asparagus, K%@90c 
* lb. 

BRAN— Quotable at *12@13 50 # ton. 

GROUND BARLEY — Quotable at $15(3)16 V ton. 

VARIOUS— Prices per lb in in 10-fb sacks are as 
follows: Buckwheat Flour, 4c; Cornmeal, 2 3 .;<3' 
3'/,c; Cracked Wheat 3'/jc; Farina Flour, 4V,c; 
Graham Flour. 2?.{c; Hominy, 4(3)4Hc; Oatmeal, 
83i®4V4c; Oat ()roats,4'/ 2 c; Pearl Barley, M@ 4^c; 
Rice Flour, ~y t c; Rye Meal, 23£c; Rye Flour, 

HAY — Wheat, $8(3)12 50; Wheat and Oat, $7 50® 

II 50; Oat, $6 50<5)IO; Alfalfa, $6@8 50; Barley, $7(3) 
9 50; Clover. $6(3)7 50; Compressed, $6 50@11 ; Stock, 
$5@6 50 # too. 

STRAW— Quotable at 35®60c $ bale. 

HONEY— We quote: Comb. 10@12c; water white 
extracted, SiffS'/jc; dark amber, 4@4V4c per lb. 

BEESWAX— Quotable at 24@26c per lb. 

BUTTER— Creamery— Fancy, 23@24c; special 
brands, higher;second's,21(S , 22c|* fb. Dairy— Fancy, 
21@22c; good to choice, 18(S>20c ; lower grades, 16® 
17c; pickled, nominal; firkin, nominal. 

CHEESE— We quote: Fancy mild new, 9@llc; 
fair to good, 7<B8c; Eastern. 12@13Hc $ B>. 

EGGS— Quotable at 22@26c $ dozen for store 
and 27®32c for ranch; Eastern, 19@21c; fancy 
Eastern, 22@25c. 

POULTRY— We quote as follows : Live Turkeys 
—Gobblers. 9(3)1 lc; Hens, 9® He; do. dressed, 10 
@12c V lb: Roosters, $4(314 50 for old, and $4 50® 
5 50 for young; Broilers. $3 50®4 for small and $4 
@4 50 for large: Hens, $4 00@5 00; Ducks, $4 50@6; 
Geese, $1 50(3)1 "5 $ pair; Pigeons. $1@1 25 * doz. 
for old and $1 58(31 75 ^ doz. for young. 

GAME— Ducks— Mallard. $2 50; Teal,$l; Sprig, 
$1 25@1 50; Widgeon, 75c®$l: small Duck, 75c; 
Quail, $1<S>1 25; Gray Geese, $2(n 2 25; White Geese, 
$1; Rabbits, 50e«S<$l for bush and $1(31 50 for cot- 
tontails; Hare. 75c(<i$l; English Snip'. $1 50@8; 
common Snipe, $l@l 25(g ; Honkers, $3 50@4; Brant, 
$1 ^0@1 50 per dozen. 

WOOL— The following review of the wool trade 
is from Thomas Denigan's circular: Since the 
agitation of the wool tariff, and some hopes of 
something being done before long that will he'.p 
the wool grower, there has been more business. 
Prices are strong, but not quotably higher for the 
poor grades of fall wool remaining in stock. Con- 
siderable of this kind that would not sell at all 
heretofore has found buyers recently, chiefly for 
speculative scouring and for one or two of the 
local mills. The stock is being rapidly reduced, 
and it is probable there will be nothing left of a 
good grade on January 1st. We quote fall: 

Short, trashy San Joaquin plains 3@5c 

Good San Joaquin plains 4@6c 

Southern and Coast 4® 5c 

Mountain Wools, light and free 6®7e 

Mountain Wools, defective and heavy 5(n6c 

Humboldt and Mendocino 8@9c 

HOPS— Quotable at 4W6c Tft lb. 

George — You would marry the big- 
gest fool in the world if he asked you ? 
Ethel — Oh, George, that is so sudden. — 

The Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, Dec. 31, 1S95. 
The event of the week in the dried fruit 
trade is the suspension of the well-known 
firm of Porter Bros, of this city, reported 
in detail on another page. It came as a 
surprise to the public, since general opinion 
had credited Porter Bros, with being one of 
the very strongest houses in the business. 
They appear to be well provided with assets, 
and there is general confidence that they will 
be able to come out all right in the end. It 
looks now as i f they would be granted such 
indulgence in the way of time as will put 
them immediately on their feet again. It is 
very gratifying to be able to say that the cir- 
cumstances of this failure are such as reflect 
no sort of personal discredit upon the Messrs. 
Porter, and that their clients, business asso- 
ciates and business rivals all feel for them 
the warmest sympathy. Under these circum- 
stances, it is believed that they will be able 
to continue in business without prejudice, and 
that they will soon be able, by realizing on 
sound but slow assets, to clean up all obliga- 
tions in good faith and to the satisfaction of 

As Porter Bros, are large holders of dried 
fruit, the first thought in connection with 
their suspension was of disturbance to values 
from its being thrown upon the market as 
bankrupt stock. As the fact developed, how- 
ever, that it was not a failure, and that the 
firm would within a few days be able to go on 
as usual, this alarm passed away. No percep- 
tible effect was made on a situation which is 
at this holiday season wholly without features 
of special interest. It is, in fact, the dead 
low-tide of the fruit-selling season, and no 
movement is to be expected until the stocks 
laid in for the holiday trade shall be disposed 
of. In the absence of business, we give the 
quotations reported by the San Francisco 
Fruit Exchange : 

Apricots, fancy Moorpark, 11c; choice do, 
10c; fancy, !>%c; choice, 8%c; standard, 7c; 
prime, 6c, Peaches, fancy, 5e; choice, 4c; 
standard, 3%C, prime, 3c; peeled, in boxes, 
10@12%c. Pears, fancy halves, 6%c; quar- 
ters, 5%c; choice, 5c; standard, 4c; prime, 3c. 
Plums, pitted, 3%c; unpitted, l(g)l%c. Prunes, 
4 sizes, 4c. Nectarines, choice, Bo ; standard, 
4%c; prime, 4c. White figs, fancy, 5c; choice, 
4c; standard, 3c; black do, fancy, 2%c; choice, 
2c; standard, l ' 4 c. Apples, fancy, 4%c\ choice, 


.Jobbing prices for sacks of 50-tt> boxes: 4- 
crown loose, 3c $i lb; 3-crown, 2%'3!2%c; 2- 
crown, l 3 4 («>2c; Seedless Sultana, 3%@ic; do 
Muscatel, 2%c; Dried Grapes, 2%c; 20-tb 
boxes, 3-crown London Layers, 85cft;$l; clus- 
ters $1.40@tl. 50 ; Dehesa clusters, $2.25; Im- 
perial clusters, §2.75. 


Jobbing prices: Almonds, softshells, 7@8c ; 
$ lb; do papershells, 8@9c; do hard, 3%@5c; 
Walnuts, California softshell, 9<7< 10c; do hard, 
7@Sc; Brazil, S@10c; Peanuts, 3%@i%c for 


Oranges— Seedlings, $1.25@2.00; do Navels, 
$2.25(ffi3.00; Japanese, 75c@*l. 00. 

Apples— 50c@$l per box; extra, $1.25@1.50; 
Persimmons, 50© 75c. 

Lemons— From $l(a 3.00 ~p) box, as to quality. 
Limes— Mexican, in order, $5@5.50; do Cali- 
fornia, 50(f?75c for small boxes. 

A Philanthropist. — Banker — You 
are really a heartless creature. You 
do nothing for the poorer classes. His 
friend — Oho ! Haven't I just given 
a penniless baron another of my 
daughters ? — Fiiegende Blaetter. 

"Mamma," observed Edith, com- 
placently surveying herself in the 
mirror, "how much prettier God 
makes folks than he used to." — Judge. 


And SAVE MONEY by buying on a strictly 

We do a Strictly Cash Business, that is why we 
quote : 

Genuine Dry Granulated Cane SUGAR 

. .$4.75 per 100-pound sack 

A No. 1 Japan or Island RICE 

$4.00 per 100-pound sack 

Fine new Liverpool SALT $13.50 per ton 

Genuine new Down East Maine Sugar CORN, 

Pure and Sweet, '95 pack only $1.15 per doz. 

Per case of two doz $2.25 


WHITE BEANS 1%. cents per pound 

BARBED WIRE, 2 or 4 point. Genuine Glid- 

den $3.00 per 100 pounds 

Best Family FLOUR $3.35 per barrel 



Pacific Coast Home Supply Co. 


Send for list of WIRE NETTING. 

BAKER <& H /\ /W I L T C> IN. 


reverses without detaching; with or without Ex- 
tension heads. Write for Special Circular. 
San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles. 

Fruit Land at a Bargain. 

I want ten men having $5000 each to invest in the 
finest and cheapest Fruit and Grape land in this 
State. Sonoma County, within 50 miles of San 
Francisco. Climate and soil unexcelled. Investi- 
gate this property without delay. Write for par- 
ticulars. JOHN F. BYXBEE, 

42 Market Street, San Francisco. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 


All about Beee and Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 

(Established 1861). 
Weekly, *l a year. 7 Editors. 
160 -page 




A Handsomely Illustrated OCT CM DDI I CC 
Magazine, and Catalog, of D C t OUirLlLCs 
FREE. THE A.I. ROOT CO., MedintuO. 


Sample copy oi 


Try It and Buy It. 

There is a large 
demand among 
the city milk 
dealers for the 
Safety Hand 
Cream Sepa- 
rator. A test 
of the skim milk 
from a deep set- 
ti n g can will 
demonstrate that fully one-fourth the 
cream is wasted in the skim milk. A 
Safety Hand machine saves every par- 
ticle of this cream. Send for circular 
and testimonials. 

P. M. Sharples. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Elgin, Illinois. 
Rutland, Vermont. 




Australian Salt Bush Plants 

For alkali land, for sale by I^ord & AValton, 
609 E. 2nd St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

« For deep or shallow wells ; power, windmill, hand I 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,1)00 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A T.AMES, Gait, Cal. 




Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 


Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Trade Mark— Dr. A. Owen 


The latest and only scientific and practical 
Electric Bolt made, for general use, producing 
a genuine current of Electricity, for the cure 
of disease, that can be readily felt and regu- 
lated both in quantity and power, and applied 
to any part of the body . It can be worn at any 
time during working hours or sleep, and 






Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kidney and Urinal Troubles, and will effect 
cures in seemingly hopeless cases where every 
other known means has failed. 

Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
by this means be roused to healthy activity 
before it is too late. 

Leading medical men use and recommend the 
Owen Belt iu their practice. 


Contains fullest information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
and how to order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Belt and Appliance Co. 


The Owen Electric Belt Cldg., 201 to 211 State Street, 

Ihe Largest Electric Belt Establishment in the Work) 

I m§ mm mm tbadvtthf 
mo auvt 


Price, in crate. $4; weight. 10 lbs. 
Makes Bisulphide effective and economical and 
works as well on Ground Squirrels. 
For use in applying 

Price reduced to $4 per o-gal. can. 
Sold by the trade and the manufacturer. 

Utah and Alameda Sts., San Francisco. 

Blake, Moff Itt &. T o w n &, 


512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 


The California Special Plows are manufactured expressly for the California trade. They are fitted with extra long adjustable Index Beams, making them desirable for Orchard 

and Vineyard Work. 


Write for Catalogue and Prices. 




The Pacific Rural Press 

January 4, 1896. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

A Happy New Year. 

Hy Worthy Lkctukkk Ohi.evkr. 
How monotonous to the human race 
must it have been before the astrono- 
mer came to view the heavens and 
space the time into years and centu- 
ries. Like the savage in our own time, 
the primitive man lived on and on with- 
out years, months or weeks. To him 
a Sabbath, or day of rest, was un- 
known and he took no more account of 
time than do the beasts of field and 
forest. He had no monuments from 
which to view the past and contemplate 
the future, hence saw no reason why 
one day should not be like its predeces- 
sor, and years without number or di- 
vision came from the mysterious future 
and disappeared in the boundless ocean 
of the past. With light came the dis- 
position to view the surroundings, 
when it was discovered that all crea- 
tion was governed by a nicely adjusted 
supreme system, the years being set 
apart by minute planetary regulation. 
Then man began to progress, and he 
filled the years with months, weeks 
and days, and from time to time he 
" took stock " of his surroundings with 
a view to the enlargement of his op- 
portunities. The past and the pres- 
ent foretold the future possibilities and 
awakened the latent energy required 
to develop them. The passing year 
was compared with the one before, and 
the one to come had the advantage of 
all the others in experience and wis- 
dom. The past is fixed and only serves 
us as a reminder to avoid errors and 
reach yet higher in our advancement. 
Let us then strive to enjoy a real 


Let bygone unpleasantness and dis- 
couragements go with the old year, 
and let us remember only so much of 
the departed as may be useful to 
brighten and enliven the new. The 
past year was good because it was a 
year free from epidemics and calami- 
ties. The necessaries of life were 
abundant and cheap; the need of econ- 
omy and retrenchment was visible on 
every hand, and its lesson became the 
watchword of the year. Notwithstand- 
ing, the last days of the departed year 
were hopeful and serene. Nature, too, 
smiled on her fields and forests, and 
the new year is bright with hope and 
cheer for the husbandman. No better 
prospects for coming progress and 
prosperity, as 1 found in a bountiful 
yield of the soil, were ever passed by 
an old to a new year. It is evident 
that tired nature along with the indus- 
trial world have finished their vacation 
and are soon to vie with each other in 
the restoration of normal conditions. 
Let it be hailed as we would a new 
found friend; strew his pathway with 
flowers and bid him welcome to our 
hearts and shrines. The realization of 
such a year is invoked by the State 
Lecturer for the enjoyment of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry and all their 


It is attention to business that lifts 
the feet higher upon the ladder. 

One pound of learning requires ten 
pounds of common sense to apply it. 

An American who does not love our 
country and its institutions should be 

The wish to succeed is an element I 
in every undertaking, without which 
achievement is impossible. 

We are sent into this world to make 
it better and happier, and in propor- 
tion as we do so we make ourselves 

Concentration is the secret of 
strength in politics, in war, in trade — 
in short, in all management of human 

The ambition to succeed is the main- 
spriug of activity, the driving-wheel of 
industry, the spur to intellectual and 
moral progress. 

Grange Elections. 

Santa Rosa, Dec. 2(1, 1895. 
The following reports of elections in 
subordinate Granges have been re- 
ceived at this office. Don Mills, 
Sec y Cal. State Grange. 


Master, William T. Gilkey; Overseer, 
Sister C. E. Bowman; Lecturer, Sis- 
ter M. A. Morgan; Steward, Ed. H. 
Webb; Ass't Steward, Geo. W. Rowe; 
Chaplain, Sister N. A. Uren; Treas- 
urer, W. H. Bowman; Secretary, Sis- 
ter Vorah M. Roache; Gate Keeper, 
Sister N. Mauk; Ceres, Sister Jennie 
Rowe: Pomona, Sister C. H. Porter; 
Flora, Sister G. W. Rowe; Lady Ass't 
Steward, Sister Julia Morgan; Organ- 
ist, Sister Bertie Bowman; Trustee, C. 
H. Porter. 


Master, G. N. Whitaker: Overseer, 
T. H. Brown; Lecturer, Mrs. Emma 
Burnham; Steward, Nelson Peterson; 
Ass't Steward, Eddie Bremner; Chap- 
lain, Mrs. Mary Bremner; Treasurer, 
Peter Hanson; Secretary, Miss Mabel 
Burnham; Gate Keeper, F. Scheible; 
Ceres, Mrs. E. E. Whitaker; Pomona, 
Mrs. Hannah Lacque; Flora, Mrs. 
Sarah Hanson; Lady Ass't Steward, 
Miss Ada Burnham; Trustee, Frank 

Master, James Kelly; Overseer, B. 
R. Holliday; Lecturer, Mrs. C. L. Hol- 
linbeck; Steward, E. B. Barber; Ass't 
Steward, L. D. Messec; Treasurer, H. 
Raap; Secretary, Mrs. Maria B. Lan- 
der; Chaplain, L. Strentzel; Gate 
Keeper, Lena Rapp; Ceres, Mrs. O. 
H. Beanor; Pomona, Mrs. M. Kelly; 
Flora. Mrs. L. D. Messec; Organist, 
Mrs. Mollie Curry. Installation will 
take place on the third Saturday in 
January, at 2 o'clock p. m. 


Master, Mark Thornton; Overseer, 
F. W. Rowe; Lecturer, Mrs. R. S. 
Twitchell; Steward, Wallace Alderman; 
Assistant Steward, W. T. Merrill; 
Treasurer, T. A. Matteson; Chaplain, 
Mrs. Laura McWain; Secretary, O. L. 
Twitchell; Gate Keeper, Mrs. M. A. 
Northrup; Pomona, Mrs. Mary A. 
Coulton; Flora, Mrs. George Rowe; 
Ceres, Mrs. Jane Tremewan; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Mrs. M. J. Wales; 
Trustee for three years, L. J. Blundell. 
Date of installation, January 11th, 1896. 


Master, George Connors; Overseer, 
Paul Coulter; Lecturer, G. N. San- 
born; Steward, Arthur Crane; Assist- 
ant Steward, George W. Rogers; Chap- 
lain, Miss Lida Coulter; Treasurer, 
John Strong; Secretary, Miss Fannie 
Gamble; Gate Keeper, J. H. Newman; 
Ceres, Mrs. L. M. Rogers; Pomona, 
Mrs. A. J. Mills; Flora, Mrs. Jennie 
Connors; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss 
Clara Taylor; Trustee, Harvey Greg- 


Master, John L. Beecher, Jr.; Over- 
seer, Nathan H. Root; Lecturer, Mrs. 
J. E. Leadbetter; Steward, Hiram M. 
Jones; Assistant Steward, Mrs. Sophie 
E. Castle; Chaplain, Mrs. W. D. Ash- 
ley; Treasurer, Joseph Adams; Secre- 
tary, Nathan T. Root; Gate Keeper, 
Miss Birge Harelson; Ceres, Mrs. Cora 
Beecher; Pomona, Mrs. Mary Root; 
Flora, Miss Anita Leadbetter; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Miss Lizzie Root; 
Executive Committee, Norman E. 

Master, Eben B. Owen; Overseer, 
Will J. Bader; Lecturer, James Caples; 
Steward, Seth Macy; Assistant Stew- 
ard, Frank Schirmer; Chaplain, Sister 
Dixie Woodard; Treasurer, Fred 
Steller; Secretary, Miss Mattie Ma- 
holm; Gate Keeper, George William- 

Do you know a good farm 
and fruit paper when you see 
it? Let us send you the 
Rural New- Yorker this week. 
Send your address ; no money. 

The Rural New-Yorker, 

409 Pearl street. New York. 

son; Ceres, Sister Mary Baker; Po- 
mona, Sister Lena Baker; Flora, Sister 
Agnes Baker; Lady Assistant Steward, 
Sister Ida Stelter. Installation to take 
place the third Saturday in January, 



oThe farmer who comes from the 
barn, from the field, from the stock- 
yard, can't help making tracks, and 
his wife must make the best of it. 
The way to do this is to wash them 
away with 

Gold dust 1 

This famous preparation will make 
the steps, the porch, and the kitchen 
floor as white as it was when the 
house was built. It makes every- 
thing clean. The grocer will sell 
you a large package for 25 cents. 

Gold Dfst Washino Powder has 
an additional value to the farmer for 
destroying insects. Send usyourname 
and address, and we will mail you an 
important booklet containing recipes 
for making kerosene emulsions, for 
] spraying crops and treesand live stock. 


on redwood mumps on the farm of C. E. Ogburn. 
tiiienievtlle, California. 

In the improved form In which 11 is now offered 
to the public. It Is universally admitted to be the 
most practical, powerful and successful machine of 
the kind in America, and the only machine in exist- 
ence that can be successfully operated on hill land. 

Send for catalogue to 

A. BARNES, Manager. 
K2 and 84 Z.oe Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Incorporated April. 1h"4. 

Capital 1'alri Up * 1.000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Profits, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders. . . . S32.00O 

Chicago. St. Louis. New York. 
Boston. Philadelphia. 


H. M. LaRUE President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

j ALBERT MONTPELLIER — Cashier and Manager. 

C. H. MCCORMICK Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits Received, Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Specialty. 
January 1, 1894. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager. 

The McMahan Farm, 

Comprising some 4100 acres, located on the banks of Putah Creek, Solano and Yolo Counties, 
has been placed in our hands for sale. 

This magnificent property is now selling'at 

$67.50 PER ACRE ! 

In sizes to suit the requirements of the different purchasers, from ten acres up, easy terms. 

If you wish to locate on the choicest land in all California, we will be pleased to mail you detailed 
information on application, with maps, etc., something of interest either to yourself or friends in Cali- 
fornia or in the East, who may be seeking reliable information of lands in our State. 


BOVEE, TOY & CO., Sole Agents, 

No. 19 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Used and endorsed by Adams 
Express Co. 


Contracted and Knotted Cords, Shoe Boils, Callous of all kinds, 
Sweeny, Horse Ail and most diseases to which the horse is subject, 


Is a sure and reliable remedy. It is warranted to locate lameness 
when applied by remaining moist on the part affected. The" rest 
dries out. If it fails to satisfy, money will be refunded. 
Dr. S. A. Tuttle, Boston, Mass. 
Dear Sir:— Having tested your Elixir for the different purposes 
for which you recommend it, would say: We use it on all horses in 
our department, and I must state that I have not found one instance 
where I have not received more benefits than advertised. We 
adopted it in our whole department. Men as well as horses are 
using it, and I cannot speak in terms of too high praise of it, as I 
never saw its equal. Yours very truly, 

In charge of the horses in the Chicago Eire Dept. 
Tuttle's Family Elixir is the best for Rheumatism and all pain. 
Sample bottle free for three 2-cent stamps for postage. SO cents 
buys either Elixer of any druggist or it will be sent direct on re- 
ceipt of price. 

OR. 8. A. TUTTLE, 87 Heverly St., Boston, Mass. 


many now Vegetables A Flowers .v the! (~ 

ting reason for warranting our seed, as per 
i si page ol Catalogue, is, we raise u large por 
lion of them. As the original introducers of 
the Cory ami I^ongtellowOorns, Miller Cream 
Melon, Ohio and Ittirbutik Potatoes, Warren, 
bbard and Marhleheud Squashes. Marble 
1 Karly Marrowfat IVa. Ecll|>se Heel. Ken 
f Wonder and Marhlehead Horticultural 
us. Southport Early tilobe and Danvero" Red 
e Onions, All Seasons and Marhlehead Mam- 
Cabbages and numerous other valuable vege- 
ive solicit a share of the public patronage. Oi 
Yegetahlesand Flower Seed lor IMKt. contalnlr 

OSeilt/tr J.J.II.IiKKtiORY A SON.tUrWrhm.l.M.. 

January 4, 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 

1 5 

The above cut represents the "Champion" 
spray pump, which is for sale by Woodin & 
Little, of this city. It represents the experi- 
ence of fourteen years in the making of spray- 
ing machinery, and is put on the market In 
full confidence that it combines more merits 

than any ohter pumping device. Woodin & Lit- 
tle's Cataloguefor 1890 which contains much 
valuable information about sprayingand pump- 
ing machinery, will be sent free to those who 
ask for it. Address Woodin & Little, 312 and 
314 Market street, San Francisco. 

The California Stump Puller. 

The possibility of securing desirable open 
land on the Pacific slope is yearly narrowing; 
and, in about the same ratio, there comes a 
demand for some practicable method of re- 
moving trees and stumps from land otherwise 
valueless, in order that it may be cultivated 
or placed upon the market. 

Right here the "California Stump Puller" 
comes in with a reputation acquired by sev- 
eral years' practical use, extending through 
Washington, Oregon, California, Central 
America and the Sandwich Islands. Though 
the machine has been subjected to the sever- 
est tests under the most trying conditions, it 
has always come out victorious. For immense 
pulling capacity, embraced in simple, com- 
pact and safe form, adapted to all the irregu- 
lar conditions of mountainous or level land, 
this machine has probably no equal. 

Numerous unsolicited testimonials are in 
the hands of the manufacturer, evincing the 
entire satisfaction the machine has given. 
The cost is low, and considering the service 
rendered, the cost would be low at any price. 
Full details of the stump puller will be found 
in the illustrated catalogue, and also valuable 
hints in regard to clearing land generally. 
Address A. Barnes, General Manager, 82 and 
84 Zoe St., San Francisco. See the advertise- 
ment on another page. * 

The University of California will shortly 
expend 1250,000 in the erection of three build- 
ings for the use of the affiliated colleges in 
the western part of San Francisco. 

The Genuine "Brown's Bkonchial 
Troches" are sold only in boxes. They are 
wonderfully effective for Coughs, Hoarseness 
or Irritation of the Throat caused by cold. 

The creosote plant at Ballona, through 
which the piling at that place was treated 
with creosote, is to be removed to this city. 

Horse Owners! Try 


j^gp Caustic 

™ = *^H[^^^fiBi^ A Safe Speedy and Positive Care 

for its use. Send for descriptive circulars.' 

French Prune ! Royal Apricot ! 

Black Tartarian and Royal Ann Cherries. 
Cork Elm, Birch, Linden, Maple, Hawthorn. 
Acacias, Magnolias. Draca>nas, Pittosporutns. 
Laurestinus Carnations. 
Roses and Palms in large quantities. 
Gums and Cypress in boxes, 

Send for price list. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 


Pear and Cherry Seedlings. 

No. 1, T % and up. . $5.00 per 1000. 

No. 2, | to T 3 ff 2.50 

No. 3, T V to i 1.50 

Terms cash before shipment. Mention this paper. 

Sunrise Nurseries Montavilla, Oregon, 

Sialic from> $500. ii mondi at homeor ti„„ 

An Electric Rifle. 

Heavy guns have long been fired by 
electricity, but electrically exploded 
small arms have not hitherto come 
within the sphere of the inventor. It is 
hard to see wherein an electrically ac- 
tuated rifle can for all practical pur- 
poses be an improvement on the ex- 
tremely efficient exploding mechanism 
with which arms of precision are now 
fitted, but the designer of a rifle in 
which the cartridge is exploded by 
electricity claims that in this method 
there is none of the flashing out of the 
powder common with the merely per- 
cussion hammer, and all the powder is 
consumed, to the manifest improve- 
ment of the penetrative power of the 
bullet. A battery is inserted in the 
stock, with wires running to a strip of 
metal on the one hand and the ham- 
mer, which is fitted on the upper part 
of the trigger, on the other. The 
metal strip makes contact with the 
metal base of the shell. A pin, which 
runs into the cartridge, has its rounded 
head projecting slightly beyond the 
base of the cartridge. Between this 
and the point of the hammer is a plate 
studded with a pointed head, which 
lies close to the cartridge. As the 
trigger is pulled the hammer flies for- 
ward, striking the plate, whose pointed 
head is driven onto the projecting head 
of the cartridge pin. The spark thus 
caused within the cartridge explodes 
the powder. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


551,441— Ore Furnace— H. P. Holland, S. F. 
551,491.— Soldering Machine— M. Jensen, As- 
toria, Ogn. 

551,50:;.— Station Indicator— C. E. Larrabee, 

Berkeley, Cal. 
551,445.— Step Ladder— H. Liefer, Los Angeles, 


551,732. — Evaporator— H. A. Merriam, Los Gatos, 

551,683. — Car Truck — R F. Minor, Heppner, Ogn. 
551,400. — Pump — E. T. Nichols, S. F. 
551,735 — Pulley Block— H. Oi-rock, S. F. 
551,447.— Dough Mixer— J. R. Phelps, Marysville, 

551,402.— Pencil Sharpener— A. Prader, Spokane, 

55I.56U.— Ore Crusher— A. H. Schierholz, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
(by mail for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in the 
shortest possible time. 

Solidifying Petroleum. 

Paul d'Humy, a French naval engi- 
neer, has a method of converting petro- 
leum to a hard mass, suitable for fuel 
on board large ocean-going boats. It 
is claimed that this material is affected 
neither by heat nor cold, and is abso- 
lutely smokeless and odorless. The 
cakes, when set on fire, burn only on 
the surface, and give an intense heat. 
They require very little draught and 
make not more than from 2 to 3 per 
cent of ashes. They can be made in 
any size or shape, and can be stored 
anywhere without danger, as they can- 
not evaporate or cause an explosion. 
Tt is stated that a man-of-war having 
1000 tons of this solidified oil on board 

could sail around the world or remain 
at sea for months together. One ton 
represents thirty tons of coal, and the 
cost is represented in a French scien- 
tific journal at not more than $10 per 
ton. It is calculated that in the manu- 
facture of steel 500 pounds of solidified 
petroleum, costing a little over $2, 
would melt a ton of metal. If half 
what is said of the new solidified petro- 
leum is true, the way is opened for all 
sorts of marine possibilities- 

Curious Facts. 

The deepest well on the Atlantic 
coast is that at the silk works near 
Northampton, Mass.; depth, 3700 feet. 

Jewelers declare that the regularity 
of the running of a watch depends upon 
the magnetism of the man who car- 
ries it. 

Where it is desirable to see the 
tongue of a very small child, the object 
maybe accomplished by touching the 
upper lip with a bit of sweet oil, which 
will cause the child to protrude its 

Cats die at an elevation of 13,000 
feet, even though they are reputed to 
have "nine lives " when on a level with 
the ocean. Dogs and men can climb 
the greatest known natural elevations. 

Edison believes that he can solve the 
problem of airships either by using 
balloons or aeroplanes; but, to use his 
own words: "I would construct actual 
ships of the air — yachts, schooners and 
brigantines — which would tack and 
jibe, and sail before the wind. My 
idea is that the lifting power for these 
airships should be gas stored in the 
sails. In other words, you apply the 
balloon principle in such a way that 
the gas bag, instead of being an im- 
pediment, as it is at present, would be 
the actual means of propulsion. I 
would construct gas bags shaped like 
the sails of a yacht." 

Stevenson Brothers are the largest 
bakers in Glasgow and London. Mr. 
John Stevenson of Scotland says: " The 
people on our side eat more bread than 
do the citizens of America, and not so 
much meat or vegetables, which are 
dearer in Great Britain than in this 
country. We make two-pound loaves 
of square form, the weight of which 
must be stamped on each loaf, and the 
law against light-weight bread is very 
rigid. Every week we consume 3500 
barrels of flour, the biggest part of 
which comes from the United States. 
Of late we have been getting a good 
deal of Argentine wheat and a little 
from Australia. About the best wheat 
in the world is grown in Hungary, but 
of that there is no great quantity im- 
ported into England." 

The Treasury Department has at 
last announced that the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition medals and diplomas 
would be ready for delivery by the ex- 
position commission some time in Feb- 
ruary next, and, acting under author- 
ity of the last sundry civil bill, persons 
receiving medals are entitled to elec- 
trotypes of the same on payment of 
the cost. 




220 Market S!^ 



Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old experienced, 
first-class agency. We have able and trustworthy associates ^nd agents in Washington and the capi- 
tal cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our scientific and Patent Law Li- 
brary, and record of original cases in our office, we h ive other advantages far beyond those which can 
be offered home inventors by other agencies. The Information accumulated through long and careful 
practice before the Office, and the frequent examination of patents already granted, for the purpose of 
determining the patentability of inventions brought before us- enables us to give advice which will 
save inventors the expense of applying for patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars and 
advice sent free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 220 Market St.. S.P. 

4 Free Offers! 

For years we have tried to secure for our subscribers some easy way of preserving their 
Pacific 'Rural Press, and binding it at trifling cost. We have at last found it, and we give 
here a picture of our new binder. It takes only half a minute to insert the paper, and there- 
after it is kept clean, and can be always found 
when wanted. A single binder will hold an entire 
volume of the Pacific Rural Press. When it is 
complete it can be filed away in your library as a 
most valuable book of reference. 

As a method of keeping your papers for future 
use, it is worth ten times its cost. It makes all the 
difference between lost, torn and dirtied papers, 
scattered about the house in such confusion that 
you can never find what you require, and a hand- 
some, orderly file, which becomes at the end of the 
year a valuable volume for your library. 

A single paper found when wanted repays the 
cost of the binder twice over. We cannot too 
strongly urge upon subscribers the great impor- 
tance of preserving each issue of this paper in our 
binder. In a few years you will have an ency- 
clopedia unequaled in character, variety and time- 
liness. In this way you can in a short time possess 
a real library without expense to yourself. 

To insure a copy of the new binder to every one 
of our subscribers we make the following liberal 
offers : 

First — We will send Free a binder to every sub- 
scriber promptly renewing his or her subscrip- 

Second — We will send Free a binder to every 
old subscriber who will send us a new subscription and money for the same. 

Third — We will send Free a binder to every subscriber who will send us the names and 
full addresses of ten people whom they have tried to get to subscribe for the Rural. 

We want you to get us new subscribers and make this very liberal offer that you will 
make a special effort to get your friends to subscribe, and if you are not always successful, we 
are still willing to reward you liberally for the effort. 

Fourth— We will send Free a binder to every new subscriber. 

In any communication it is necessary to state that a binder is desired, and to what ad- 
dress it is to be sent. 


230 Market Street s » n Francisco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 4, 1896. 

"Sunset" and "Top Notch" Cultivators, 

" HATCH," " DUCKFOOT," " CHISEL," and all other Styles of 
Shovels for Orchard and Vineyard Cultivation. 



The Best Cultivators Ever Made. 

" Weed-cutting alone will Dot do in California. The surface will be ashey, bat just below there ♦ 

is a hard layer which evaporates all that is brought up to it by capillary action almost as rapidly ♦ 

as it would go from the immediate surface. A slender toothed cultivator, a narrow chisel tooth, or ♦ 

a duck-foot with a long, slim standard, which stirs but does not " stir up.*' is needed as well as a ♦ 

weed-cutter. Some of the newer cultivators have the two combined." ♦ 

• Atmospheric moisture is best absorbed by a loose, finely pulverized soil surface. In this 
country evaporation outdoes absorption over and over again during the season of driest air. No 
one would think of ■• stirring up " soil to get anything out of the air. unless it might be in the fog 
belt of the coast. Better keep what moisture you ha\ e in the soil so the plant can have the full 
benefit of it." 

The above sensible expressions we copy from an editorial in the •• It I It A I 1'KKSS" of Sept. '.i. 18913, and t hey have t he endorsement of t lie successful fruit -raisers of t his State. 
Turning damp soil up to the sun's rays will not keep it damp- but the air will take the moisture. TO AVOID K V.\ I'OKATION 

Use Shovels that Loosen the Subsoil Without Disturbing Top Soil. 



305 and 307 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Ready Roofing. 
P.&B. Building Papers. 
Roof Paints. 



116 Battery St., San Francisco. 
Ill S. Broadway, Los flngeles. 

Write for Circulars and Samples. 



Tin- cut herewith Illustrates our new spray- 
ing pump, the " Champion." and its adaptability 
to the work for which it has been especially de- 
signed. As will be seen from the illustration, 
the pump Is very complete and stronu. It Is per- 
fectly double-acting and lias a brass-lined cylin- 
der. The motlen of the piston is horizontal. 
The handle Is so arranged that the leverage is 
very powerful, and the movement is easy and 
natural. The air chamber is unusually large, 
admitting of the continuous discharge necessary 
for good ;ui(! thorough spraying. 

Send for special circular and prices. 

81* Jf 314 Market St San I ran. Cal. 

Tlie Forbes Cultivator. 

The most compact, durable and lightest draft or- 
chard and vineyard cultivator ever placed on the 
market. It Is made of the best iron and steel. No 
Wood to wea I bor-c heck or split. There is no neck- 
draft, the tongue being jointed. This also allows the 
cultivator to work to advantage In crossing dead fur- 
rows or rough ground. The teeth and shovels are so 
placed that they will not clog with weeds. The 
wheels are low. this ts-ing 1111 advantage In working 
up close to the trees. It raises out of the ground 
easy. The driver has his work In front of him. The 
horses are closer to their work by eight- en inches 
than it Is possible to get them In any other machine. 

Any tooth de- 
sired can be 
used, hut we 
rec om ni e u d 
the chisel and 
Forbes Im- 
proved River- 
side teeth. 
Teeth made to 
order of any pattern 
or width. Also weed- 
cutter attachments 
of any width. We are 
using malleable 
beams this year, and 
wrought wheels, 
which have boxes 
that can be replaced 
when worn out. We 
can give as reference 
some of the test known orchardists of the Stale of Cali- 

The Forhe_.'*iltivator Is made In two sizes, eleven or 
thirteen ti Vlii' eleven tooth cuts six feet in Width, 

or by remo »■ wits can be reduced to a live-font or 
even smallf sired. The eleven tooth Is calculated 

for a two-horse machine. Th ten tooth for three or four horses and 

v> Idth. 

For further particulars. 


tinbserville, Santa Clara County. California. l'atentee anil Manilla 
_ \ 

si.iMUiiii >ric.v\ t-UJCP 


We have had this pump constructed especially for 
the purpose Intended. H has great strength, and Is 
simple In lis construction. There Is nothing to get 
out of order. It is -o arranged that It can be set on the 
top of an ordinary barrel. With the large air cham- 
ber, you are capable of throwing a very tine and regu- 
lar spray. The top or bundle of the pump can be re- 
volved to any position, to meet the requirements of 
the operator. It Is operated very easilv. and is not 
laborious to the party using the pump. The valves 
.ire very accessible. In fact, there Is no cheaper or 
better pump. Send for special catalogue and prices, 
mailed fr-e. We carry a full line of all kinds of 


312&314 Market -t s;m Francisco, Cal. 


220 Market St.. San Francisco, Cal. 


without the aid of the PLAN ET J R. tools, is like cutting an acre of grass with 
a sickle. With them you can almost do threedays' work in one. They do nearly 
everything but think. The new ///// Dropping Seed Drill is an example of 
the perfect ingenuity of the PLAN ET J R. tools. Opens the furrow, drops 
the seed — in hills or drills, covers, and marks the next row. The PLANET JR. 

bot)k illustrates and explains all the /*LAXETJK. Farm and Garden Tools. ' Twill pay you to 
get and read il. Mailed/ree. S. L. ALLEN & CO., 1107 Market St., PHILADELPHIA. 

Dandy No. 31 Steel Plow Doubletree 

Dandy Steel Ploiv Singletree 

Buy before they are all gone. 

HOOKER & CO., 16 and 18 Drumm St. 

Price, $I.OO 1 .\i ii 
3S Each 

San Francisco. 



Vol. LI. No. 2. 


ii, i ovu. Office, 220 Market Street. 

Water On the Plains. 

The engraving on this page, for which we are in- 
debted to the Fresno Interior, is a characteristic 
one, showing the passage of an irrigation canal over 
the plains at a distance from present horticultural 
areas. We have had many views of canals adjacent 
to the regions of the higher cultures which they 
induce, but here is a canal out on the open plain, 
forty miles from its headgate. The allusion shows 
how extended some of our irrigation enterprises are, 
for forty miles is not such a great distance as irriga- 
tion canals go. The dam is a check drop, put in 
either to arrest the current to keep it from washing 

that his action may not affect the proposed course 
of paying depositors which has been announced. 

Citrus Fairs. 

A suit has been commenced in this city which may 
test the soundness of what is claimed to be the code 
of commission ethics in this city. Mrs. M. G. Nor- 
ton, a member of Highland Grange, makes complaint 
that she consigned a lot of fruit toTrobock & Bergen, 
and that they had sold a portion of it for a higher 
price than was reported, in the account of sales. 
Messrs. Trobock & Bergen acknowledged the dis- 
crepancy, but justified it upon the ground that the 
sale complained of was a single box of fruit, and that 
it was customary in such cases to charge the cus- 

Although the Fresno Citrus Fair was an after- 
thought, and much of the fruit had been marketed, 
there was a display of notable extent, variety and 
excellence. Armory Hall, the largest in Fresno, 
was so well filled with the exhibits that there was 
not room enough for the visitors who came in great 
multitude. As the fruit from the larger orchards 
had been largely disposed of, the supply for the fair 
came from yards of residents of Fresno, Reedley, 
Cei.terville, Sanger and a few small orchards which 
had not been sold. 

From the thermal belt, along the foothills on 


its banks or for the purpose of turning water out 
into a shallow lateral for adjacent irrigation. Irri- 
gation canals have these check drops in abundance, 
and often at quite short intervals. 

The team in the background is quite character- 
istic of plains-crossing with loads of grain on the 
way to the shipping point. As railroads are multi- 
plying in the San Joaquin, and as navigable canals 
and electric transportation are among the things of 
the near future, it is quite likely that these old 
team outfits may take their places beside the prairie 
schooners as memories of the early affairs of a well 
improved and populous valley. 

I tomer a retail price, and to return the sale as made 
j as a wholesale price, the difference being retained 
by the agent as an extra profit. They stated, fur- 
I thermore, that this is the customary practice among 
! all the commission men in San Francisco. The in- 
vestigating committee appointed by Highland 
Grange sought legal advice on the question, and is 
ready to set up the claim that Trobock & Bergen 
have committed embezzlement. Tt is proposed to 
make a test case in this instance, carrying it to the 
Supreme Court if necessary. The committee, upon 
whom prosecution devolves, is composed of M. C. Al- 
len, E. F. Adams, Andrew Finnie and W. H. Aiken. 

James A. Louttit, ex-Congressman, and an at- 
torney of Stockton, has attached the Grangers' 
Bank for $650, the amount he has on deposit with 
the institution. The attachment, being levied just a 
few days before the time payment was to be com- 
menced, as announced by the bank officials, has 
caused considerable of a stir among other creditors 
and stockholders, and a fear was expressed on many 
sides that other and heavier attachments would fol- 
low. Mr. Loutitt disclaims all harsh intent, but sim- 
ply wants his money. The Bank Commissioners say 

We hope Rural readers will not forget that the 
poultry and pigeon exhibition will open at Mills' 
Tabernacle, Oakland, on January 16th and continue 
to January 23rd. Over 2000 thoroughbred land and 
water fowls will be shown. We are succeeding in 
giving poultry shows far in advance, in extent and 
quality, of our population and isolation, but they do 
not attract the public attention which they deserve. 
No interest has the local field that the poultry busi- 
ness has, and none welcomes intelligent enlistment 
so warmly. 

the eastern side of the county, came oranges 
which are said to equal any in California. Old 
residents who planted trees for ornament joined 
with enthusiasm in assisting to make the fair a suc- 
cess. From the orange groves along Kings river, 
where most of Fresno's citrus fruit is obtained for 
market, came fine fruit. It is stated that, during 
recent years, home-grown nursery stock aggregat- 
ing more than 100,000 trees has been planted. The 
planting is no longer confined to the foothills, but 
out on the open plains, twenty or thirty miles from 
the mountains, orchards have been planted in the 
last three or four years, and without exception have 
done well. 

We cannot but sympathize with outbursts of 
citrus fervor of this kind. We have seen it 
everywhere from Riverside to Oroville, and it is 
pleasant to think that later results have approved 
the enthusiastic beginnings. The citrus fair at 
Cloverdale, Sonoma county — the fourth of the 
series —will be held January 20th, 30th and 31st. 
The dates this year are a week earlier than last, ow- 
ing to the fact that the oranges have ripened earlier. 
There is every indication that the fair will be much 
larger than last year. 

1 3 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 11, 189C. 


UJIicc.Xo.2M Market St.; Elevator, No. m front St. .San Francisco. Cal. 


Adccrtinino rate* made known on application. 

Anv subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject to the Rj"'*'- 
Pkks's. with a postatre stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be glveu 

as promptly aB practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mall matter. 


K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 11, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATION.— Irrigation in the Great Valley— A Check Drop 

in a Branch Canal in Fresno County. 1". 
EDITORIAL — Water on the Plains; Attached the Grangers' Hank; 

A Novel Suit; Poultry and Pigeon Exhibition; Citrus Fairs, 17. 

The Week, 18. From an Independent Standpoint, 18-19. 
HORTICULTURE.— Early Pruning vs. Late Pruning; Sonic Hard 

Questions; Note on Lemons. 21. 
FLORIST AND GARDENER.— California Vegetable Growing, 81. 
THE FIELD.— California Peanut Growing; Labor in the Heet 

Fields, 22. 

THE DAIRY — The Babcoek Test in the Cheese Factory, 23. 
FRUIT MARKETING. — Hoxes vs. Sacks for Shipping Dried 
Fruits, 23. 

THE HOMF. CIRCLE.— A World Reformer; The Foundling. '.'I 
Gems; His Retort Courteous; Popular Science ; Fashion Notes, 25. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY". — Domestic Hints; Hints to Housekeep- 
ers, 25. 

MARKET REPORT.— The Fruit Market; l,ocal Markets, 29. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY". — Observations; Meeting of the 
State Grange Executive Committee; From Yuba City; The Starry 
Flag Waves in Stockton; From Merced, 3U. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Pith of the Week's News; Gleanings; 
Weather and Crops, 19. The Wool Growers and the Tariff ; Prun- 
ing Thompson's Seedless; No Prevalence of Hog Cholera in San 
Joaquin; Rainfall and Temperature; Killing Bermuda Grass: 
Poisoned Rodents and Mildewed Fodder; Resistant Vines, 20. 
Acetylene Gas, 28. Twentieth Century Telegraph, 28. 


(New this issue.) Page. 

Plows-Oliver Chilled Plow Works » 

Smith's Cash Store 85 

Acme Harrows— Duane H. Nash, Millington. N. J 32 

Potato Planter— Piano Implement Co., Piano, 111 80 

Hulbs and Plants— Cox Seed and Plant Co 81 

Trees and Plants— F. Ludemann SI 

Home Repairing Outfit— Pacitic Coast Home Supply Co SI 

Spray Pumps— The Deming Co., Salem, O 28 

Olive Trees— Howland Bros., Pomona, Cal 27 

Trees, etc.— E. C. Clowes, Stockton, Cal 27 

Seeds — AlneerBros., Rockford, 111 29 

Seeds, Plants, etc.— Storrs & Harrison Co., Paiuesville, O 26 

The Week. 

ami Crops. 

As we write on Wednesday, a 
storm seems to be brewing; and 
from the deliberation with which 
the aerial preparations are being laid, the weather 
manifestation promises to be one of the old-fashioned 
kind, affording lots of wind and water. Such a 
course will be voted a godsend in all parts of the 
State, for, though the only suffering so far seems to 
lie in a postponement of field work and the necessity 
for outlay for purchased fodder, there is a wide- 
spread apprehension of a dry year, which it will be 
well to have soaked out of the public mind as soon as 
possible. The general review of State conditions 
from the Sacramento Weather Bureau may be found 
upon another page. It shows how great is the 
present need of a generous rain. It will be noticed 
that the statement of lowest temperatures at va- 
rious points does not verify the extreme figures 
which were given by telegraph recently, and which 
perhaps had some sensational features. Shipments 
of oranges from the south are going forward at a 
wonderful rate, and the possible ten thousand car- 
loads to be sold will bring a good lot of money into 
the State. 

" . Sonoma County Pomona Grange, 

Dairy J " ' 

co-operating with the State Dairy- 
Meeting. , . . .. 

men s Association, will hold a 

grand rally of dairy producers in Petaluma on the 
afternoon of Wednesday, Jan. 15th. It is hoped to* 
have a full review of the modern science of feeding 
for milk, both from theoretical and practical points 
of view. Prof. Wickson and Mr. Jaffa of the State 
University will lecture on the subject, and a de- 
tailed description of methods and results will be 
given by Messrs. Joseph Mailliard, A. P. Martin and 
others. It is hoped that dairymen will assemble 
from all the rich country adjacent to Petaluma. 
Full opportunity will be given for asking and an- 
swering questions, and it is hoped that all will em- 
brace the chance to get in upon the ground floor of 
this most important branch of modern dairy practice. 

The appointment of Mr. K. D. 
Stephens, of Sacramento, to a 
seat upon the State Board of Hor- 
ticulture is announced. The selection is an emi- 
nently good one. Mr. Stephens is a practical fruit 
grower of long experience, whose fruit sells by its 
name in the eastern markets, and he is an incisive 
and energetic man in all that he undertakes. He 
has held positions of public trust before and has 
made a good record. It is unofficially stated that, 
Covernor Budd will not appoint anyone to the State 
Board who will not favor the removal of the offices 
of the Board to the State Capital. As we under- 
stand it, most, if not all, of the present incumbents 


H. D. Stephens. 

have agreed to that measure. We seriously doubt 
whether the horticultural interest generally can be 
so well served by headquarters away from the me 
tropolis. The quarantine officer will have to remain 
at this port of entry in any event. Probably, how- 
ever, the work of the Board can be satisfactorily ad- 
justed to what appears to be its ordained future. 
We shall have to wait and see. 

\ il i. u 11 m ill 


The beginning of the new year finds 
the property of the old Board of 
Viticultural Commissioners landed 
in the charge of the State University at Berkeley. 
At present it is safety stored in the Library building 
awaiting the action of the Board of Regents in its 
apportionment to the agricultural department of 
the University, as contemplated by the act closing 
up the affairs of the Viticultural Commission. The 
trouble about the shortness of the inventory at first 
supplied by the secretary of the Commission seems 
to have been much decreased, at least, by the filing 
of a more comprehensive document and by the de- 
livery of the property covered by it. Whether the 
present list of assets fully satisfies the State officers 
we are not informed. 

I rrlgat Ion. 

The effect of moist land upon the 
injury by low temperatures has 
been under discussion for years 
without full accord among observers. Speaking 
from the observations of the last two weeks, the 
Riverside Pr«n says: " We believe that the proof 
that irrigation helps to protect fruit from frost in- 
jury is ample enough to convert even those who have 
held different opinions. In several orchards, the 
portion where water was used looks well, while that 
left unwatered bears evidence of the cold." 

Ice Palace. 

Truckee is not getting quite as 
clear cold weather as it might like 
for an ice-palace affair, but it 
seems to be doing pretty well and many people are 
being attracted to the un-Californian orgies which 
have been set up in the form of toboggan slides and 
skating rinks. The influence of the enterprise seems 
to be reaching far, for we saw in front of a Market- 
street store the other day a sure-enough "cutter," 
such as we used to spin through the snowdrifts with 
in the olden time. It is the first cutter we have 
seen in twenty years, and once in a double-decade is 
about as often as we care to see one. 

Debris ^ e telegraph announces that the 

President has appointed to be 
members of the California Debris 
Commission Colonel Charles Russell Suter, Major 
Charles R. L. 15. Davis and Captain C. E. Gillette, 
all of the corps of engineers. The debris issue is 
likely to be warmly revived by the great river con- 
vention which will open in this city on Wednesday. 
January 15th. County supervisors are instructing 
their delegates, as the following shows: 

Unsolved, By the Board of Supervisors of Sacramento county 
that while we are at all times ready to foster and encourage 
all legitimate classes of mining in California, we are unalter- 
ably opposed to the resumption of hydraulic mining in the 
State of California on the lines proposed by the hydraulic min- 
ers, and protest against the passage of any bill committing 
the Government to the resumption of hydraulic mining, or the 
building of dams at the Government's expense. 

„ On Mondav, Senator Pritchard of 

More ■ ' 

North Carolina gave notice of an 


intended amendment to the tariff 
bill for the restoration of the McKinley duty on 
various articles, including timber, lumber, tobacco, 
live animals, agricultural products, fish, fruit, meats 
of all kinds, poultry, lard, hemp and wool. Senator 
Perkins proposes to work for a sugar impost which 
would be of much advantage to our growing beet 
sugar industry. 

California does not seem to be 
making very satisfactory progress 
with her dried fig industry on a 
White Adriatic basis. Some growers in favored lo- 
cations and by special effort are making this fig go, 
but the mass of growers are disappointed and dis- 
couraged. We are not surprised, then, to read that 
Mr. Bristol, of San Bernardino county, after years 
of trial, has found and used a means of preventing 
the souring of the White Adriatic fig. It is the ax, 
the mattock and the cook-stove. He says that after 
full treatment with these implements his White 
Adriatics vex his soul no more. Probably others 
will affirm Mr. Bristol's heroic remedy. Surely, be- 
fore we can supplant the Smyrna fig, we must have 
a better bug than the blastophaga to make the true 
Smyrna productive here. The blastophaga resists 
all attempts thus far made to make a resident of 
California. Probably one of the best public enter- 
prises which could be undertaken would be to send a 
trained entomologist to Smyrna with orders to stay 
there until he got the blastophaga into good travel- 
ing condition and then come back with him. The 
times seem to need that we send a competent agent 
with the same advice that the Spartan mother gave 
her son when presenting him with a shield. 

Heroic Fig 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

Within the week there has arisen between England 
and Germany an issue which threatens to plunge 
Europe into war. The origin of the trouble 
lies in the remote regions of South Africa, where 
the English spirit of territorial aggrandizement 
seeks to subvert the independence of the Boer re- 
public of the Transvaal. Last week a party of ad- 
venturers from the English Cape Colony, accompanied 
by mnne hundreds <>f British troop*, marched into the 
Boer country with the purpose of overturning the 
government; and while the movement was nominally 
unauthorized, it had clearly the underhand support of 
the British authorities of Cape Colony, who hoped 
to justify an act of aggression by the prestige of a 
brilliant success. But the movement did not suc- 
ceed. The Boers arose against the invasion under 
their President (Kruger), whipped the British badly 
and captured the leader (Jameson), with some five 
hundred of his followers. It was a case where the 
biter got badly bitten. But this is the smallest part 
of the matter. The Boers were originally Germans. 
They reject England's claim to suzeranity and look 
upon Germany as their closest European connection; 
and it appears from the event that Germany cheer- 
fully accepts the relationship. Promptly upon re- 
ceipt of the news of Jameson's defeat, the German 
Council of State was called together, and as a result 
of this conference the following message was sent 
in the name of the Emperor to the President of the 
Boer republic: 

1 express my sincere congratulations that, with your people, 
and without appealing to the help of friendly powers, you 
have succeeded by your own energetic action against the 
armed bands which invaded your country as disturbers of the 
peace, and have thus been enabled to restore peace and a safe- 
guard in defense of the country against attacks from the out- 
side. William. 

It is understating it to say that this made a sensa- 
tion in Europe. Tt was taken to imply that Ger- 
many is on the side of the Boers: and it is univer- 
sally accepted, as no doubt it was meant, as a 
challenge from Cermany to England. The answer 
from the British Foreign Minister was that England 
would not resign her claims of suzerainty over the 
Boer republic. Here the matter stands as we write. 
Peace or war rests with the Emperor. If he stands 
by Boer independence England is pledged to fight; 
and in anticipation she is hurriedly preparing to 
send military forces to South Africa. William has 
not spoken but the general opinion in Europe and 
this country is that he will meet England's denial 
and force in their own spirit and with their own 

As a consequence of the week's events there has 
been a wonderful stirring of the war spirit in 
Europe. In England and Germany patriotic feeling 
runs high and it is clear that the masses would hail 
with satisfaction the commencement of military op- 
erations. If it should come to this, it would unques- 
tionably involve the whole of Europe. Austria and 
Italy would naturally go with Germany; Russia and 
France would take advantage of the confusion to 
over- run Turkey and detach Egypt from the British 

As finally organized, the Venezuelan Boundary 
Commission stands as follows: David J. Brewer, as- 
sociate justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, Judge 
Richard H. Alvey of Maryland, Andrew D. White of 
New York, Frederic R. Coudert of New York and 
Daniel Gilman of Maryland. It is a highly respect- 
able body of men, though hardly so strong in reputa- 
tion as the names originally proposed. They have 
ample authority to visit foreign countries in their 
investigations, and if it is desired will have a naval 
vessel at their disposal. Tt is expected that some 
time during the next sixty days they will go to 
Venezuela and personally inspect the different lines 
of division as claimed by England and the local Re- 
public. English attention has been so taken up 
during the past week with the South African and 
German business that small notice has been given 
the Venezuelan affair; but it appears at last to have 
gotten through the head of John Bull that the 
United States really means business. As a conse- 
quence, the whole tone of the British press is more 
respectful and conciliatory. The London Chronicle 

January 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


now argues for settlement of the matter by arbitra- 
tion, and this probably will be done — not, however, 
until there has been a lot of diplomatic fooling. 


The Cuban patriots have been sweeping the coun- 
try this week, and have advanced to the very gates 
of Havana, and it now looks as if the city would be 
in their hands before the close of the week. Their 
strategy has been to avoid battle and their progress 
has been made by strict adherence to guerrilla 
methods. It has been very hard on the country, for 
they have ravaged with fire the fairest plantations 
and have left a desert in their wake. Havana has 
been rilled with refugees, who now, regarding that 
city as a prison, are seeking to escape from it. 
Every vessel that can be made seaworthy is being 
loaded with men, women and children, eager to 
escape the dangers of a general assault, which is ex- 
pected any hour. It is difficult to see how Spain, if 
once driven from the island, can ever again impose 
her power upon it. They have abundant resources 
and experienced leaders and there is every reason to 
believe that the day of their deliverance is prac- 
tically at hand. 

The expected call for bids for a new series of 
national bonds has been made by Secretary Carlisle. 
The circular calls for bids, to be opened February 
5th, for $100,000,000 of 4 per cent bonds, payable 
thirty years after date, to bear date of February 1, 
1895, the purchasers to pay in gold for the bonds, 20 
per cent of the purchase price to be paid on the ac- 
ceptance of the bid and 20 per cent at the expiration 
of ten days thereafter, or all cash, at the option of 
the purchaser. It is expected that the bonds will 
go at a considerable premium and that the national 
treasury will gain something like $110,000,000 from 
the transaction. Congress is still discussing finances 
without much hope of coming to any decided judg- 
ment. The newest proposition is from Senator Sher- 
man and looks practically to the retirement of the 
greenbacks unless they shall be preferred to gold. 
The Rural Press is not an expert on finance, and 
fails to see any difference between Mr. Sher- 
man's proposition and Mr. Cleveland's. Both 
would, we believe, add largely to our interest-bear- 
ing debt without increasing the volume of current 

Pith of the Week's News. 

Utah was formally admitted into the Union on the 3rd inst. 

Judge Morrow has decided that a native-born Chinese has 
all the rights of American citizenship. 

The exports from Sheffield, England, for 1895 were greater 
by $750,000 than for the preceding year. The reduction in the 
American tariff was responsible for the increase. 

Secretary Olney has sent two war ships into Turkish wa- 
ters to back up his demand for indemnit.v for missionary prop- 
erty recently destroyed by operations in Armenia. 

In the general distribution of holiday honors by Queen Vic- 
toria, A. Lewis, a full-blood negro, chief justice of Sierra 
Leone, was knighted. This is the first instance of the kind. 

Alfred Austin, a poet of the third rank, has been ap- 
pointed poet laureate of England to succeed the late Alfred 
Tennyson. The appointment savors rather too much of politi- 
cal favor. 

Mrs. W. K. Vandekbilt, mother of the girl who recently 
married the Duke of Marlborough, is soon to be married to a 
son of August Belmont. She was divorced from Vanderbilt 
last year. 

It is now generally believed that Ex-President Harrison is 
soon to marry Mrs. Dimmick, niece of the late Mrs. Harrison. 
A significant circumstance is the complete renovation of Mr. 
Harrison's home at Indianapolis. 

The appointment of Robert Lincoln as a member of the 
Venezuelan Boundary Commission has exposed the fact that 
the " son of his father " is by no means well liked at Chicago. 
He is being openly criticised for his association with certain 
greedy corporations, and particularly for lending his great 
name to aid a street-car monopoly in various nefarious 

The Manufacturers' and Producers' Association and the 
kindred organizations of San Francisco will probably ask Con- 
gress to send a Commission to Japan to investigate what the 
" little brown men " intend to do and are capable of doing in 
the way of invading American markets with cheaply manu- 
factured goods. 

By agreement among the transcontinental railroads an ad- 
vance is soon to be made in east-bound freight tariffs. Among 
the commodities to be affected is that of canned goods, upon 
which the rate will be advanced from 00c to 75c per 100 lbs. 
This is the result of Mr. Huntington's recent deal with the 
Pacific Mail Co., by which the Isthmus route will practically 
cease to be a competitor with the railroads. 

Frederick Harrison, the well-known English writer, gives 
judicious advice when he warns his country that it is her in- 
terest to recognize and accept the Monroe doctrine. And 
when he adds that, in the event of war, the United States 
would suffer at first, but in the end would crush every enemy, 
his voice is prophetic. If we have to go to war with any Euro- 
pean power over the Monroe doctrine, that power will not be 
allowed to retain a single inch of territory in the Western 

Santa Clara growers are again considering how to adver- 
tise the fruit product of the county. 

The Marysville Appeal reports that a creamery is soon to be 
established at or near Brown's valley. 

The project of moving the State Board of Horticulture from 
San Francisco to the State Capitol is again being agitated. 

Recent tests have shown that 300 or more cows in the 
dairies tributary to; San Francisco are affected with tubercu- 
losis. All will be killed. 

Oranges are going forward from the southern counties at 
the rate of fifty carloads per dav. It is estimated that the 
season's product will be from 8,000 to 10,000 carloads. 

The issue between the State Railway Commission and the 
Southern Pacific is now before Judge McKenna's court, but it 
will probably be many weary months before it comes to a de- 

Investigation on the part of Gov. Budd and the State 
Board of Examiners has developed gross if not criminal ex- 
travagance in connection with the publication of the State 
school books. 

The berry growers of Pajaro valley are working to get a 
fruit freight train from Pajaro during the berry season. It is 
needed. The old system of irregular freight trains has been 
a heavy loss to berry growers. 

Uriah, January 3. — A. B. McCabe, of Scott's valley, whose 
family was said to have been stricken with glanders some 
days ago, died at his home in that place yesterday. It has 
not been determined whether the disease was really 

A meeting of San Joaquin valley wool growers is to be held 
this week for the purpose of establishing a wool exchange at 
Stockton. The main object is to make a central market. An- 
other object is to establish a uniform rate for sheep-shearing. 
The shearers recently formed a union and raised the price to 
seven cents a head. The growers now intend to fix a uniform 
low rate, and pay no more than that. 

The creamery established at Bodega last April has turned 
out a practical success. Its average product is 1400 pounds of 
butter per week. J. G. Howey is the manager and the direc- 
tors are J. D. Williams, Geo. Gleason, G. W. Smith, B. Bi- 
aggi, Mr. Goodman and Jas. McCaughey. G. W. Smith is 
president; B. Biaggi, vice-president; Mr. Goodman, treas- 
urer, and Jas. McCaughey. secretary. 

The Dalles, Or., Jan. 1.— President M. Reddick of The 
Dalles horse-cannery, who has been East looking after the 
trade of the Portland canneries, says that the horse-cannery 
business, so far as the United States is concerned, is a failure, 
because there is no market here for horse meat. Therefore, 
unless Oregon's product can be got into foreign markets at a 
profit, there is little left to do for the $20,000 plant started up 
a few months ago at Linneton. 

From the Castroville Enterprise: The Moro Cojo ranch, a 
large holding in this vicinity, which has heretofore been util- 
ized by the sugar company in the culture of sugar beets, has 
recently been subdivided into smaller tracts, which will be 
let to tenants for the same use. The carpenters are now en- 
gaged in building and moving the many cottages and barns 
onto the several subdivisions for the convenience of the ten- 
ants. This will enable a number of persons to go into the 
beet culture business on their own account, and will no doubt 
result in a more thorough cultivation than would be possible 
under one management. 

It would not be easy to conceive a showier or more attract- 
ive publication than the holiday souvenir of the San Jose 
Mercury. It is in the form of a portfolio of three hundred 
pages and upwards, every page of which is adorned with one 
or more photographic views of Santa Clara scenes. Orchards, 
vineyards, farms, gardens, fields, dwellings — everything 
which goes to make up the glorious panorama of Santa Clara 
county is set forth with the most generous art, and is supple- 
mented by well-done descriptive articles. In the attractive- 
ness and value of its holiday number, the Mercwry easily bears 
off the palm for the season, having surpassed the efforts even 
of the big city dailies. 

The Riverside Press gives the following statistics of orange 
shipments in the several seasons since 1880: 

crop. If the present weather continues for a few days a very 
large acreage will be sown. Wheat and barlev are being 
sown extensively. Charles Dial, whose prognostication counts 
for a lot among the old residents, predicts that there will be 
an abundant crop this year. Whenever the season is ushered 
in with a heavy frost the year always turns out well, he says. 
Acampo— The farmers are still plowing, although the land now 
is getting pretty dry. A little rain would be very acceptable. 
The farmers are very hopeful of a good vear. Clements— This 
year's acreage will be the largest put in here for the past five 
years. The country in this vicinity does not need very much 
rain, and so the farmers are happy. Boulden Island— If the 
weather holds out as it is, every inch of the farming land will 
be put in grain. We do not want any rain. If we need water 
all we have to do is to open the floodgates. Linden— Thus fat- 
very little plowing has been done here. The farmers are 
waiting for rain. Ludi— About half the usual number of acres 
sown in grain has been put in condition to receive seed. The 
ranchers expect to be able to put in the usual acreage. Late 
rains would be very welcome. Woodbridge — A great deal of 
the land around here has been plowed. A good crop will be 
put in. New Hope— If we have late rains we will be all right. 
A good average acreage has already been put in. 

Weather and Crops. 

.78 of 

Previous Seasons. Cars- 
Crop of 1888-89 982 

Crop of 1889-90 1500 

Crop of 1890-91 14-lfi 

Crop of 1891-92 1406 

Crop of 1892-93 2526 

Crop of 1893-94 1928 

Crop of 1894-95 2800 

Previous Seasons. Cars. 

Crop of 1880-81 15 

Crop of 1881-82 42 

Crop of 1882-83 45 

Crop of 1883-84 50 

Crop of 1884-85 ' 956 

Crop of 1885-8R 506 

Crop of 1 i<86-S7 375 

Crop of 1887-88 725 

For the current season of 1895-015 up to December 29th, 343 
carloads had been dispatched. 

President Colnon of the San Francisco Harbor Commission 
expresses himself as heartily in favor of the proposed free 
market on the water front. In an interview for publication 
he is reported as having said : " I do not see any reason why 
the fruit and vegetable producers should not be given some 
consideration. We have a plan whereby the farmer gets five 
days' free storage for his grain at the seawall, which gives 
him a chance to sell it in that time. We have also granted 
special privileges to the fishermen to aid them in their trade, 
and I cannot see the slightest objection to helping the fruit 
growers out. My idea is to set aside a section of the seawall, 
as near to the business center of the city as possible, for their 
use. They might be charged a slight toll, but I would be in 
favor of giving them five days' free wharfage. They could 
come along with their shipments, and if they could not sell to 
dealers they could to the general public. It would be a bless- 
ing to the poor, I am sure, would aid the growers and would 
relieve the annual pressure on us at Jackson street." 

Washington, January 2. — According to the information fur- 
nished by the Russian sugar manufacturers on November 1st 
last and transmitted to the State Department by United 
States Consul-General Karel, at St. Petersburg, the area of 
land in Russia under beet cultivation in 1895 amounted to 
814,419 acres, or 29,855 acres more than in 1894. The quantity 
of sugar is estimated at 717,558 tons, which would be an in- 
crease of 115,007 tons over last year's crop. The Consul-Gen- 
eral, however, points out that these estimates are founded on 
the most favorable conditions, which may not be realized. 
The prices of sugar have risen abroad, causing an increased 
demand for Russian sugar. The United States sugar trust is 
said to have taken 100,000 bags from Hamburg, considerably 
decreasing the stock there, and other elements of the in- 
crease are the intention of Germany to raise the bounty, and 
the existing raw weather which impedes the manufacture of 
sugar. The purchases by the United States sugar trust are 
taken as an indication that their stock accumulated before 
the passage of the Wilson bill has been exhausted, and a 
further cause for increased prices is the doubt existing as to 
whether Cuba can be relied upon to export any sugar this 

The Stockton Mail prints the following reports from the 
various sections of San Joaquin county : Loekford — Nearly 
every acre of available land in this vicinity has been put in 

The following weather and crop summary is issued 
by the State Agricultural Society in co-operation 
with the TJ. S. Weather Bureau and California State 
Weather Service, James A. Barwick, Director: 
The total rainfall reported for the month 
Eureka, 7.50 inches; Fresno and Los Angeles, 
an inch; Red Bluff, 2.99 inches; Sacramento, 
inches; San Francisco, 1.43 inches; San Luis Obispo, 
.08 of an inch, and San Diego, .27 of an inch. As 
compared with the normal precipitation there a de- 
ficiency of rainfall ranging from .69 of an inch at 
Eureka to 3.68 inches at Los Angeles. 

The cold wave of the last few days of the month 
injured a few, but very few, oranges and lemons. 
The high winds of the 28th and 29th did more dam- 
age to those crops than did the frost, for it blew a 
great number off the trees and spiked a great many 
more. Plowing and seeding are going on at a fair 
rate, but rain is badly needed from one end of the 
Slate to the other, so plowing can be done before it 
is too late for seeding, etc. 

The folio wing are the lowest temperatures regis- 
tered at the points named and are from stations 
where only self-registering instruments are used. 
These temperatures generally occurred between the 
26th and 31st: Redding, Red Bluff, and Oroville, 
28°, Newcastle and Orangeville, 27°; Folsom and Sac- 
samento, 28°; Hollister, 23°; Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, San Luis Obispo county, 20°; Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Tulare county, 22°; Los 
Gatos, 31°; Fresno, 26°; Santa Paula, 32°; Ventura, 
36°; Santa Barbara, 22°; Pasadena, 32°; Redlands, 
26°; Los Angeles, 34°; Ontario, 23°; San Bernardino, 
24°; Agricultural Experiment Station, San Bernar- 
dino county, 28°; Crafton, 26°; Riverside, 24°; San 
Jacinto, 19° — coldest known for many years; Escon- 
dido, 22°; San Diego, 34°; Poway, 18°— the lowest in 
seventeen years. 

Sacramento Valley. 

Shasta (Shasta).— Fall plowing nearly all completed. Early 
sown grain came up nicely and is looking well. While the 
ground is not suffering for rain, a little at present would help 
things along. 

Tehama (Red Bluff (.—Three inches of rain fell during the 
month, which is two inches less than the average for the past 
eighteen Decembers. The rain was so well distributed, how- 
ever, that beneficial effects resulted therefrom. The ground 
is in fair condition and considerable plowing and seeding was 
done during the month. 

Butte (Gridley).— Heavy frosts for the last week in the 
month, which is good for summer fallow. The frost nipped 
young orange trees in this section, but the older trees seem 
to stand it all right. 

Glenn (Fruto).— Grain and grass has made no growth during 
the month on account of cold weather, which has been quite 
severe. Crops are in fine condition ; plowing and seeding is 
still going on, as the clear weather has been favorable to such 

Colusa (Colusa).— The continued cold and dry weather is 
very trying on the grain. There is some complaint that late 
sowing will rot in the ground and have to be resown. 

Yuba (Wheatland).— Grain looks backward, but it is be- 
lieved there is sufficient moisture to insure good rooting of the 
plant, and with a reasonable amount of rain later on, a good 
crop is anticipated. 

Placer (Newcastle). — Oranges upon the trees have not 
been injured by the frosts in this vicinity. Sufficient rain has 
fallen to enable the farmers to plow and seed their fields in 
grain growing portions of the county. 

Sacramento (Sacramento). — The weather has been fine for 
seeding and the ground in good condition, but rain is very 
much needed at the present time to bring up the grain already 
sown. The cold, frosty weather is doing no harm, on account 
of its being so dry. 

Solano (Briggs' Vineyard).— The farmers are all at work 
plowing and seeding grain, and about one-half of the crop is 
in. No damage has yet resulted from the heavy frosts; rain 
is needed very badly. (Batavia). — The weather has been 
very favorable to crops; the summer fallow grain is looking 
well, and what winter sown there is is now coming up and is a 
good stand ; most of the farmers have all their winter plowing 
done, and a good rain at the present time would be very bene- 

Coast Valleys. 

Nai'a (Napa). — The scarcity of moisture and the excessive 
cold weather has retarded the growth of all vegetable mat- 
ter. The early-sown grain is up but seems to make no head- 
way, but the late-sown grain is not yet up. 

Sonoma (Sonoma).— Rainfall to date as compared with last 
year is as follows : This season, 6.52 inches; last season to 
same date, 17.58 inches. A large area is under cultivation; 
the early sowing and planting is doing very well. The cold 
wave and heavy frosts of late retard the growth of vegeta- 
tion and feed, but the frosts will damage nothing. 

Alameda (San Leandro).— The ground is in good condition 
for plowing. Early-sown grain is looking well. (Niles)— 
The outlook for crops is not at the present time very flatter- 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 11, 189(1. 

ing. Rainfall for the season to date is 4.63 inches, as against 
13 20 inches up to the same time last year. Some early pota- 
toes have been planted, but no appearance of them above 
ground vet. The early vegetables have made no growth ana 
if a change does not come soon, they will rot in the ground. 
San Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaquin (Stocktoni.— Lack of rain and the constant dry- 
ing winds have had a tendency against the farming interests 
but the sowing was done so late that small injury will result 
from lack of rain and the continued dry weather, although 
rain is badly needed at the present time. 

Calavekas (Milton).— Feed is late and cattle are looking 
poorlv, unless they are fed hay. The weather is too cool for 
grain or grass to grow, though it has started well. 

Stanislaus (Turlock).— The month has been too dry and cold 
for all kinds of crops. Grain that has been sown is not doing 
very well for lack of moisture and warmth. Considerable 
plowing is being done, but at no time during the month has 
the ground been in good condition, and now it is very dry 
again. If it does not rain soon, farming operations will have 
to suspend. 

Merced (Merced).— More rain is needed in this county be- 
fore plowing and seeding can be done to any great advantage, 
and the high winds have had a very bad effect and the pre- 
vailing cold weather is injuring crops generally. 

Tulare (Agricultural Experiment Station).— The condition 
of crops for this month in comparison with December of 1S!I4 
is unfavorable on account of so little rainfall and continued 
cold weather, the frosty nights retarding everything. When 
plowing is being done now it exposes all dry soil except where 
the land had been irrigated last year; but for all this draw- 
back, plowing and seeding is going on about the same as 
last year. 

Kekn (Bakersheld).— A large acreage is being sown to wheat 
and the ground is in good condition and prospects favorable. 

Southern California. 

Santa Bahisaua iSanta Maria).— It is very dry here. The 
39th of November gave an inch of rain, which favored plowing 
on all but the heaviest soils, about half the usual amount 
having been put in. Grass is green but very short, but noth- 
ing is yet in a suffering condition. Grain is coming up where 
sown early. 

Ventura (Ventura).— No damage from frosts is reported. 
No plowing of any importance has been done. (Santa Paula) — 
Frost has cut down newly planted lemon trees in exposed 
places. There has been no plowing or planting in this section. 
There has been little rain. 

Los Anueles (Los Angeles).— Very cold weather, with fre- 
quent frosts and high northerly winds, have damaged the 
orange crop to some extent in exposed localities. The extent 
of the damage cannot be determined at the present time. It 
is said to be slight, however, 

A gr if it Itit rn I Kx}>rrimrnt Station, near Pomona. — The high 
desert winds of the 2Kth did considerable damage to fruit 
such as oranges and olives by being blown off the trees in 
some localities. The dry wind shriveled the oranges and 
olives on the trees. 

Riverside. — About two-thirds of a crop of grain sown, it be- 
ing too dry, and what grain is sown is not growing to any 
extent. Oranges a little better than usual. They were dam- 
aged somewhat on the night of the 29th by frost. 

San Dieuo.— The rainfall up to date is not in sufficient 
quantity to make the ground work well, and therefore the 
plowing and seeding have been desultory. The majority of 
our farmers are waiting for more rain. 

Coasl Count ii s. 

Humboldt (Hydesville). — The very dry weather retarded 
farm work during November, but since the 1st of December 
the weather has been very favorable and the farmers are get- 
ting their work well under way. 

Menhocino (Philo).— Crops nearly ail in. Damage has oc- 
curred to some extent by the the frost. Grass is backward. 

San Benito (Hollister). — The outlook for grain is bad, the 
weather being cold and dry, and all indications point to a dry- 
year and a short crop. A large acreage will bo put in and 
about one-third of the seeding for hay and grain has been 

San Li is Oiu<i'o (San Luis Obispo). — All the ground is in 
good order and condition for plowing. There will be a large 
acreage sown this year. In the eastern part of the county 
there is plenty of old feed, so cattle are doing very well. On 
the coast pasture is rather scarce. Haiti and warm weather 
are needed for the dairyman, as the hard frosts are keeping 
back the pasture and are hard on cows calving. 

The Wool Growers and the Tariff. 

We recently alluded to the meeting of wool grow- 
ers in Washington at the opening of Congress, and 
the adoption of a memorial to the law makers was 
mentioned. The Sheep Breeder brings definite infor- 
mation of what is asked for, viz. : restoration of wool 
to the dutiable list, on a basis of 12 cents per pound 
on unwashed Merino wools and the wools of the mut- 
ton breeds of sheep; a duty of 24 cents per pound on 
washed wools of this class, and a duty of 36 cents 
per pound on scoured wools of this class — the Merino 
and mutton breed wools being put in one class under 
this schedule. 

The memorial also asks for a specific duty of eight 
cents per pound on third-class wools, without refer- 
ence to valuation. It sets forth the fact that these 
rates of duty are absolutely necessary to save the 
American wool industry from ruin. The memorial 
was very voluminous, and embodied a review of the 
present condition of the sheep and wool industry, 
its rapid decline under free wool, and the duty of 
Congress to take immediate steps for its protection 
ayrainst ruinous foreign competition. The proposi- 
tion of the wool growers is certainly the most prac- 
tical and effectual one that has been presented to 
Congress in recent years, and if adopted by that 
body would soon put the wool growing industry of 
the country on a solid and prosperous basis. These 
specific duties asked for do away with any possibility 
for undervaluations and all other setbacks that have 
hitherto attended legis'ation on this important ques- 
tion. There can be no doubt whatever that the 
adoption of such a wool schedule as is presented in 
this memorial, would not only restore the sheep and 
wool industry of the country to its former high pros- 

perity, but within a few years would double and 
even quadruple the number of sheep now in the 
country, and make it possible for the wool growers 
of the United States to furnish all the wool needed 
for home consumption, a consumation most devoutly 
to be desired, not only by the wool growers them- 
selves, but in the interest of national economy and 

The proposition presented by the wool growers 
simplifies the whole plan of legislation in behalf of 
the wool industry, and makes equally simple and 
feasible the execution of the law embodying duties 
on foreign wools, and no fault can be found with it. 
That it will meet opposition in Congress by the 
friends of the manufacturers and wool importers, 
there can be no question. These interests have been 
arrayed against the wool growers, and have been 
generally successful in nearly every attempt at legis- 
lation in the last quarter century. They have suc- 
ceeded in pulling the wool over the eyes of commit- 
tees of sheep men, heretofore entrusted with the 
presentation of their views to Congress, and finally 
outgeneraling them in committee. That they will 
undertake the same game again, and by liberal use 
of money, intrigue and deception, attempt to thwart 
all practical legislation, nobody can doubt. It is to 
be hoped, however, that we have friends enough in 
both houses of Congress to triumphantly carry to its 
final passage a bill embodying substantially the 
wishes of the wool growers, as set forth in the 

The wool growers of the country, without regard 
to party, are well nigh unanimous for the earliest 
possible legislation in behalf of American wool, and 
will not quarrel as to details so long as the measures 
adopted are practical and decisive. Little fault can 
be found with the proposition on the score of the 
measure of protection asked. It is neither too high 
nor too low. Free wool advocates cannot oppose it 
on the ground that it is excessive, and all flock- 
owners of the country will be satisfied with it in the 
absence of higher duties, for the reason that it will 
at once restore confidence, increase their flocks, 
stimulate the industry in every part, and make it as 
a whole fairly prosperous. In the light of so many 
failures in earlier legislation, the plan will be hailed 
with pleasure by the hundreds of thousands of sheep 
men who have been well nigh ruined by the free wool 
legislation of the last Congress. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 

Pruning Thompson's Seedless. 

To the Editor: — Please give the proper method of pruning 
Thompson's Seedless grape vines through the columns of the 
Press. W. I. Sears. 

Orange Vale. 

Thompson's Seedless, like the Sultana, requires 
long pruning. Wickson's " California Fruits " says: 
" Long pruning admits of degrees, but it usually sig- 
nifies using a five or six instead of a four-foot stake 
and leaving the selected canes from eighteen inches 
to three feet or longer instead of cutting back to two 
or three buds, as in short pruning. These long canes 
are securely tied to the long stakes. 

"With varieties needing long pruning, the first 
two or three buds next the old wood do not bear 
fruit, hence the need of leaving buds farther removed 
from the old wood to secure it. This habit of the 
vine invites the practice of growing a long cane for 
fruit and at the same time providing for wood growth 
for the following year's fruiting by cutting another 
cane from the same spur down to two or three buds. 
By this practice the wood which has borne the fruit 
is cut back to a bud each winter, and the cane which 
has grown only wood is pruned long for the fruit of 
the following summer. A modification of the prac- 
tice is to prune the canes from some of the spurs 
long and from other spurs short, thus making the 
spurs alternate from wood bearing to fruit bearing 
from year to year." 

No Prevalence of Hog Cholera 

in San 

To tiik Editor: — The Rural of December 21st 
contained an article in regard to the prevalence of 
hog cholera in San Joaquin county, citing the Stock- 
inn Mail as authority. I wish to correct the im- 
pression spread abroad by the Mail, and tell the 
readers of the Rural that there have been a few 
isolated cases of the cholera, and the Mail happened 
to hear of one; and with its usual well-known pro- 
pensity for distorting the facts, spreads it broadcast 
over the land that the hog cholera is devastating 
San Joaquin county. I have made inquiry and do 
not believe there is a single case in the vicinity of 
Stockton at present, and believe that the only thing 
wrong with San Joaquin hogs now is that they are 
so " awful cheap." 

For the benefit of those who may fear hog cholera, 
I will say that common bluestene is one of the best 
preventives known. Soak the feed in a strong so- 
lution or give in the drinking water. Aconite (allo- 
pathic tincture) given a few drops in the drinking 
water is also excellent. Care must be used in the 
use of the latter, as it is a deadly poison. 

Stockton, Dec. Hist. Chas. A. Stowe, 

Breeder of Berkshires. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 8. 189(i, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 


CT i T|i i\- 

Total Rainfall for the 

[ Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 

Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Maximum Temperature 

Minimum Temperature 








Red Hluff 


16 66 

12 25 









San Francisco 

4 10 

14 84 

10 77 






5 13 | 



San Luis Obispo. 

4 on 





Los Angeles 

1 71 





San Diego 

1 57 

3 20 









* Indicates no record. 

Killing Bermuda Grass. 

To the Editok : — I would like to learn if any of your readers 
know of a way to kill Bermuda grass. This pest has got a 
start on my place by the seed floating down upon it during 
floods, and I am unable as yet to find a remedy to destroy the. 
pest. Tnos. B. HutOHINs. 


We only know of one successful line of treatment 
for Bermuda grass, Johnson grass, morning glory 
and all that lot of pestiferous, running-root class of 
plants. This treatment consists in cutting con- 
stantly with a weed cutter (a sharp horizontal knife), 
running so as to pass under the whole surface and 
run so often that the plant is never allowed to show 
a shoot on the surface. It is of no use merely to 
cultivate or "'weed-cut'' as you would for other 
weeds. This spreads the pest more and more; but if 
you continually cut, under the surface, the rising 
shoots, and never let them get the light, you will kill 
the plant surely, but it may take two seasons to do 
it. Persistent knifing is the only practicable method 
of subduing these formidable trespassers, and for 
this purpose the best tool is a ttraight knife which, 
when set properly, is self-sharpening. In beginning 
the treatment dig out or plow out and burn up all 
roots which can be raked or picked up, and then be- 
gin the cutting; and. as stated, never wait till you 
can see the pest on the top of the ground before you 
begin cutting. 

Poisoned Rodents and Mildewed Fodder. 

To the Editor: — I cannot get along without you, 
and send money order for renewal. 

If poison is put out for rabbits, gophers, etc., are 
not pet dogs and cats likely to be poisoned by eating 
the poisoned creatures ? T^es, if the rodent is 
greedy and eats a good lot of the poison. — Ed.] 

Reading of alfalfa injuring stock after the first 
rain, I think that nearly all growing fodder is unwhole- 
some, from mildew perhaps, after the first rain. 
You published accounts of the second growth of 
Egyptian corn injuring stock. I fancy this was be- 
cause the stock was turned out of it after the first 
rain. For days after the rain there is water held b\ 
the leaves — quite a reservoir at the base of each 
leaf — and a mildewed appearance to the corn. My 
hens have eaten a waterpail full of this corn fodder, 
chopped in the clover cutter, each day, but they 
won't eat it since the rain. I substitute mangel 
leaves, which are about the only greens of last Sum- 
mers's growth that are not mildewed. 

Wrights, Cal. Alfred P. Skinner. 

Resistant Vines. 

The discussion of resistant vines in the columns of 
the St. Helena Star seems to have culminated in a 
general round up of all disputants at a meeting last 
week, in which the subject was rediscussed rira voce. 
The Sim- sums up the discussion in this way: 

First — That Riparias are permenent resistants 
and that they are best adapted to moist soil and 
damp, cool climate. 

Second — That Lenoir and Rupestris are also re- 
sistants, but have not been so thoroughly tested as 
the Riparias, but that they do well on such soil as is 
in the St. Helena district. 

Third — That the grafting of both long and short 
scions have been productive of good results, some 
preferring the long and others the short. 

Fourth — That deep plowing before planting is very 
beneficial; the deeper the better. 

Fifth — That continuous care and cultivation are 
necessary to bring forth the results 80 much desired 
by viticulturists. 

January 11, 1896. 


Early Pruning vs. Late Pruning. 

By J. C. Shinn of Niles at the meeting of the State Horticultural 

I shall not go into any long discussion of the 
objects and aims of pruning as applied to deciduous 
fruits, but will merely state that my own objects in 
pruning are primarily to get large and abundant 
fruit and regular crops. Of course, I try to so 
shape the trees that they may easily hold up the 
large crops that I wish them to bear, and I also 
make them as regular and symmetrical in form as 
possible, but everything is secondary to size, quan- 
tity and quality of fruit, for props may be used if 
the branches are too weak, and beauty of form in 
the trees is not a necessity for profit in the orchard. 

One may have abundant fruit for a few years, at 
least, on trees with thick, brushy tops. Indeed, 
you can increase the output for a time by omitting 
the trimming, as is generally done in the prune and 
almond, with that object in view, as I judge, but 
with most varieties of trees it is necessary to thin 
out, and head back, each year, the 'way and time of 
doing the same being determined by locality and 
variety of tree. 

The object in doing this is not, I think, as some 
one said lately, to threaten the life of the tree and 
so bring into play the curious tendency to reproduc- 
tion that has been noted by scientific men in both 
plants and animals whose vigor is reduced, and 
which >s one of nature's wonderful safeguards against 
the extinction of any species. If the fruit grower 
had that object in view he would half girdle the tree, 
or he would root prune it as recommended in Eng- 
ligh works, and practiced frequently by old world 
gardeners on trees that do not bear sufficiently. 
With the same object in view the roots of their pot 
trees are allowed to get " bound." 

As I understand the proposition, reducing the 
roots, or allowing them to get " pot bound," reduces 
the vigor of the tree because it cuts off a part of the 
customary nourishment; but reducing the top in- 
creases the vigor, at least as far as the branches 
left are concerned, for the nourishment meant for a 
number of branches is concentrated in a few. More- 
over, this very concentrating process is in itself 
stimulating, and I think no one will contradict me 
when I say that a pruned orchard will make more 
cubic inches of wood in a year than one that is not 
pruned. I have not the facts to prove the assertion, 
but it is a matter of common observation, I think. 

Effects of Early Pruning. — Now, as to early prun- 
ing and its effect on the growth of the tree, size and 
quantity of fruit, etc. The custom is growing in the 
bay counties of starting to trim cherry trees almost 
as soon as the fruit is off, and this is followed up 
with the apricots long before the leaves are off from 
them, and all the pruning is done now in many 
orchards at about the time that it was commenced 
in the old regime. The advocates of the system 
claim that this early pruning insures regular fruit- 
ing, and large fruit, and increases the vigor of 
the tree. 

I have in my own practice adopted the plan, and 
whereas I used to get done the pruning about March 
1st, I am now done by about the 15th of November, 
and am able in many ways to do it much more 
cheaply by doing it so early. I do not begin to trim 
the cherry trees quite as soon as the fruit is off, be- 
cause there is some growth usually still going on at 
that time, and cutting the tops aad leaves off before 
their summer's work is done must certainly reduce 
the supply of elaborated sap with which the tree will 
start in on its work of the next spring, and would, 
in my opinion, be an injury, for the sap left in the 
trunk and limbs after the fall of the leaf is all that 
the tree has to depend on for the swelling of the leaf 
and fruit buds, and the heavy strain of blossoming 
and setting the young fruit in most of our orchard 
trees. All this has to be done by the supply of elab- 
orated sap stored away the summer before for that 

I would, then, begin the trimming of each variety 
just at the time when the active life of the leaf is 
done, and the leaf buds and blossom buds are being 
formed for the new year, or, rather, are being en- 
larged and perfected and filled with rich sap in prep- 
aration for the work that they expect to do. If left 
alone, the best buds will be placed near the ends of 
the new wood, and the best of all will be the termi- 
nal bud on the tip, in varieties like the cherry; but 
by the time that this process begins the active life 
of the leaf is finished, and, though it will hang on 
for a long time, probably, and may do a little work 
in elaborating sap, the active, vigorous life is fin- 
ished, and it wants little but the breaking of the 
mechanical union with the branch to close its life. 
Tf, now, I can trim the branch at this time, I will be 
able to direct this sap to the better development of 
the blossom and leaf buds that I wish to have left, 
and if I cut off half of them those that remain will 
certainly reap a great benefit. 

Practice of Early Printing. — I start at this time, 
then, as nearly as I can. with each variety. Cher- 

ries first, then prunes, and apricots, and peaches, 
and pears, and apples, taking old trees first. It is 
often better to prune old apricots before young 
cherries, and so on, and trees of the kinds and in lo- 
cations where a late growth is made should not, I 
should think, be pruned before said growth is made, 
or the tree will be stunted and injured. 

The manner of heading in and thinning out is much 
the same as was the custom in the old style, but 
it is perhaps a little harder to shape well, for the 
leaves bother one somewhat. 

The theory is correct, I think, and is merely an- 
other step in the same direction that California 
fruit growers have made in the thinning of fruit and 
in winter trimming. There are three periods of 
great strain on a tree, viz., the perfecting of the 
fruit, the blossoming and the perfecting of the fruit 
buds. They come in the order named, I suppose, 
and so thinning is probably the most important of 
all; but the blossoming is a very great tax, and one 
important object of any pruning is, as I understand, 
to dispense with surplus and badly placed flower and 
leaf buds; but if we can go a step farther and pre- 
vent the above badly placed and unnecessary buds 
from being developed, or at least cut them off before 
they have been a very heavy tax on the tree, it will 
be a great benefit. 

Results of Early Pruning. — Now as to practice. I 
pruned in the winter, for several years, an old 
cherry orchard that was apparently doomed and 
fast dying out, and I could not succeed in getting it 
into a thrifty condition. Trees would die without 
any reason that I could find, and I could not infuse 
any vigor into them by the use of the knife. I began 
about three years ago to prune early, and the first 
year that I did so I pruned them soon after the fruit 
was off. They have stopped dying and make a good 
growth each year, and one would hardly know them 
for the same trees. The effect on the size of the 
fruit has been fully as remarkable, too. 

With other varieties of trees I cannot say that I 
have been able to see as great a benefit as compared 
with the old system, but it is my opinion that they 
bear somewhat more regularly and are not so apt to 
bear too heavy one year and nothing the next. But 
it takes so much to really prove a fact, that I would 
hate to be quoted as saying that that had been the 
effect, though that is just what is claimed for the 
early pruning by its advocates in general. 

Conreniencr and Economy. — The convenience of the 
system is something that I am sure and positive on. 
The orchardist who has a mixed orchard hires his 
men for the season, and when they are done with 
picking cherries, or soon thereafter, he can put 
them on the pruning and he has at all times on the 
place all the help necessary for fruit picking if he 
should get in a rush. He can give the men steady 
work and lose nothing by it; in fact, he yains much, 
for his pruning will be done in the long days when 
the men work full time, rather than in the short- 
days, as under the same old system. The brush may 
be allowed to dry on the ground and be burned there 
in small piles and thus save hauling, or if hauled 
out, the teams are not called away from the plowing 
to do it, and do not pack the wet soil by passing 
over the same after the heavy winter rains have 

In wet winters like that of 1894-95 the saving on 
early pruning is immense, especially where, as in 
the interior of the State, the men are often boarded; 
for in November and December of that year in many 
places less than twenty days' work in the orchards 
could be done out of the sixty that the rations had 
to be eaten. This would about double the cost of the 
work during these months. 

There is still another great benefit in the cutting 
off of the millions of young scale that are still on the 
leaves at the time of the early pruning. There will 
also be many left below the part cut off, but the de- 
struction of those must be a help. 

As to the claim made that the early pruning will 
cause the fruit of the ensuiug year to ripen early I can 
say nothing, for I have not noticed. I will say, how- 
ever, that the buds seem to swell rather earlier in 
the spring, which I suppose would be dangerous in a 
cold country, but in the glorious climate of this 
State the only risk from frost, of course, is to the 
tender young fruit just as or just after it sets. 

Some Hard Questions. 

To tub Editor: — As I fancy others may be interested in 
some questions which puzzle me, I venture to ask your an- 
swers to the following: 

1. What almond will grow and bear well near the sea in 
San Diego county, in a locality where the I. X. L., Ne Plus 
Ultra and Nonpareil grow very well, but, up to seven years 
old, have never had more than a dozen nuts to the tree 

2. What banana, grown for fruit, in an absolutely frostless 
locality, and well protected from wind, will produce the best 
variety of fruit ? 

:!. Where can date palm shoots or suckers be obtained, from 
the imported fruiting stock ? 

4. What olive is least subject to scale, near the sea ? 

5. Where can the ladybug which destroys the black scale 
be obtained; at what price, and what is the best way of 
colonizing it ? 

I trust these questions will seem to you to be of sufficient 
general interest to be worth an answer from your experts, be- 
fore the planting season. Walter Nordroff. 

28 Ellendale Place, Los Angelos. 

We are obliged to resort to the " referendum " on 
many of these questions. Those who have observa- 

tion to meet questions 1, 2 and 4 will do public ser- 
vice by putting it upon record in our columns. 

We do not suppose that offshoots from imported 
date palm varieties are yet to be had. The only im- 
portations we know of were those made by the De- 
partment of Agriculture and distributed in Califor- 
nia and Arizona. Those in California were planted 
at the University experiment stations at Tulare and 
Pomona. Though they have commenced to multiply 
by offshoots, there are none yet to be had. It is a 
very slow business to multiply date palms by off- 
shoots. Seedling date palms can of course be grown 
with great facility, but they are like other seedling 
fruits — of great variety and uncertainty in charac- 

Mr. Alexander Craw, entomologist of the State 
Board of Horticulture, can furnish colonies of 
rhizobius in the proper season, and he issues a circu- 
lar of advice on their treatment. 

Note on Lemons. 

At the last meeting of the Southern California 
Pomological Society, at Tustin, Dr. W. B. Wall 
spoke on lemon culture. He said that the successful 
culture of lemons depends primarily and essentially 
upon our favoring condition in climate. The lemon 
tree is a coarse feeder and will grow and can be 
made to thrive in light, sandy soils; it also does well 
in heavy, clayey or adobe lands. On the Pacific 
coast no citrus tree does well where water stands 
very near, or within a few feet of the surface— the 
tree is liable to be scrubby and the fruit coarse. 

The distance trees should be planted apart de- 
pends somewhat upon the soil and their future man- 
agement or training. I believe twenty-five feet to 
be generally about right. Head the tree about two 
and a half feet from the ground; keep it shortened in 
for three or four years, forcing a thick, stocky basis 
for after growth. The tree by this time is bearing 
freely, and the fruit will pull or bend down the long 
shoots which will then put up or throw out small 
fruit-bearing timber all along the upper side of the 
drooping limb. I think this preferable to a continu- 
ous shortening of all long growth. A dense shady 
tree is what is wanted, since the denser the shade 
the more symmetrical and smooth the fruit will be. 
Limbs that reach to and lie upon the ground may 
from time to time, as needed, be tipped off. 

The tree requires about the same irrigation and 
cultivation as the orange. I prefer shallow cultiva- 
tion, say a depth of not over four inches. However, 
other soils may require or be better with deeper 
plowing. As the tree grows older the fruit becomes 
more uniform in size and shape, better in texture, 
and in every way improved. The tree and fruit are 
more susceptible to cold than the orange, still a half- 
grown lemon may freeze through and break the cells, 
the juice all dry out, and if to remain in this condi- 
tion be absolutely worthless; but Nature, if allowed 
to (do not get in a hurry and pull off the fruit), will 
repslir the cells, refill them with juice (a beautiful 
process) and make a perfect lemon — at least so 
nearly so that no expert can detect the former in- 


California Vegetable Growing. 


To the Editor:— It would be impossible, I think, 
for any person to write even a single article on the 
above subject which would apply equally as well to 
every part of this State, as there is, perhaps, a 
greater diversity of climate than there is in any 
other part of the world within the same extent of 
territory. When, for instance, ice is being cut and 
stored by the hundred of tons in the vicinity of 
Truckee, for the purpose of supplying it during the 
hot summer months to those who live in the warmer 
portions of the State, the people of southern Cali- 
fornia, as well as in other places, are sending their 
luscious oranges by the carload over the snow- 
crowned Sierras to the millions of people who are 
living where old Winter now reigns supreme. 

Seed Time in California. — Readers of the Rural 
will, I trust, always keep in mind while reading any 
of the many articles I have already written for its 
columns, or those I may be able to furnish in the 
future, that I write altogether from a Napa valley 
standpoint, and, therefore, they must govern them- 
selves accordingly, especially as to the time for 
them to plant any particular kind of garden seeds, 
which, of course, will be owing in a great measure to 
the locality where they reside. I most generally 
enter into the minutest details as to just how I pro- 
ceed in all of my garden work, but, notwithstanding 
this, I frequently have communications from read- 
ers of the Rural asking for a " little more informa- 
tion " on the subject treated. A man in Trinity or 
Modoc county might write to me in February, ask- 
ing me to inform him as to the best time to plant 
early peas, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, lettuce, etc., 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 11, 189(5. 

while at the same time persons living in some south- 
ern counties would have plenty of these early veget- 
ables for their tabie, as well as to sell, and would be 
getting ready to set out tomato plants, and to 
prepare their ground for summer squashes, cucum- 
bers, melons, etc. 

Hard Question* Ashed. — I must confess that T am 
often at a loss to know the best way to answer many 
questions I receive from those who evidently read the 
columns of the Rural very carefully, and seemingly 
take a great interest in gardening. Then, again, to 
answer some of their questions, scientifically and 
thoroughly, I would be under the necessity of taking 
a three years' course at the State University at Ber- 
keley, or elsewhere, as my present knowledge is not 
equal to the occasion. I received a communication 
from a voung man not long since who informs me 
that he" is very anxious to learn all he can about gar- 
dening, raising poultry, etc., and asks me ten differ- 
ent questions on the subjects. As he is a reader of 
vour valuable paper, I shall in due time do all in my 
power to answer him through its columns, and in 
like manner to answer many other questions 1 have 
lately received. Tt is impossible for me to answer 
all these personally. 

Another young man writes: " Which do you con- 
sider the best feed for a milch cow, squashes of 
various kinds, or mangel wurtzels ? That is, which 
has the most real nutriment, the least amount of 
water, and the largest per cent of sugar ? " 

Well, I was greatly pleased when I read this ques- 
tion, as I like to see or hear of young men who are 
thirsting for information on any important subject. 
Perhaps 1 had better answer this question now, or 
attempt to, notwithstanding it is about as difficult a 
one for me as if he had asked me just when a pig 
gets to be a hog. The past season I raised a small 
lot of the large variety of squashes— one of them 
weighed 109 pounds. I also raised about twelve tons 
of my hard-shelled hybrid squash, as well as a few 
tons of mangel wurtzels. I have sold most of the 
above named to residents of this vicinity for their 
milch cows, reserving, however, two tons or more of 
my hybrid to sell for table use, with the exception of 
some extra choice ones from which T shall save the 

I have often told my neighbors that hi my judg- 
ment one ton of my hybrid squash was worth more 
to feed milch cows, or, in fact, any other kind of 
stock, than two or more tons of the mammoth vari- 
ety or the same amount of mangel wurtzels; but 
somehow they could not see it. I had the curiosity, 
therefore, after 1 received the last communication 
just referred to, to experiment a little in my very 
limited way, and so cut exactly one pound from my 
109-pound squash, and the same amount from a 23- 
pound hybrid squash, as well as from a 20 pound 
mangel. I put each lot, separate, into a large 
iron pan, which was placed in the oven just after 
breakfast. I kept a slow fire all day and about night 
it was all thoroughly dried, at least so much so that 
I am satisfied it would keep for years in any climate. 
Now for the result of my rude experiment. ^The 
pound taken from the large squash, as well as from 
the mangel, weighed exactly 1* ounces each, while 
the pound from my hybrid squash weighed 41 ounces. 
In this proportion one ton of the large variety of 
soft-shelled squashes, or of mangels, would only 
afford 187J pounds of dry substance, while the re- 
mainder— 18124 pounds — would be water. The ton 
of hybrid squash would consist of 5621 pounds of dry 
substance, and 1 4B7A pounds of water. Friends of 
mine here opened their eyes when they saw my dried 
samples, as well as the figures here given, which 
show that the large squashes and mangels afforded 
only one-third of the amount of dry substance that 
my hybrid squash does, and now they admit that I 
was about right in my conclusions, and think, as I 
do, that my hybrid squash must certainly contain a 
much larger percentage of sugar and nutriment 
than the larger variety, or the mangel, and conse- 
quently is more valuable for stock of any kind. 

Planting for Early Vegetables. — As to the right 
time to plant seeds for early vegetables, I have 
found by an experience of twelve years that I have 
resided here that as a general thing it is not advis- 
able to plant but a very few kinds during December 
or January, as this is usually the coldest part of the 
year here. Onions and lettuce are very hardy, and 
can resist a great amount of cold or rainy weather; 
for this reason the seed can be planted as soon as > 
the first fall rains moisten the ground sufficiently.! 
They will make a very slow growth during the cold- ! 
est weather, but will generally commence to grow 
nicely early in February. It is not advisable to 
plant turnips, beets, peas, radish, cabbage, cauli- 
flower, as well as many other kinds of seeds, as long 
as the temperature gets down to 34°, 32°, and some- 
times 26° above zero. 

Then, again, most of our longest, coldest, as well 
as heaviest, rains come before February, which is 
the best month to commence an early garden in 

There is always an exception to all general rules. 
For instance, we sometimes have a very mild win- 
ter; one year I had peas to eat, and sell, the 25th 
of March, that were planted on raised beds the last 
of November; but this was unusual. I noticed on 

Christmas dav a few volunteer peas a few inches in 
height that seemed to be struggling for an exist- 
ence. Peas planted early in February on well pre- 
pared ground will do better. But I will write more 
about all these things in due time, and will endeavor 
to make them so plain and practical that even the 
young farmer boys who read my articles will, I 
think, be able to understand them and. T hope, be 
profited thereby. Ira W. Adams. 

Bay State Garden, Calistoga, Jan. 2. 

California Peanut Growing. 

By C: B. 0n'al the Tustln meeting of the Southern California Po- 
mological Society. 

For the profitable production of peanuts care 
should be taken to select suitable land. The soil 
best adapted to this crop is a deep, sandy loam or 
sediment — a soil that does not bake, is friable and 
easy to work. A heavy soil will retard the develop- 
ment of the nuts, and prove undesirable in every 
way. Land that has been planted to alfalfa, though 
loose in character and otherwise desirable, is not 
conducive to the best development of this earth nut. 
unless farmed to other crops before planting to this 
crop. I have frequently noticed that the vines 
grown on land previously occupied by a stand of al- 
falfa do not do so well; the pods are large but in- 
formed and invariably empty. This is the more re- 
markable from the fact that alfalfa is regarded as a 
renovator of worn-out lands. The soil should be re- 
tentive of moisture so as to insure a steady growth 
of the plants until fall. Land that will grow a mod- 
erate crop of corn without irrigation is moist 
enough; drier lands cau be used by irrigating during 
the growing season, say about the middle of July or 
a little earlier. Irrigation, however, adds to the 
cost of production and usually injures the quality of 
the nuts. In irrigating a growing crop, one should 
be careful to keep the water well away from the 
vines, allowing it to sub-irrigate. If, by accident, 
the water should Hood the vines, care should be 
taken to loosen the earth so as to admit the nut 
stems, else they will be barren. I do not think it 
advisable, in view of the present low price of nuts, 
to grow a crop on land requiring irrigation. If not 
enough rain falls during the winter the land may be 
irrigated before planting. To properly prepare the 
land for planting, plow deep during January or Feb- 
ruary, and loosen with a cultivator or plow just be- 
fore planting; the second cultivation or plowing 
should not be so deep as the first. 

As to varieties, the only kind proving profitable 
with us, or so far as my observation goes in this 
State, is known as the " Virginia,'' which has be- 
come localized and known quite generally in the 
market as the "California " peanut. 

Planting and Cultivation. — -The planting season is 
from March 20th to the middle of May, the most of 
the planting being done in April. The largest yield 
I ever received came from a field planted in the 
latter part of March. I usually plant during the 
forepart of April, and am convinced that early plant- 
ing is preferable. Some few growers, however, con- 
tend that planting should not be done before May. 
The seed should be shelled, and one kernel dropped 
in a place; it may be soaked to hasten sprouting. If 
this is done, care should be taken not to soak too 
long, and then handled with care, as soaked seed is 
easily injured. Planting is generally done by at- 
taching a shoe, similar to those used on corn 
planters, to a slide or to trucks and the seed dropped 
by hand through a funnel connected with the shoe; 
the planter does its own covering and the driver and 
dropper both ride. The seed is usually planted 
about three inches deep, in rows about forty inches 
apart, and from twelve to twenty-four inches apart 
in the rows. 

If no rain falls after planting, I should not care if 
the crop was never cultivated provided the weeds 
could be kept down. Nevertheless, I usually culti- 
vate about twice with a weed knife, leaving the 
ground as level as possible. I cannot advise deep 
cultivation, as I have seen fine fields of nuts ruined 
by it. Care should be taken to keep scrupulously 
free from weeds. If rain falls after planting, it is 
best to loosen the ground around the plants so as to 
enable the nut stems to enter the ground easily. 

The principal pests are gophers, squirrels, red 
spider and your neighbor's hens. The former should 
be poisoned; neglect to do this often costs many 
dollars. The red spider, however, is the most for- 
midable and dangerous pest. Many use sulphur, 
sprinkling a small amount on each vine subject to 
the pest. The result seems doubtful, some growers 
not being certain of receiving any benefit, while 
others are convinced that, if used in time, it keeps 
this pest in check. A few have used a cheap wash, 
claiming for it greater economy. 

The harvest commences in the latter part of Sep- 
tember and continues till the middle of November, 
the major portion being picked during October. The 
nuts are first dug by passing a steel knife, similar to 
a weed knife, drawn by two horses just under the 

nuts, cutting the tap root of the vine. Men with 
forks follow and lift the vines out of the ground and 
drop them, nuts down, in winrows. throwing four or 
six rows together, but only one vine deep, so that 
they may dry rapidly. 

Picking. — After drying, the vines are thrown in 
piles and the picking begins. This is generally done 
by Mexicans and their families, the grower contract- 
ing with the boss to furnish hands and superintend 
at so much per sack of forty pounds. In picking, 
care should be taken to see that all good nuts are 
taken from the vines, leaving those that are imma- 
ture. See that the stems are all picked off so that 
they will present a marketable appearance. After 
picking, the nuts are placed (two or three sacks at a 
time) in a large cylinder churn or polisher made of 
lath or heavy wire screen, which is revolved until 
the nuts are sufficiently cleaned. After cleaning, it 
is best to pass them through a separator, where, 
by means of an air blast, the empty pods are thrown 
out, thus enhancing their market value. The nuts 
should be sent to market in new sacks holding about 
120 pounds each. 

Oott of the Cnij). — One serious drawback to peanut 
growing is the cost of harvesting, as the grower can 
do but little comparatively of the picking, and hence 
is called upon to hire it done. If some one would in- 
vent a peanut picker that would do the work cheaply 
and well, it would greatly lessen the cost of produc- 
tion. As to the cost of production, I put it at 3 
cents per pound under favorable conditions. My 
own experience ranges from 2i to 4 cents, and I am 
persuaded that the present crop in this county has 
averaged a cost of 3 cents. The yield of nuts usually 
produced on an acre is about 30 sacks, or 1200 
pounds. The best yield I ever knew was over 60 
sacks, or 2400 pounds. 

Ma.rkrtx. — Our markets are Los Angeles and San 
Francisco. The prices received range from 2* to 5 
cents per pound. The earliest harvest this year was 
sold at from 3] to 4 cents, but the bulk of the crop is 
yet in the growers' hands, with the buyers offering 
3 cents. Usually prices advance considerably before 
another crop, and I have no doubt that next summer 
nuts will be worth considerably more than they are 
now. Our market is, and necessarily always will be, 
restricted to this coast. Any considerable export 
to foreign countries is prevented by the competition 
of nuts from the west coast of Africa and other sub- 
tropical countries where land and labor are cheap. 
Shipments to the east of the "Rockies" is prohib- 
ited by the southern crop from Virginia, Tennessee, 
Georgia and the Carolinas. Indeed, they produce 
nuts so much cheaper than we that they can and 
actually do ship many carloads to this coast, paying 
a rail freight for 3000 miles and "bear" our mar- 
ket. The rail freight for peanuts from Norfolk, Va. , 
to San Francisco — a distance of 3000 miles — is one 
cent per pound: the rail freight from this point to 
San Francisco — a distance of 500 miles — only one- 
sixth as great, is one-half cent per pound. Rail- 
roading is incomprehensible to outsiders. It is quite 
possible that we will produce, in a few years, all the 
peanuts used on this coast, although the Eastern 
crop will always (unless in years of crop failure) 
limit the price to very near the cost of production, 
possibly at times driving it below that point. In- 
deed, should they obtain much cheaper freight rate 
than they now have, which is possible in case the 
Nicaragua canal is completed, I am not so sure that 
we could hold our own even in California markets. 
In conclusion, if you are thinking of growing pea- 
nuts, don't rush into the business on a large scale; 
no one has yet retired with a fortune from growing 
this crop. 

Finally, if you do plant a few peanuts, don't ex- 
pect too much; for while we sometimes sell for 5 
cents nuts which cost 3 cents to produce, we also at 
times sell for 2 cents nuts which cost 4 cents to 

Labor in the Beet Fields. 

i Watsonville Pajaronian.) 
The beet campaign of 1805 is over and the plans are 
being laid for the campaign of '06. There is one 
feature of the beet cultivation in this part of Cali- 
fornia which we would like to see changed, and that 
is the field of labor. White men and children do all 
of the field work at Chino and in the beet fields of 
Utah and Nebraska. The Chinaman got in early in 
this section. He first took hold of the field work 
when the Soquel factory was running, and he was 
ready for it when beet growing was resumed. He 
has held on tenaciously and has usually made good 
wages. His favorable points have been application 
to the work and indisposition to strike; but on the 
other hand John is high priced, he is not a rainy 
weather worker, and what he gets does not go into 
home building. The active Japanese is waging war 
against the Chinese for beet contracts and they have 
seriously cut the prices from what they were three 
years ago. But neither Jap nor Chinaman are 
wanted, and the field for white labor is as good here 
as at Chino and other points. There are no' strikes 
at these other places, the field workers are trained, 
they make good wages — and all the money goes to 
white men. The same system could prevail here if 

January 11 , 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

school vacations were so arranged as to permit of 
field work by children and parents, and if white la- 
borers would take hold of the work. The Jap and 
the Chinaman have this class of work to themselves 
because there is no offering of white labor in any 
force. Where beet growers of this section have 
been able to get white labor they have found results 
much more satisfactory than with the Asiatic. 


The Babcock Test in the Cheese Factory. 

The value of accurate determination of the butter 
fat in the milk is conceded by those operating fac- 
tories for butter, but the relation of the cheese 
makers' interest to the test is not so well under- 
stood. This was the subject of an address before 
the Dairymen's Association, last month, by F. H. 
Merry, one of the leading Eastern factory men. He 
said that for many years the advisability of paying 
for milk received at cheese factories according to 
the quality has been a question for discussion among 
dairymen. But the absence of any practical method 
by which the average cheese maker could ascertain 
the exact quality of the milk delivered at the factory 
prevented a solution of the problem. Since the in- 
vention of the Babcock test, hundreds of experi- 
ments have been made by leading chemists to test 
its accuracy, and they are unanimous in the state- 
ment that it is an exact guide to the per cent of fat 
in milk. 

Next came the question, Is the fat in milk a fair 
basis to use in paying for milk at cheese factories ? 
As a result of many investigations, notably those 
made at the Geneva Experiment Station, the fact 
has been established beyond a doubt, from a scien- 
tific standpoint, that the relative value plan of pay- 
ing for milk at cheese factories is practical and just. 

I propose to give you the results of three years' 
experience at our factory. That the system is en- 
tirely satisfactory to our fifty or sixty patrons is 
evident from the fact that with one exception they 
voted to use the test the second year, and this year 
the vote was unanimous in favor of continuing its 

I believe the greatest obstacle to the introduction 
of the test is the cheese makers themselves. With 
many, the increase of labor alone is sufficient to 
create their opposition. But before you try to in- 
duce your patrons to consent to the use of the test, 
study the subject thoroughly and become familiar 
with all the details so as to be certain of your ability 
to do the testing carefully and accurately. After 
you have the test introduced, it remains for you to 
do all in your power to make it a success. I know 
there are factories and creameries that save sam- 
ples only once in two or three days. While this may 
be satisfactory in some cases, T believe it will cause 
trouble sooner or later. Save the samples daily. 
The only excuse for not doing this is the extra.labor 
it may cause. This, however, can be reduced to a 
minimum by simply arranging your sample bottles 
on the side wall or in a circular frame suspended 
from the ceiling within convenient distance of the 
receiving can. It is not necessary to describe the 
method of testing, as this has been done time and 
again. After making the test, if there are any sam- 
ples in which the fat is partially charred, I would 
advise testing them again, as you can only guess at 
the quantity of fat in such tests. 

Now we will notice some of the benefits to be de- 
rived from the use of the test. These are mutual. 
Anything that tends to help the dairyman will help 
the factory, and vice versa. We must insist upon 
the milk being in good condition when brought to 
the factory. If the milk is delivei-ed in a taint or 
overripe condition, it is clearly impossible for the 
cheese maker to manipulate the same so as to de- 
stroy the taint without causing an extra loss of fat 
in the whey. But this is no argument against the 

It has been proved repeatedly that in normal milk 
the yield of cheese is proportionate to the quantity 
of fat. The nearer perfect the condition of the milk, 
the more uniform will be this proportion. Again, 
we receive no adulterated milk. The system effectu- 
ally stops all watering or skimming, and we are re- 
lieved from the unpleasant duty of constantly watch- 
ing, and consequently of all ill-feeling and suspicion 
among our patrons. 

We also notice an increased interest among our 
patrons in regard to the kind of cows they keep, 
and their manner of handling them. They give at- 
tention to better breeding, purchase better cows and 
are more particular about the feeding and care of 
their cows. As a result of this, we have had an in- 
crease in the yield of cheese over previous years. At 
our factory during the five years prior to 1893, the 
average quantity of milk required to make a pound 
of cured cheese was 10. (iO lbs. During 1898, the 
first year we used the Babcock test, our average 
yield was 10.39 lbs., a gain of 0.21 of a pound. As a 
result of this, we made 4094 lbs. of cheese more than 

we would, had we taken as much milk as the aver- 
age of the five years preceding. 

In 1894 our average yield was 10.34 lbs., a gain of 
0.26 of a pound, making 5106 lbs. of cheese more 
than had we taken the average of the five years. 
Nor is this all the gain. Previous to the introduc- 
tion of the test, we made it a point to deduct a small 
percentage from the weight of the milk; but with 
the test, the patron is credited with all he delivers. 

It is easily seen from these facts that the use of 
the Babcock test is a benefit to both patrons and 
cheese makers. It offers an inducement to patrons 
to build up their herds to produce more milk of bet- 
ter quality and thus increase their income. By re- 
ceiving a better quality of milk, the cheese maker 
is enabled to produce better cheese and more of it 
from the same quantity of milk. This means more 
business and more money for both. Their interests 
are mutual; one cannot succeed without the aid of 
the other. 


Boxes vs. Sacks for Shipping Dried Fruits. 

By B. N. Rowley of San Francisco, at the December meeting of the 
State Horticultural Society. 

One month ago your president assigned to me the 
task of presenting this question for general discus- 
sion. For the purpose of securing the concensus of 
opinion prevailing among packers and shippers of 
California fruit upon this subject, I opened a corre- 
spondence with quite a number engaged in this busi- 
ness and have made use of their replies in this paper. 
For several years past our dried fruits, including 
prunes and raisins, have been packed in both boxes 
and sacks. For two or three years prior to the 
shipping season of 1895 the sack as a package re- 
ceived very general attention, owing to its apparent 
low cost, convenience in handling and slight charge 
for freight. This spirit of economy became more 
marked as prices for dried fruits declined, and 
packers, as a rule, sought for and purchased the 
thinnest, cheapest sack they could find. This was a 
mistake from the start; for the strongest and heavi- 
est sack, at the highest pi - ice, would have proven 
the cheapest in the end. This general desire for a 
cheap package in which to pack dried fruit for ship- 
ment, accompanied with a growing demand from 
Eastern buyers for sacked goods, is the rock on 
which this cheap package foundered. Claims for 
shortage in weight from bursted sacks, and shrink- 
age and reclamations, on account of unsightly condi- 
tion of the fruit shipped East in the thin, cheap 
sacks, has caused a change in the package and 
method of packing dried fruits. The heaviest and 
strongest sack will invariably prove the cheapest 
and best. There is no tare allowance on dried fruit 
sold packed in sacks, hence the cost of the package 
is largely reduced by the sale of the sack with the 
dried fruit and at the same price. For illustration, 
the new jute sack now being placed upon this market 
weighs eleven ounces and costs seven cents. Pack 
prunes in this sack and sell at four cents per pound, 
and your sack costs you only four and one-half cents. 
If used for fruit selling at eight cents per pound, the 
sack costs only one and one-half cents. Now, as to 
comparative cost of shipment and delivery, we find 
that at the present rate of freight — $1 per 100 
pouuds in boxes and $1.20 in sacks — the cost of ship- 
ping dried fruit in sacks is one- fifth of a cent per 
pound more than in boxes, but that it costs about 
one-quarter of a cent per pound more to pack in 
boxes than in sacks, hence the difference in cost of 
dried fruit shipped in boxes as compared with ship- 
ments in sacks is one-twentieth of a cent per pound 
in favor of the latter package. The other points 
pertaining to this important question are fully cov- 
ered by the letters I have received from packers and 
shippers which I will read. 

From Porter Bros. & Co. — We have always been of 
the opinion that the better grades of dried fruit 
should be packed in boxes, the fancy grades faced 
and neatly papered, the choice grades in fifty-pound 
boxes unfaced. Goods so packed and shipped reach 
their destination in much better condition and are 
far more salable than if packed and shipped in bags. 
Fruit packed in sacks, unless cured extra dry (which 
often ruins both appearance and quality), reaches 
the Eastern markets matted together and often 
with the juice running through the sacks. Fruits 
received in this condition are not attractive to the 
eye, and are therefore salable at a much lower price 
than the same fruits packed in fifty-pound boxes. 
Considerable business has been done the past year in 
prunes packed in the fifty-pound box, unfaced, and 
the New York market has insisted on the bulk of its 
purchases being put up in this manner. Ordinary 
sun-dried peaches, very small prunes and the in- 
ferior grades of fruits and dried grapes may con- 
tinue to be packed and sold in sacks, but we believe 
that the fifty-pound box is the coming package for 
honest and responsible dealers. 

From J. K. Armslty Co. —Looking at the matter 
from a dealer's standpoint there are many reasons 
why the shipment of dried fruit and raisins in boxes 

is preferable to shipment in sacks. Among these 
reasons we note that there is rarely any loss in 
weight claimed by Eastern receivers on dried fruits 
shipped in boxes, whether sales are made f. o. b. or 
delivered; but in case sales of sacked fruit are made 
delivered, claims for shrinkage in weight always 

Dried fruit nicely handled at the time of boxing, 
and boxed without the use of water, applied direct 
or in the shape of steam, arrives East in very much 
finer condition than when the same fruit is shipped 
in sacks. This applies especially where the fruit is 
not dried thoroughly hard. In the case of peaches 
and apricots dried to just the right consistency— 
that is, leaving the fruit pliable, when boxed— it 
will arrive East in the same condition as when 
shipped, but when packed in sacks the process of 
shipment jams it all out of its original shape, de- 
stroying style and color. Where sales are made 
from samples taken from piles of fruit before sack- 
ing, rejections are the rule instead of the exception, 
and in most cases where we have examined the ship- 
ment ourselves on arrival East, we have been 
forced to confess we could not blame the buyers, as 
the appearance of the fruit is so entirely different 
from the sample sent that no reasonable seller could 
expect the buyer to accept it. Under the freight 
schedule now in force, the freight on fruit in boxes 
being 20 cents per hundred under fruit in sacks, the 
extra cost of boxing is very slight to the producer, 
especially where the fruit is put into the boxes with- 
out papers or facing. 

The above remarks apply almost as well to 
prunes as to pitted fruit. The evil effects of ship- 
ment of unpeeled fruit in sacks instead of boxes are 
not the same as with pitted fruits; still they are 
great and damaging. From a seller's standpoint 
we are strongly in favor of shipping dried fruit of all 
kinds in boxes. 

From Locke <f- Pike Co. — It costs one-fifth of a cent 
a pound more freight to ship dried fruit in sacks 
than it does in boxes, and it costs one-fourth of a 
cent more for boxing, to pack fruit in 50-lb. boxes 
than in sacks. The difference between deliveries in 
boxes as compared with that in sacks is therefore 
one-twentieth of a cent a pound in favor of sacks, so 
far as expense is concerned. 

No one will question the fact that deliveries in 
boxes have a much better appearance generally, and 
as the fruit is not bruised and pressed, it is much 
more apt to present a better appearance at destina- 
tion. Another advantage is that where fruits are 
properly packed in boxes, even though they are not 
faced, they are seldom disturbed until they get to 
the consumer, while fruits shipped in sacks are 
often doped and repacked in boxes, and the East- 
ern people seem to be more apt in putting the big 
fruit at the top of the box than we are. If this 
practice can be preveuted in the least degree where 
shipped in boxes, such shipment should surely be 
made. It is our belief that sooner or later dried 
fruit will be packed regularly in 50-lb. or 80-lb. 
boxes, under the packer's brand, and goods of this 
description will eventually become well known and 
sold without inspection, as we understand the in- 
spection of to day. This way of hustling anything 
in the line of dried fruits into a sack, good, bad or 
indifferent, and shipping it into the East on an ex- 
cursion to be sold on arrival, is bad policy, for it is 
sold on the basis of quality of the poorest sack that 
can be found in the lot, and naturally so. 

From Col. Philo H<rsry. — It would be for the best 
interest of the fruit industry generally to use boxes 
only. It is the best method for preserving in good 
condition, and assures the industry against "mixing" 
and lowering the standard which our goods have and 
should maintain from their intrinsic merits. It ap- 
pears more cleanly, and in fact is so. The packages, 
of whatever size, are more attractive, and in all in- 
stances the fruits may be preserved or "washed," 
which is all that should be done to prunes, except 
when some additional processing is required for very- 
fancy packing. Last year we packed more than 
one-half of all our sales in boxes, caused in part 
from sales mainly on the Atlantic seaboard, and for 
foreign shipment. We are handicapped, however, 
in the use of boxes, as some will only buy in bags 
and in original condition. This is, in part, from the 
fact that many Eastern buyers do most of their own 
packing, and some who buy large quantities and 
keep on hand for several months, dip and pack as 
they want them, in order that they may be fresh in 
appearance. As soon as the trade cease to buy large 
quantities at a time, or cover the whole year or each 
month in the year with their purchases, boxing in 
various ways, from twenty-five to eighty pounds in 
a box, will become more general and will always be 
more satisfactory to seller and buyer alike. All 
pitted fruits should be boxed, but in many cases 
large boxes should be used, in order to keep down 
the expense or advanced price on low-grade fruits. 

From Germain Fruit Co. — We beg to say that in 
our experience we have found that boxes for dried 
fruits are decidedly preferable. The fruit looks bet- 
ter, arrives in better shape, there is less claim for 
shortage in weights, etc., than when shipment is 
made in bags, individually, we always endeavor to 
have our customers take fruit in boxes, as we have 
found it gives more general satisfaction. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 11, 1896. 


A World Reformer. 

Said Farmer John to Joiner Ned ; 
"Come, put a back door on my shed." 
Said Joiner Ned to Farmer John : 
" I cannot put your back door on. 

The Gild I'm interested in 
For the abolishment of sin 
Meets at my house this very day, 
And so I cannot get away." 

"Well, after you've abolished sin, 
Come down to-morrow and begin ; 
I want that back door on my shed," 
Said Farmer John to Joiner Ned. 

"To-morrow, neither, can I come, 
The Friends of the Millenium 
Meet at the house of Deacon Kent, 
And I am first vice-president." 

•Well, then, next Wednesday, without doubt, 
When your Millenium's started out, 
Just let it take its course and spread, 
And cut that back door on my shed.'' 

"I read an essav, Wednesday, John, 

Before the Culture Club, upon 

' The Easiest Method to Restore 

One Long-Lost Eden Here Once More,' 

To foster peace, abolish war, 

And make the virtues popular." 

" Well, get your Eden here all right 
By sundown, prompt, next Wednesday night, 
And then, next Thursday morning, Ned, 
Come, put that back door on my shed." 

"The Anti-Hunger Club convenes 
Next Thursday, down to Hiram Green's, 
And I have promised to orate 
On how to crush and extirpate 
Man's tendency for fish and meat, 
His groveling desire to eat." 

" But won't you come down by and by. 

We'll say twb years from next July J 

You'll have your various schemes put through, 

You'll have "the universe anew; 

Come down, then, with your tool-kit, Ned, 

And put that back door on my shed." 

" I think," said Ned, " 111 take that chance 

If you will pay me in advance; 

For my wife says that we've no meat, 

And no flour in'the house to eat; 

This cash will save domestic strife, 

And kind of pacify my wife." 

—Sam Walter Foss. 

The Foundling. 

"A basket for me, did you say, 
Brown ? What in the world is in it ?" 

" Well, I should say it was filled with 
a small morsel of humanity if you were 
to ask me, sir," answered the tall, 
good-looking man who assisted the 
station agent in a little village on one 
of the great western roads. 

" By thunder! it is a baby, as I am 
alive ! Who in the world has sent me 
this ?" asked the station agent, Ash- 
ton, disgustedly. He held the basket 
off at arm's length and looked curious- 
ly at the now waking baby, who 
seemed to take the strange situation as 
a matter of course. She opened her 
brown eyes and put out her little dim- 
pled hands in the manner of conde- 
scending invitation to be taken and 

" I can't say who left her; I only know 
that after I had put the last trunk on 
and the train commenced to pull out I 
saw the basket on the platform. I 
thought perhaps some one had for- 
gotten it, so I ran to pick it up and 
found it addressed to you." Archie 
Brown awkwardly took the little white 
hand of the stranger in his big brown 
one. % * 

" Well, I'll have none of it, that's cer- 
tain,'' said Ashton. Wife and I have 
been married now fifteen years without 
any children of our own and it's a little 
late to begin on waifs. 

" But, sir, she is addressed to you; 
you can't refuse her. See how pretty 
she is and loving, too," as the baby's 
little fingers clung closer to his. 
" Little Muriel ! What a sweet name ! 
I'm glad it's written on the card." 

" Refuse her ? Just see if I can't. I 
am not to be taken in in this way. If 
you are so in love with her, why don't 
you take her ? It is different with you; 
of course, in your position you can 
afford the luxury of a baby. I am too 
poor myself." 

Brown, heedless of the irony of the 
agent's remarks regarding affluence 
and poverty, took the little one up in 
his arms caressingly and gently, as 
strong men often do. 

'' Very well, sir; if you really mean it 

I'll be verv glad to take the little lady." 

"Little lady, indeed ! No such luck. 
She is a waif if there ever was one and 
probably the lucky owners are whizzing 
away on the express, laughing in their 
sleeves to think how easily they got rid 
of her and took me in. But not much ! 
I'm too smart to get mixed up in an 
affair of this kind." 

" Well, I'll go right home with little 
Muriel and let my wife take care of 
her. I won't be needed till the 1:30 
will I ? " 

' Oh. no, you won't be needed; go 
right along and good luck with you. I 
hope Mrs. Brown won't make it too hot 
for you; it's a warm enough day already ! 
So saying the burly old agent went into 
the station house and Brown, holding 
the baby in his strong right arm, picked 
up the the basket and marched off to- 
ward the little cottage where he and 
his wife dwelt. 

'"Anne! Anne! I've brought you 
something," he cried, as he reached the 
cottage door. A sweet-faced young 
woman appeared, smiling in answer to 
her husband's cheery voice, but when 
she saw the burden in his arms she 
stopped aghast, though her eyes 
brightened at the sight of the little 
; one nestled so snugly aganist Archie's 

"Good gracious ! Where did you get 
i the baby ? It isn't for me. is it Archie ? " 

' Why, Anne, are you not pleased 
with her ? I thought you would enjoy 
mothering this friendless little girl," 
said her husband, somewhat crestfallen 
at her attitude. 

"So I will, bless her little heart! 
But it took my breath away to see you 
standing there at the door with that 
child in your arms, saying that you 
brought me something. Give her to 
me. I know how to hold her. Poor 
little dear, she must be hungry ! You 
run right over to Mrs. Berry's for 
some nice fresh milk and then come 
home and tell me all about her." Kiss- 
ing the baby softly on the forehead, 
Mrs. Brown assumed immediate man- 
agemenent of the whole affair. 

Mr. Brown soon came back with the 
milk and as they sat at their noonday 
meal he told what little he knew of 
Baby Muriel. Mrs. Brown held her on 
her lap and fed her in such a sweet, 
motherly fashion that Archie rose from 
the table and kissed his wife. 

" Anne, dear, you don't know what a 
pretty mother you make," he said. " I 
felt that our means were so small we 
could hardly afford to take her, you 
have to plan so carefully to make both 
ends meet. But now I see you two to- 
gether I know it must be for the best." 

" Keep her ? Why I love her already. 
Did you ever see such a dear ? She 
has scarcely cried once. I guess we 
can manage to make her a comfortable 
home, if we are poor. " 

"I knew you would feel that way, 
dear, and now I must be off. It's nearly 
train time and Mr. Ashton is rather 
cranky, as you know." He kissed 
Anne good by, including the baby in 
his caress, and went back to his work. 

In the course of the afternoon old 
lady Berry, who had gained some know- 
ledge of the affair from Archie when 
he went for the milk, came over to see 
the baby. 

" My goodness, Mrs. Brown, it does 
seem as if trouble never came alone. 
Here you are, just well a month from 
the typhoid with doctor's bills and 
medicine to pay for, and now a baby on 
your hands. She is a sweet thing, 
though. I suppose you will send her to 
some institution." 

" Indeed, I'll do no such a thing. 
She is mine to bring up and love all I 
want to." answered Mrs. Brown, taking 
the little one up in her arms as if to 
protect her from the bare suggestion 
of an institution. 

" Well, depend upon it there will be 
no good coming from adopting a waif 
like this. There must have been some 
powerful good reason for casting her 
off; probably the curse will follow her. " 
With which doleful prophecy the old 
lady took herself off in high dungeon at 
the spirit in which her remarks had 
been received. But she left Anne 
Brown no less happy, for with love in 
her heart for the baby and a high sense 
of duty she gladly accepted the charge 

that had so unexpectedly fallen to her. 

Archie Brown passed the afternoon 
thinking of the pretty scene he had left 
at home, and anxiously awaited the 
evening that he might return to his 
dear ones. He had struck a match to 
light his pipe, as he bent over some 
accounts, and then remembering the 
added necessity for economy he threw 
it away, deciding that a smoke on his 
doorstep in the evening by Anne's side 
with the baby on bis lap, perhaps, 
would be all he could afford these days, 
and quite enough, too, he thought. 
Upon returning home he found Anne 
very much excited. 

"Oh, Archie, what do you think I 
found in the baby's basket. Guess ! 
guess ! but we can never keep it." 

" It must be another baby," said 
Archie, laughing, '* but I don't see how 
it escaped me." 

" Oh, do not laugh; it's an awfully 
big thing. You can't imagine how sur- 
prised I was. Old lady Berry had just 
left after having told me we were too 
poor to keep a baby, when, it seemed 
in answer to her very words, I went to 
the basket to shake out the little 
clothes I saw there and after I had 
taken out one or two what do you think 
I found ? These, these !" she exclaimed, 
pulling out of her pocket a package of 
government bonds. " And a note say- 
ing that who ever took the child should 
use this sum for her expenses and in 
compensation for the care given. Isn't 
it wonderful ? asked the breathless 

" Well, I should say so," answered 
Archie, as he examined the bonds and 
the note. "I never thought there 
would be $5,000 at once underneath our 
roof, but it is certainly for us." 

When Mr. Ashton heard what had 
been found in the basket he demanded 
the return of the baby with the money, 
but Mr. and Mrs. Brown, who bad 
grown truly fond of their little ward, 
were loath to give her up and justly 
felt that the only attraction to Ashton 
was the money. So they refused to 
part with Muriel and the ease went 
into the courts, and she and the money 
were awarded to Brown. 

* * * » 

Muriel grew into a beautiful young 
girl, loving Mr. and Mrs. Brown with 
all the force of her sweet young nature. 
Though they had thought best to tell 
the exact truth in regard to her 
adoption, she looked upon them as her 
parents and they cherished her as their 
own child. She was now eighteen. 
They always celebrated the anniversary 
of the day she came to them .as her 
birthday. She now had a sweetheart. 
Her father had become station agent 
and her lover was Tom Andrews, the 
young man who filled the place that 
Mr. Brown had occupied before Ashton 
left, which he did in mortification after 
the case was settled in favor of Brown. 

Tom was an ambitious youth and had 
for many months been reading law in 
his leisure moments and had now made 
up his mind to accept an offer he had 
received from a law firm in Chicago. 
He was about to leave the quiet village 
of his youth, where he and Muriel had 
grown up together. 

" Tom, why can't you be contented to 
stay here. I don't know what I shall 
do without you. " 

"I hate to leave you, Muriel, dear, 
but I want to make my way in the 
world, so when we are married I shall 
have something to offer you. I can 
never advance any in this sleepy little 

So he went away, full of hope and 
courage, leaving Muriel sad and lonely, 
but also full of hope, for she believed 
in Tom. Time wore on; they corres- 
ponded vigorously and he wrote joy- 
fully of his success. One day she re- 
ceived a letter from him, asking for 
full account of how she was found, just 
what was in the basket, and. in fact, 
every detail of that strange event of 
nearly nineteen years ago. 

"Why, mother, what do you suppose 
he can want with it ? she asked Mrs. 

" I can't imagine, Muriel, unless he 
he thinks he has some clew of your 
birth. For my part I'd rather let well 
enough alone. If I were, you I would 
not send the information," answered 

Mrs. Brown, who dreaded any revela- 
tion in regard to Muriel's identity. 

But surely mother, it must be all 
right or Tom would not ask to know all 
about my being found. Don't say no 
to me. You and father have been so 
kind and loving that I am more than 
grateful to the good fortune that 
brought me to you. And yet mother, 
dear, you won't think it strange if I 
confess to you that I have always felt 
a longing in my heart to know who I 
really am." As Muriel finished this 
long speech she threw her arms about 
her mother and laid her soft young 
head aganist the dear face which had 
always shone with love for her. 

"Of course, child, do as you wish. 
Your father can never say no to you 
and I am just as bad, I suppose." 

Muriel wrote Tom all she knew of her 
finding. He answered, thanking her 
for her trouble and said that her case 
was so much like one he had come 
across that he wished to compare the 
two, and he requested her to send the 
note which Mrs. Brown had found in 
the basket. 

"Well, dear child, I am afraid there 
is nothing in it after all. Tom should 
not have raised your hopes." 

He didn't rise my hopes and I am no 
worse off than I was before, mother," 
answered the loyal girl. 

The subject never came up again. 
The time grew near for the Christmas 
visit of Tom, to which he and Muriel had 
so long looked forward. In the happy 
preparations for that Muriel forgot all 
about the matter. The day came at 
last for his arrival. Muriel stood at 
her station wrapped in her soft, be- 
coming furs, her face glowing with 
happiness. She was a sight to gladden 
any one's heart, much more so the heart 
of Tom, who jumped off the train excit- 
edly and found his little sweetheart 
there, not changed during his eighteen 
months' absence, unless she was pret- 
tier. That evening as that sat before 
the open fire Tom said: 

"Muriel. I have a story to tell you, 
and 1 want Mr. and Mrs. Brown to 
listen, too." 

" Is it a fairy story, Tom, like you 
used to tell me ? " asked Muriel. 

"No, dear, but it sounds like one. 
Now here goes in the same old way. 
Once upon a time there was a rich old 
gentleman and he had two children, 
both boys. The home life at their 
grand old English mansion was not a 
very cheerful one and as soon as the 
sons were educated they wished to 
leave the home of their childhood, 
where every wish they had ever had 
was denied them, and no liberty was 
allowed by their cranky old father. 
His nature had become warped at the 
death of his wife, whom he lost when 
the boys were little fellows. This is a 
long story and I wish to tell you all 
the details, so don't be impatient. 

The eldest son, Douglas, went to the 
United States to travel and there fell 
in love and married ayoungand beauti- 
ful orphan girl, who was holding the 
post of governess in an English family 
where he visited. When his father 
heard the news he became terribly en- 
raged and wrote a cruel letter saying 
he disinherited and disowned this son 
who had so disgraced him. Douglas 
found employment, and by living simply 

lighest Honors — World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 




Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 

January 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


he and his young wife managed to be 
comfortable. A year after his mar- 
riage his wife died, leaving him a broken- 
hearted man, with a tiny girl baby to 
care for. He decided to inform his 
father of his wife's death and appeal 
to him for the child's sake. He did so, 
but neglected to say the child was a 

Mr. Mericourt, his father, relented 
and came to America only to find that 
Douglas had died unforgiven. He had 
been careless since his wife's death and 
while walking the cold, damp streets 
late at night, brooding on his loss and 
hardness of his father, who had never 
replied to his letter, he had taken a 
violent cold and succumbed almost im- 
mediately to a severe attack of pneu- 

"Oh, Tom, and he left the little girl 
all alone," said Muriel, her soft brown 
eyes opening wide with wonder and 

"Yes, alone, Muriel, save for her 
nurse, a good-hearted but flighty young 
woman, who had taken her home after 
Douglas' death. She showed the baby 
to Mr. Mericourt and begged him to 
take her. He looked at the child, but 
his disappointment was so great be- 
cause she was a girl that he claimed 
not to believe her to be his son's child. 
Putting her into a basket which had 
been used as a crib he gave her back to 
the nurse, handing her a sum of money 
and telling her to keep the child. He 
left the house immediately and the 
nurse found herself with the baby on 
her hands, much to her discomfiture. 
She was about to be married and knew 
that her lover would object to adopt- 
a child. A plan came into her head. 
She remembered the station agent at 
the village where she was brought up; 
she knew the last she heard of him he 
was childless, so she addressed the 
basket to him and hurriedly putting in 
the little girl's wardrobe, she started 
off that very day for her old home. 

"I think I know the rest," said 
Muriel tremblingly, her hand seeking 

"Yes, some of it, but not all, dear. 
You know she stepped off the train and 
left the basket and how two of the best 
people in the world brought the child 
up to be the sweetest of all girls." 

"Oh, Tom, go on with the story, 
never mind that," interrupted Muriel. 

"Well, then, there was a green 
youth who weut to the city to seek his 
fortune. And he had not been in the 
law office where he worked more than 
a week or two when he heard how the 
lawyers were hunting for a girl who 
had disappeared eighteen years ago. 
She was wanted to take possession of 
a grand old English estate, which was 
left to her by the death of her uncle, 
who had been a soldier. He died in 
India, leaving no family. Her grand- 
father had died many years previous 
to this son's decease. The law firm 
was searching for her, and it suddenly 
occurred to the clerk that he could help 
in that search and his efforts have been 
crowned with success. And he was 
sent by the heads of the firm to inform 
her that she could take possession at 
her earliest convenience; and could 
they in any way serve her, they were 
at her command, and so forth and so 

"So, of course, having to obey his 
instructions, but very much against 
his will — " 

"Tom, don't be nonsensical; this is 
too serious — " 

" You must not interrupt. He went 
to tell the heiress, and actually — would 
you believe it — there she stood, as the 
train drew in, waiting for the lawyer's 
poor clerk." 

" Oh, mother, isn't it all strange and 
wonderful ? It doesn't seem as if it 
could be true ! " 

" My darling, I am so happy for you, 
but it's a loss to us — your father and 
me," said Mrs. Brown, sadly. 

"Why, mother, do you suppose I 
would ever go a step of the way to 
England without you and father ? " 

Tom's face saddened, and yet what 
could he expect ? He was no mate for 
this sweet young heiress, whose wealth 
and beauty would attract many grand 

Muriel threw her arms around her 

father's neck as she had done in child- 

"When shall we go ? " she asked, ex- 

" The lawyers say it will be best for 
you to go immediately," said Tom, 

"What is the matter with you, Tom; 
don't you want to go ? " asked Muriel, 

" I supposed you did not want me 
any more, now that you are so rich," 
said Tom, rather ashamed to own his 

" Tom, my dear Tom, don't be silly. 
Don't you think the trip to England 
would be a nice, pleasant — I mean en- 
joyable — wedding journey ? " blush- 
ingly questioned Muriel. 


One part of the science of living is to 
learn just what our responsibility is, 
and to let other people's alone. — Har- 
riet Beecher Stowe. 

Life is too short to nurse one's mis- 
ery. Hurry across the lowlands, that 
you may spend more time on the 
mountain tops. — Phillips Brooks. 

Peace is the greatest of blessings 
when it is won and kept by manhood 
and wisdom; but it is a blessing that 
will not long be the housemate of cow- 
ardice. — Lowell. 

Your manners will depend very much 
upon the quality of what you frequently 
think on; for the soul is tinged and col- 
ored with the complexion of thought. — 
Marcus Aurelius. 

No one can ask honestly or hopefully 
to be delivered from temptation unless 
he has himself honestly and firmly de- 
termined to do the best he can to keep 
out of it. — Ruskin, 

Never to tire, never to grow cold, to 
be patient, sympathetic, tender, to 
look for the budding flower and the 
opening heart, to hope always, to love 
always — this is duty. — AmieL 

The way of life is by no means 
smooth, but let us not make it rougher 
than it is. The world is not all we 
could wish; but, if it goes wrong, let us 
not spend ourselves trying to make it 
go worse. Rather let us make it a 
little smoother and a little pleasanter 
by our disposition, manners and deeds. 
If men in general are out of sortj, there 
is more need of our being in sorts. 

His Retort Courteous. 

Dr. Chalmers, the eminent divine, 
was fond of telling the following story: 
"Lady Betty Cunningham, having had 
some difference of opinion with the 
parish minister, instead of putting her 
usual contribution in the collecting- 
plate, merely gave a stately bow. This 
having occurred several Sundays in 
succession, the elder in charge of the 
plate at last lost patience, and blurted 
out, ' We cud dae wi' less o' yer man- 
ners, and mair o' yer siller, maleddy.' " 

Dining on one occasion at the house 
of a nobleman, he happened to repeat 
the anecdote, whereupon the host, in a 
not over well-pleased tone said: "Are 
you aware, Dr. Chalmers, that Lady 
Betty is a relative of mine ? " 

" I was not aware, my lord," replied 
the doctor; "but, with your permission, 
I shall mention the fact the next time I 
tell the story." — The Standard. 

Popular Science. 

Scales are now made of such a nice 
adjustment that they will weigh any- 
thing, to the smallest hair plucked 
from the eyebrow. In fact, they will 
weigh a pencil mark. 

Sir John Lubbock describes an ant, 
which can support a weight three 
thousand times heavier than itself, or 
equal in proportion to a man holding 
210 tons by his teeth. 

Thunder is sometimes one great 
crash, because the lightning cloud is 
near the earth and as all the vibrations 
of the air (on which the sound depends) 
reach the ear at the same time. 

The air is clear at Arequipa, Peru. 
From the observatory at that place, 
8050 feet above the sea, a black spot, 

one inch in diameter, placed on a white 
disc, has been seenon Mount Charchaul, 
a distance of eleven miles, through a 
thirteen-inch telescope. 

Fashion Notes. 

Short capes are much worn, and are 
made in velvet, silk and plain or fancy 
cloth, trimmed with ruchings of lace, 
jet and feather trimmings, or with 
bands of fur. Short, tight-fitting jack- 
ets are worn by young girls, and are 
made of cloth or tweed or velvet. They 
are sometimes tight-fitting in the back 
and loose in front. 

There has to be a dress for every 
occasion. For morning wear plain 
dresses of serge, cloth, cheviot or 
ribbed velveteen; visiting dresses are 
rich silks or velvets; home dresses are 
rather in the empire style, and for 
evening wear half long trains of splen- 
did silks trimmed with embroideries 
are worn. 

A woman who saw the wedding gifts 
of the Duchess of Marlborough told a 
reporter that a pair of garter buckles 
in the collection came from an intimate 
girl friend who has much artistic 
genius. She did the duke's features on 
two ivory discs and set each one 
around with fine opals and brilliants, 
and attached the baubles to gorgeous 
yellow garters. 

The black lace that is so limp and 
forlorn looking, can be made as good 
as new by a very simple process given 
in the Home Queen. Wash it in soft, 
soapy water, then rinse in clear water, 
squeezing it in the hand, instead of 
wringing it. Dip in cold coffee, in 
which a little gum arabic has been dis- 
solved, and press smoothly on a win- 
dow pane to dry. The coffee darkens 
it, the gum arabic gives it the required 
stiffness, and when dried in this way 
no ironing is necessary. It is then 
ready to be used in any way you wish. 


Domestic Hints. 

Croutes a la Noel. — Line some 
patty pans with fine, short paste, fill 
them with mincemeat, cover with a 
cardboard box lid and bake. Then, 
instead of a pastry lid, cover them with 
equal parts of fresh butter and sugar 
beaten to a light, white cream and fla- 
vored with a squeeze of lemon juice or 

Sugared Corn. — For this innocent 
confection make a plain sugar syrup 
and boil until it will candy in cold 
water. A cupful of sugar is enough 
for three quarts of popped corn. Mix 
the corn quickly with the warm syrup 
until each kernel gets its share. 
Sprinkle a part of it with red sugar 
before it cools. 

Steamed Bread and Fruit Pud- 
ding. — This is suitable for a plain din- 
ner. One pint of bread broken into 
small pieces. Add one cup of milk, 
one-third of a cup of molasses, one egg, 
beaten, and one cup of raisins, stoned 
and cuti- in halves; bake thoroughly, 
then sift in half a teaspoonful each of 
cinnamon, grated nutmeg, salt and 
soda. Turn into a buttered pudding 
boiler, and cook in boiling water about 
two hours. Serve with a lemon sauce. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Clear, black coffee diluted with water 
and containing a little ammonia will 
clean and restore black clothes. 

Raisins can be easily seeded if put in 
hot water and allowed to stand fifteen 
minutes before beginning to seed. 

A treatment that may be relied on 
for removing spots of iron rust from 
white fabrics is the following: Pour 
boiling water into a bowl, stretch the 
cloth that is spotted over it, and drop 
on the spot of rust a drop of hydro- 
chloric or muriatic acid. Leave it 
there half a minute, then dip the place 
in hot water. Wash out thoroughly 
afterwards in water softened with am- 
monia. Soap must not be used, as the 
acid will decompose it and leave a 
grease spot on the cloth. 



Must interest every man who wears a shirt and 
every woman who has to look after household 


Buys it— either made of the best Amoskeag Ex- 
celsior Cheviot or fine, strong Tennis Flannel, full 
cut, 36 inches long, with long sleeves; work war- 
ranted. It is a man's shirt, intended for the head 
of the house, as well as the young men. 


The time, trouble and cost of making up, and they 
have more time to read, visit and make them- 
selves agreeable. 


But the " Wilson Tariff Bill," hard times and low 
wages makes it possible to sell such a shirt at the 
price— and these times will soon be over, and the 
price will then be higher. 

♦ ♦♦ 

See what we said about Shoes last week. 
See what we say about Dry Goods next week. 


For you to watch this column in the Rural Press 
each week, and if too little said, enclose 8 cents 
for mailing and will send our 150-page Home 
Circle, and the monthly of 32 pages each month, 


To keep yourself posted on prices of different 
things used on the farm, or about the household. 
Our trade is largely with rural people, and being 
" growed up " 


We think we know the wants of our own people, 
and try to supply them carefully. There is noth- 
a man wears 


Not even a mustache or chin whiskers, that we do 
not keep in store and supply at the right price. 
Suits for men, wool, $5 up. Gloves for work, 45 
cents up. We are leaders in trade circles— but 
modest about mentioning it. Come see us when in 
town and say you read the Rural press. 





414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., Cal. 


Acetylene Gas. 

In San Francisco, as elsewhere, con- 
siderable commercial interest is mani- 
fested in the new acetylene gas. If 
half what is claimed for it proves so, it 
will work an industrial revolution. It 
was first heralded as destined to revo- 
lutionize the gas industry, but it is 
alleged that lighting is but one of the 
practical uses to which the product of 
carbide of calcium can be put. A New 
York concern — the Electro-Gas Co. — 
selling city rights at figures that would 
make a franchise for San Francisco 
worth about $250,000. This is for 
lighting, alone. 

The Smithsonian Institution has paid 
its accidental discovers $10,000 as being 
the most important scientific discovery 
of the year, which it undoubtedly is. 
Heating a mixture of coal and lime, or 
charcoal and chalk, in an electric fur- 
nace and throwing the resulting com- 
pound into water evolves acetylene. 
One set of scientists claim that it is 
nothing more than an interesting labor- 
atory experiment ; others claim that it 
is of the utmost practical value. 

It is claimed that '"acetylene, on 
being passed through an iron tube 
heated to dull redness, turns rapidly 
and completely into benzine. This is a 
product of prime importance, and is 
the base of thousands of organic sub- 
stances. In illustration of the trans- 
mutations which can be effected, it 
may be pointed out that if the result- 
ant benzine vapor be passed into strong 
nitric acid it is transformed into nitro- 
benzine, and this on treatment with hy- 
drochloric acid and iron filings goes into 
aniline. With the formation of aniline 
the road is opened for the production 
of the immense series of dye substances 
of which aniline is the starting point. 
Instead of transforming acetylene into 
aniline, however, it may be changed 
into carbolic acid; thence it is but a 
step to picric acid, the foundation of 
the modern high explosives. Or it 
may be made into aniline, and then 
boiled with acetic acid, when it is 
transformed into anti-febrin, the well 
known fever specificx Again, by pass- 
ing it through a tube heated to bright 
redness, naphthalene is produced, which 
is also the starting point for a legion 
of valuable chemicals. It would seem as 
though almost all the needs of man were 
able to be satisfied by this protean 
substance. The further investigation 
is pushed into its possibilities, the 
more astounding and bewildering they 
become. By the action of nascent hy- 
drogen acetylene becomes ethylene, 
and this, on treatment with sulphuric 
acid and water, becomes alcohol, which, 
apart from its other uses, is absolutely 
necessary to the production of an 
enormous number of economic sub- 
stances. In similar ways we can get 
such deadly poisons as oxalic acid and 
prussic acid, while acetylene is a cheap 
source of the aldehyde so much used in 
the production of artificial essences 
and the manufacture of mirrors. When, 
therefore, it is considered that from 
acetylene can be derived whole systems 
of dyes, medicines, essences, perfumes, 
poisons, explosives — not to mention 
cheap whisky — it will be seen that the 
latest product of the electric furnace 
has a utility out of all proportion 
greater than that which can be derived 
from its peculiar light-giving powers." 

Going back to its utility as a light- 
producing power, photometrical tests 
have shown that for the production of 
a light of one normal candle power 0.6 
litre of acetylene is required per hour 
if proper burners are used, while for 


Unequalled in 



4- ♦ Fully Guaranteed. ♦ + 

Will be sent on trial to responsible people wishing 

to purchase. 
Catalogue* free on application. 

the"f~w. SPENCER CO., 

338 Post Street, San .Francisco, Cal. 

the same lighting power 10 to 12 litres 
of coal gas used in ordinary burners 
are consumed. Acetylene, however, 
possesses different qualities, which are 
of a rather dangerous nature and have 
to be considered with caution. First, 
by its action upon copper or copper al- 
loys a brownish substance is formed 
which is highly explosive: such metals, 
therefore, ought to be used neither in- 
side the conduits nor for glow bodies, 
if acetylene, is employed as a lighting 
material. Iron is of neutral conduct 
towards acetyline. Second, a mixture 
of acetylene and air is explosive, the 
highest exploding power being reached 
in a mixture of one part of acetylene 
and 12 parts of air. Third, as all car- 
bureted hydrogen gases, acetylene is 
very poisonous also. Happily, acety- 
lene makes itself noticed quickly even 
in a very small quantity by its bad 
smell, whereby the dangers arising 
from leaks are restricted to a certain 
degree. Finally, it may be noted that 
acetylene can be formed during the 
storage and transport of calcium-car- 
bide, also as soon as the latter comes 
into contact with water or absorbs hy- 
drogen from the air. Sufficient meas- 
ures of precaution are required, there- 
fore, if acetylene is to be adopted on an 
extensive scale. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at 50c per line ptr 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. 1SURKE, B26 Market St.. S. P. Al Prizi Hui- 
steins; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Plgrs. 

JERSEYS— The best A.J. C.C. registered prize luutf 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for > ale. 

HULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices lo 
suit the times either singly or in carload loin 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm. Dauvilie. Cal. 

PETEK SAXK Jt SON, Lick House, S F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JERSEYS AT) imi.NTKINS. from I lie hem 
Butter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Ho<!s 
,1111! Poultry. William Mle*J> I'o., Los Angeles. 
Cal.. Bret d. is and Exporters. Established in ISTti. 


J. W. lold.KIS. Santa Cruz Cal. B. P. Rocks. 
Bco. Leghorns. B. Minorcas, Pektn Ducks. The 
la rgest establishment on theeoast. Lot of cocker- 
els cheap for farmers' flocks. Satisfactory hatches 
guaranteed in every sitting. Try good slock. 

Horse Owners! Try 



for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

MRS..J.«;. FREDERICKS, Madison. Cal. BL Min- 
orcas and Br. Leghorn Eggs for sale at 50c per doz. 

WILLIAM NILKS & CO., Los Angeles.Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for Illustrated and descriptivecatalogue. free. 

MANHATTAN EGO FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers: or wholesale. Tillman & Bendel. S. F. 


1 Safe Sptcdy and Positive Cure 1 F - H - BBKKE ' 626 Marfe et St., 9. F.-BERKSHIRES. 


The Safest, Bent BLISTER everuBcd. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Horse* 
OR FIR INC- Impossible to produce scar or blemish. 

Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or 
sent by express, charges paid, with full directions 
for its use. Send for descriptive circulars* 



Best Stock; Thoroughbreds. Wm. NUes & Co., 
Los Angeles, Cal. Established in 1876. 

A. P. HOT AUNG — Berkshires from imported 
stock— Mayfield, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 


AS. A. STOWE, Stockton. Regisl d Berkshires. 


Famous Feather River Bottom Lands. 

Mainly in Peaches, with some Prunes and Al- 
monds. Trees in their sixth year, in fine condi- 

There is one large cannery at Grid ley, three 
miles distant; another at Biggs, seven miles, who 
will use all the fruit raised in the adjoining or- 

Will lease for one or more years, as desired. 
Reason for renting— an estate with several minor 
heirs. For further information, address : 

Gridley Butte Co., Cal. 

Fruit Land at a Bargain. 

I want ten men having $5000 each to invest in the 
finest and cheapest Fruit and Grape land in this 
State. Sonoma County, within 50 miles of San 
Francisco. Climate and soil unexcelled. Investi- 
gate this property without delay. Write for par 
titulars. JOHN F. BYXBKE. 

43 Market Street. San Francisco. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. H. GLIDE, Sacramento. Very large choice Span- 
ish. French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 




— THE— 

World's Washer 

In its washing prin- 
ciple is like the 
Humboldt, but it is 
"chock full" of improvements. 
Child can use it. Clothes clean, 
sweet and white as snow. Lasts 
lifetime. Sent freight paid Circulars free. 
C. E. ROSS, 10 McLean St.. Lincoln. III. 


Poultry Guidefor 1890 Finest 
book ever published, contains nearly 100 
pages, all printed la colors, plans for best 
poultry houses, sure remedies and recipes 
for all diseases, and howto make poultry 
and gardening pav. Sent poBt paid for 35c. 
J oha Bauscher , Jr., box 60Freepor t, 111, 


You Can Largely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting. Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the Best is the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal. 


Eggs, Poultry, Butter, Cheese, Honey, Etc. 

poultrymeVs union, 

207 Front Street San Francisco. 

Box ig UesHbines.Ia 



Our magninoentT 
new catalogue 
giving full in- 
formation re* 
'nrding artificial 
Hatching 4 Brooding 
and treatise on poul- 
try raising sen t f or 4o 
.tamps. Circular freo. 

H ATCH Chi ckens "J JFSEftlEi 

EXCELSIOR Incubator 

Simple. Perfect, Sclf.Rcgnlat- 

itg. Thnusu>,d.H j u nwenaBil 

•i.pratiun. l,offi'.l priced 
Urnt-.-lu.N Hut. hi ■- marie. 
1 1 I aa ... r,iiisi, 



■ Cuts clean on all sides-does not crush. The 
) most humane, rapid and durable knife 
) made, fully warranted. Highest World's 
I Kair Award. DescriDtive Circulars Free 

A C. BROSiUS. Cochranvilie, Pa 


Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box ( 

Los Angeles, Cal. 


At the STATE FAIR our BERKSHIRES won Five 
Firsts and Three Sweepstakes Premiums. We have 
a few choice pigs on hand, also a few Jan'y and Feb'y 
sows— just the aye to breed. Correspondence solic'td. 



has proven conclusively that 
better grapes and peaches, 
and more of them, are produced 
when Potash is liberally ap- 
plied. To insure a full crop of 
choicest quality use a fertilizer 
containing not less than \o% 

Actual Potash. 

Orchards and vineyards treat- 
ed with Potash are compara- 
tively free from insects and 
plant disease. 

Our pamphlets are not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain, 
ing latest researches on the subject of fertilization, and 
are really helpful to farmers. They are sent free for 
the asking 


03 Nassau St., New York. 

riEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco., Cal. 
are our Agents for the Pacific Coast. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



Has nn hand of his own growing a choice stock of 
yearling and two-year-old nursery trees, 
consisting of 

French Prunes, Tragedy Prunes. 

Royal, Blenheim, Moorpark, French and 
Newcastle Apricots. 

I. X. L., Xonpariel. Texas Prolific, Lanqne- 
doe. La Prima and Ne Pins Ultra Almond*. 

Crawford. Salway, .Susquehanna, Mulr, Fos- 
ter and other Peaches in variety. 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Nectarines, 
etc., etc. 

Also Orange and Lemon Trees, Acacias, 
Texas Umbrella Trees. Grape Vines and Small 
Fruits in endless variety. 

Guaranteed true to label and free from insect 
pests. For particulars, prices, etc., address 

J. A. ANDERSON. Lodl, Cal. 

Headquarters for the Choicest 



Elegnnt 168 Paee Catalog, Free. 
Send for It before buying. 
■ Half saved by dealing direct. Every- 
I thing mall size postpaid. Largerbyex- 
" press or freight. »stl»factlooOuar- 

anteed. 4Snd year. lOOO Acres. 

X» Oreenhouse*. 


Painosviile, Ohio. Box 125 


■ >for them- 
j\ £ I/) L'ri them, plant' 
^■^■V/theni. They are the^ 
^ f standard .seeds every- ^ 

where ; sown by lie 1 
^largest planters in the world. ' 
"Whether you plant 50 square feet 
of ground or 50 acres, you should 
have Ferry's Seed Annual for *96. 
The most valuable book for far* 
triers and gardeners ever given 
away. Mailed free. 
Detroit, Mich. 


Pear and Cherry Seedlings. 

No. 1, A a nd U P * 500 P er 100 °- 

No. 2, I to A 2.50 

No. 3, T V to J 1.50 

Terms cash before shipment. Mention this paper. 

Sunrise Nurseries Montavilla, Oregon. 

Australian Salt Bush Plants 

For alkali land, for sale by Lord & Walton, 
HO" K. .'ml St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Every planter wants tbem, We 
2 CTS. uii. Extras with orders. 
mailed FREE. Mmk,i Ganlmin 
•H /or it-,- Price Lut. 


NO. 11 Alneer Blk, Rocklord. III. 

January 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

New Varieties of 

" Clairac 



Average size (cured). 

The FINEST and LARGEST prune ever intro- 
duced into this State, grading (cured) from 20 to 35 
per pound; splendid to ship East as a plum. 

The CLAIRAC MAMMOTH was originated 
from the seed; nothing "hybridized" about it. 
We can, therefore, guarantee the character of this 
remarkable prune to be " constant." All our trees 
of that prune are on Myrobolan root; on peach it 
is too liable to sever from the stock. Prices, $3, $4 
and $5 per dozen, according to sizes; $24, $30 and 
$35 per hundred. 


We would caution the public against buying 
trees purporting to be that New Prune of ours, 
under auy name whatever, as we know of some 
unscrupulous nurserymen in the State trying to 
pass the " Robe Imperial " a large and juicy plum, 
under the name of "Imperial" short, for the 
Clairac Mammoth. We assure the public that 
those nurserymen are frauds, and contemptible 
frauds, they claiming to have bribed an employe 
of ours to obtain scions of that prune 1 

Ghatenay D'Ente Prone. 

This is another new variety of French Prune, 
earlier than the earliest. We particularly recom- 
mend this valuable variety to Oregon prune grow- 
ers, as it would permit them to dry their prunes to 
the sun. 

Two more new varieties of prunes under "ex- 
perimental test " test in our grounds. 

Nut Trees of All Kinds. 

23 Varieties of English Walnut (GRAFTED 

9 Varieties of French Chestnuts. 

4 Varieties of Almonds, 

8 Varieties of Filberts. 

241 Varieties of Grapes. 

62 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 

New Pears, New Cherries, New Apples, New 
Fruit in general, etc. 

Send for General Descriptive Catalogue and 
Price List. 

Felix Gillet, 

Barren Hill Nursery, Nevada City, Cal. 

French Prune 1 Royal Apricot ! 

Black Tartarian and Royal Ann Cherries. 
Cork Elm, Birch, Linden, Maple, Hawthorn. 
Acacias, Magnolias. Dracaenas, Pittosporums. 
Laurestinus Carnations. 
Roses and Palms in large quantities. 
Gums and Cypress in boxes. 

Send for price list. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 

For Planting Season of 1896 

We offer for sale a choice lot of 

Budded Orange and 
Lemon Trees, 

One and two-year buds of the leading varieties, on 
sour or sweet stock. 

Prices to Suit the Tiues. 

SEEDLING ORANGE TREES at your own price. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 

Orovllle, Butte Co., Cal. 

Special and Important to All Fruit Growers. 

Santa Rosa Nurseries. 

A Fine Stock of Clean, Unirrigated Trees. 

All the Standard Varieties. 

Also California Red (best, most prolific ami 
largest early Plum), Wonderful Tennant 
Prune, Best New Japan Plums and 
Young-Bearing Apples. 

A?.™!?.! R. W. BELL, 


Established 1876. 

Hyrobolan Nursery 


Offers for the season of 1895-6 a complete 
assortment of 

Clean, Healthy, Non-Irrigated 
Fruit Trees. 

Plums, Prunes and Apricots on the true Myrobolan 
Root my specialty. No cut-backs or held over 
tree, dug-stock. No insect pests. 

JAS. O'NEILL, Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Olive Growers Handbook 

and Price List Fre» 


Olix/e- Trees. 

All Sizes. 


John E. Packard, 

Pomona, California. 

Olive Trees. 


Send for Price List. 




Union Nursery Sacramento, Cal. 

Frank Kunz, Proprietor. 


C. F. LOOP & SON. 
Send for Price List. Pomona, California. 


Sent Free on Application to 
F. M. HUNT Redlands, Cal. 



Trees! Trees! Trees! Trees ! 


Get Our Prices Before Buying your Stock. 


We have been 
OPTiTr appointed o y 
KtT,TE Stark Bros.. 
CAGEN, Louisiana. Mo.. 

sole aprents for 
the Splendor 
Prune on the 
Pacific coast. 

Trees grown 
by us at our 
nurseries here. 

Every tree to 
be sold under 
their register- 
ed trade mark. 

The Splendor 
has the sweet- 
ness of the 
D'Agen, but is 
several times 

Send for description and special order blank at once. Only a limited number left. 


We have a large list of new varieties of Peaches. Plums and Prunes. Also a large list of Roses. 
Greenhouse Plants, etc. Catalogue and Price List sent upon application. 


Successors to Leonard Coates. NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 




Fruit Trees, Olive Trees, Grape Vines, 
Ornamental Trees and Roses, 







Largest and Most Complete Stock 

On the Pacific Coast. 



California Nursery Co., 

JOHN ROCK, Manager. 



RIO BONIT0 NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 


Stockton, Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

«- Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Catalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Biggs, Butte County, Cal. 


(A triplex semibaceatum) 

— S E E D.- 


Descriptive Circular sent on application. Correspondence invited. 



419-481 Saimome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 11, 1896. 

Twentieth Century Telegraph. 

The system recently proposed by 
P. B. Delaney for quickening the inter- 
communication of messages between 
cities by the substitution of cheap tele- 
grams, "which would be answered in a 
few hours, for the present mail system 
has caused much uneasiness to some of 
the existing telegraph companies, who 
are quite satisfied with the plant that 
they have established at the cost of 
much time, trouble and expense. One 
of the officials of the Western Union 
says that Delaney's method of trans- 
mission is too fast for him, and he 
wouldn't know what to do with it if he 
had it. An electrical journal, by way 
of comment on this assertion, says : 
" How a telegraph service can be too 
speedy is not quite clear; but one of 
these days the fact will dawn on some 
people that the telegraph is too slow." 
That this remark is justified is seen in 
the figures recently published on the 
extraordinary extent to which improved 
telephone service is eating into the 
profits of the telegraph companies. 
Unless certain radical reforms and im- 
provements are introduced into the 
telegraph service within the next few 
years it will run a great risk of being 
practically superceded by the tele- 
phone, which is already found a quicker 
and very much more desirable means of 
intercommunication. Such a system as 
the Delaney would unquestionably have 
a most important influence on future 
developments in telegraph}'. Mr. De- 
laney gives some excellent reasons for 
believing that it will be well established 
before the beginning of the new cen- 
tury. He says that speculation as to 
the future of the electric telegraph 
would be within extremely narrow 
bounds if the question of Government 
control were eliminated. It may be 
somewhat remote, but it is hard to 
avoid the conclusion that the Govern- 
ment will not always draw the line as 
to the vehicles to be employed in car- 
rying the mail. It now uses over 3000 
railway cars on 150,000 miles of road, 
and keeps fiOOO clerks on the move, 
traveling in crews 140,000,000 miles a 
year, during which time 9,000,000,000 
pieces of mail matter are handled. 
About 300 mail cars are wrecked, a 
dozen clerks are killed, and 150 injured 
during the same period. 

The total expense of the postal ser- 
vice is about $75,000,000 per annum, 
and the department not far from self- 
sustaining. How can so vast a system 
ignore the difference between railway 
and electrical speeds. A car travels 
40 miles an hour, a current 200,000 a 
second. The automatic telegraph now 
projected will send a message of 16 
words from New York to Chicago every 
second, and 50 words — about the aver- 
age of an ordinary business letter — in 
3 seconds. If time be reckoned as the 
basis of value for business correspond- 
ence, which will appeal most to the 
business man, a letter occupying 24 
hours covering 2000 miles for 2 cents, 
or a telegram yoing the same distance 
in 3 seconds for 15 cents? Mr. Delaney 
asks: " Would not a very large pro- 
portion of business communications 
warrant the extra 13 cents?'' The pub- 
lic desire for quick facilities of commu- 
nication is strikingly evident in the 
avidity with which it has taken ad- 
vantage of the quick delivery system 
instituted by the postoffice a few years 
ago. Every such letter is an evidence 
that the writer is willing to pay 10 
cents in order to expedite the delivery 
of his letter a half hour. If these let- 
ters could be telegraphed for, say, 15 
cents, or 3 cents more than the or- 
dinary and extra postage, there can 
be little doubt that nearly all would go 
that way. Already Italy is about to 
make the experiment of 5-cent tele- 
grams. It seems inevitable that sooner 

The Rural New-Yorker he'.ps 
reduce the mortgage and in 
crease the profits of the farm. 
Let us send it this week. Send 
your address ; no money. 

Th« Rur»l New-Yorker, 

409 P*»rl Street, New York. 


Such ills as 


and the like, 

or later, either in a monopolistic or a 
competitive way. It cannot go on re- 
stricting the postal service to hauling 
actual paper by rail. Among other of 
its beneficent aims its mission is to 
place its people in communication by 
I the quickest means at the lowest cost, 
! and for this purpose an up-to-date tel- 
egraph will answer. 

The oft-mooted idea of utilizing the 
earth's internal heat for power and do- 
mestic purposes is assuming practical 
shape in Hungary. It appears that 
for many years the artesian wells there 
existing have supplied hot water which 
has been used for public baths and 
buildings, and for warming green- 
houses and winter gardens. The plan 
is now being seriously considered, it is 
stated, of sinking such wells to 12.000 
or 15,000 feet. It is thought that the 
water from such a depth would have a 
temperature of about 200 degrees C, 
and should, therefore yield steam for 
power as well as the heat required in 

Beecham's pills are for bilious- 
ness, bilious headache, dyspep- 
sia, heartburn, torpid liver, diz- 
ziness, sick headache, bad taste 
in the mouth, coated tongue, 
loss of appetite, sallow skin.etc, 
when caused by constipation; 
and constipation is the most 
frequent cause of all of them. 

Go by the book. Pilis io<£ and 
25<J a box. Book free at your 
druggist's or write B. F. Allen Co., 
365 Canal Street, New York. 

Annual sales more than 6,000,000 boxes. 

— A well-known Portland merchant has re- 
cently had illustrated to him, in the persons 
of two commercial travelers, great vicissi- 
tudes of fortunes. One, who called to solicit 
trade for a certain brand of catsup, was at 
one time one of the leading merchants of Bos- 
ton, and his residence, when adversity came, 
sold under the hammer for $73,000. The 
other, who had a line of cigars, had been 
twiee elected"Governor of one of the largest 
Western States. 

— At the Atlanta Exposition, on fruit Cali- 
fornia excelled any other State, and secured 
the medals and awards, some twenty odd. 
Most of them will be gold. The State had 
previously won seventy-five premiums, and it 
looks as though the total number of awards 
made to California will aggregate nearly 100, 
and between forty and fifty of them will be 
highest in their class and" carry with them 
each a gold medal. 

Bkonchitis. Sudden changes in the weath- 
er cause Bronchial Troubles. " Brown't 
BroncMcO Troches" will give effective relief. 

—Despite the plain intent of Congress that 
one of the two new battle ships should be 
built on this coast, Secretary of the Navy 
Herbert has rejected the bid of the Union Iron 
Works and awarded the contract to the New- 
port News and Drydock Company. The act 
authorizing the construction said one of the 
ships -"shall be built on the Pacific coast," 
but the bid had to be " to the satisfaction" of 
t he Secretary of the Navy, and, of course, it 
is difficult to satisfy a man who believes that 
the Allegheny mountains form the western 
boundary of the United States. 

$100 Reward $100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that science has been able to cure In all its stages, 
and that Is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
ODly positive cure known to the medical fraternity. 
Catarrh being a constitutional disease, requires 
constitutional treatment. Hall's Catarrh Cure Is 
taken internally, acting directly upon the blood 
and mucous surfaces of the system, thereby de- 
stroying tbe foundation of the disease, and giving 
the patient strength by building up the constitu- 
tion and assisting nature in doing its work. The 
\ proprietors have so much faith in its curative 
| powers, that they otter One Hundred Dollars for 
any case that It fails to cure. Send for list of 

Address, F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo, O. 
Sold by Druggists, 75c. 
Hall's Family Pills are tbe best. 

—Oil prospecting machinery is at work at 
Point Loma, on San Diego bay. 

None So Blind as Those Who Will Not See! 

Paid a fence maker to a wire maker, "Of 
:ourse that 'spring steel' in the 'Page' is all 
bosh." "Don't fool yourself," said tbe W. M. 
'We make train loads of Page wire and we 
wouldn't give them tbe wire we sell you. 



And SAVE MONEY by buying on a strictly 

We do a Strictly Cash Business, that is why we 
quote : 

Genuine Dry Granulated Cane SL'UAR 

*4.75 per 100-pound sack 

A No 1 Japan or Island KICE 

H.O0 per 100- pound sack 

Fine new Liverpool SALT $13.50 per ton 

Genuine new Down East Maine Sugar COKN, 

Pure and Sweet, '95 pack only $1.15 per doz. 

Per case of two doz ti.85 


WHITE BEANS IX cents per pound 

BARBED WIRE. 2 or 4 point. Genuine Glid- 

den $8.00 per 100 pounds 

Best Family FLOUR $3.35 per barrel 



Pacific Coast Home Supply Co. 


Send for list of WIRE NETTING. 

Whitewashing clone for THREE-Ql'ARTERS 
OF A CENT per Square Yard. 


400 yards of white- 
washing or 200 trees 
may be sprayed In one 
hour by Wain Wright's 
Whitewashing Ma- 
chine & Tree Sprayer. 
Machines at prices from 

t;i to *5u. Whitewashing 

or Tree Spraying Nozzles 
sent by mail at $1.00 each 
With this machine, rods 
and nozzles, buildings M 
feet high can be white- 
washed or trees sprayed 
without staging or lad- 
ders. All the large build- 
ings at tbe Midwinter 
Fair were whitewashed 
with lime and had the 
appearance of fine paint 
work. We also supply a 
full line of tbe Best and 
Cheapest Telephones. 
Transmitters. Wire, etc., 
for communication be- 
tween office, warehouse, 
dwelling, etc. Send for 
Catalogue. WM. WAINWRItiHT, 1560 .Market 
street, near Hayes. 


Watsonvllle, Cal Manufacturers of tbe 

McLean and Dorsey Orchard 
and Field Cultivators. 

Both similar in construction of frame and teeth, 
but different lift for raising and lowering cultiva- 
tor, the Dorsey being the latest improved and lifts 
very easy. Both Cultivators are highly recom- 
mended by all who use them, either for field or 
orchard use. 



2 SI'RAV III:..- TKfc.ES. 


^Scinl for complete cfitulowue and treatise ont 

3 spraying, mailed FREE. The DEMINC CO. E 

iw^ffi&Saaii Salem.Ohio.l 


Those who desire to read law at home can ob- 
tain Information as to what books to purchase at 
tbe least possible cost to complete the course, by 
addressing CHAS A. H. SMITH, 261 Second St., 
Oakland, Cal. 





Trade Mark— Or. A. Owen 


The latest and only scientific and practical 
Electric Bolt made, for general use, producing 
a genuine current of Electricity, for the cure 
of disease, that can be readily felt and regu- 
lated both in quantity and power, and applied 
to any part of the body . It can be worn at any 
time during working hours or sleep, and 




Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kidney and Urinal Troubles, and will effect 
cures lu seemingly hopeless cases where every 
other known means has failed. 

Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
by this means be roused to healthy activity 
before It is too late. 

Leading medical men use and recommend the 
Owen Belt In their practice. 


Contains fullest Information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
and how t ) order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Belt and Appliance Co. 


The Owen Electric Dolt Cldg., 201 to 211 State Street, 

fhe Largest Electric Belt Establishment in the World 



L T O IN. 


reverses without detaching; with or without Ex- 
tension heads. Write for Special Circular. 
San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles. 

what is-iNDURINE?" 


It is the CHKAPEST TAINT ever Dade. 

Why. for whitening, disiuiecting and a ftre- 
retardant In factories, public buildings, etc. 

For painting: wood, brick and cemented buildings, 
electric light poles, fences, etc., and for protecting 
shingle roofs from fire. 

• It Is a dry powder combined with a chemical 
binder, to be mixed only with cold water. 

It Is the only satisfactory paint tor cement 
work, as it is not affected by alkali. 

The kind sold for Inside use works well over old 
whitewash and can be applied with brush or spray 
pump. The "Outside" la made In white and sev- 
eral colors. 


KALsOMINE. No suction, brush marks or laps, 
does not rub. scale or soften with age. Send for cir- 
culars, testimonials and prices to 

U >l. ISl RU, MAN I I II 11 KKK, 
Mills Building, - - San Francisco, Cal. 

Business College-, 

24 Post Street San Fran< Imco. 


This College Instructs In Shorthand. Type-Writing. 
Bookkecplng.Telegraphy. Penmanship. Drawing, all 
the English branches, and everything pertaining to 
business, for full six months. We have Hi teachers 
and give Individual instruction to all our pupils 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
Instructor. The course Is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
733 /VlrtRKET STREET", 
San Francisco, Cai.. 
Open All Year. : A. VAM DER HAILLEH, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chloriaation 
Assay, *25; Blowpipe Assay, 110. Full course of 
assaying. (50. Established 1864. Send for Circular 


)i*kr< from 9 50. to $500. ft month at homr or lr k ,. 
r\\uf. Work for jounir nntlnlil. Itoa'l rrl; on oth* 

rn, Kara jonrown I Win*. in r«ml»hrrt fror. 

«*t to norknt oart.t Hit AGO t»t Al.K CO. t hU*M« 

January 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 



Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 8, 1896. 
DAIRY PRODUCTS. — There is a little bet- 
ter feeling in the butter market this week, 
caused by limited supplies of fresh butter and 
an almost total lack of packed goods. The 
stocks of cheese are also light, with conse- 
quently a firmer market. The following are 
about the prices : 

Butter, creamery, fancy 26@27 

" seconds 24(5)26 

pickled 18@20 

Cheese, fancy mild 9<ff 10H 

" fair to good 7(3 9 

Eastern 12@12H 

The Dairymen's Union report for 7th inst. is 
as follows: 

The Eastern market appears to have a firmer 
feeling, with creamery selling well up to 23c and 
aa^c. Cheese is in active demand at prices rang- 
ing from 6c to 11c. . 

The Pacific coast is moderately supplied with 
fresh butter, with practically no packed descrip- 
tions to be had. In consequence of this, prices 
have advanced somewhat, and under an increased 
demand for fresh goods— owing to the absence of 
packed— there is a possibility of prices being well 
sustained for the next twenty or thirty days, al- 
though, if the price is pushed too high, the market 
is liable to become inactive, in which case a reac- 
tion will be noticeable. 

The northern territories are drawing practically 
nothing from this end, owing to the better facili- 
ties which are being put in for the manufacture of 
butter in those localities. 

Ruling quotations on creamery butter are from 
24c to 26c, with a slight advance on some occa- 

Cheese is in limited supply, and prices are well 
sustained at quotations of from 6c to 11c. 

POULTRY— The market for poultry is per- 
fectly lifeless on account of holidays, and 
(juotations nominal. 

Live Turkeys, gobblers 10(g> U 

" .'' , hens loca li 

Dressed Turkeys 12(gi 13 

Boosters, old..' .3 75@4 00 

r. 1, yung 4 00@4 50 

Broilers, small 2 60@3 00 

„ ,ar «e 3 sofiM 00 

™ en , s 4 00@5 00 

P" cks 4 00ft/ ft 50 

Geese, per pair i 50^1 75 

Pigeons, per doz 1 oo^l 25 

Tou ng 1 25(W 75 

POTATOES— No movement beyond a few 
sales to jobbers, and prices are about the 

BEANS. —There is a little doing all the 
time, and while the market is quiet prices 
are steady. 

E a y os 81 10(3,1 20 

°u»er ! 70(a)1 gg 

£l n . k 1 00(5U 20 

?f a 1 20(a ) 35 

^ ,ma 2 60(ffi.2 75 

Horse 1 30® 1 70 

Pea. 1 5001 75 

Small white ! 40 @1 55 

h? Tg , e 1 10@1 35 

Black eye 1 75®, 95 

Red kidney ! 75@1 95 

FLOUR— Net cash -Family extra, $3 65® 
3 75 per bbl; Bakers' extra, $3 45®3 55: Su- 
perfine, *2 50@2 75. 

BARLEY— Fair to good Feed, 62%@65e: 
No. 1 Feed, 67 1 / 2 r^70c; extra choice, 7P 4 @ 
72V,c; Brewing, 75@82^c; Chevalier, $1 Oaf* 
1 20. 

WHEAT— No. 1 shipping, per ctl, $1 02% ; 
choice to fancy, 81 03 :, 4 ; good to choice, White 
Milling, U 07%@1 12%. 

OATS— Feed, fair to good, 57%@65c,; No. 1, 
67%WS0c ; choice to fancy, 82%rffi85c ; Surprise, 
!i(ii'f«81; Milling, 65f*75c; Norway, black, 
1 30; Gray, 67%®77%c; Red, 85@95c. 

BUCKWHEAT-8~y„r« !)5c per ctl. 

OILCAKE MEAL— New or old process, mill 
prices, $21 per ton. 

FEED CORN MEAL-Choice grades, per 
ton, $18 50@19 50. 

BRAN— No. 1, $12 50® 13 50 per ton. 
HOPS— 5®8c per lb, according to quality. 
MIDDLINGS— Fair to good, per ton, $18@ 
18 50; No. 1, $19020; extra choice, $21. 

per ton, $21. 

HAY— New crop, per ton : Wheat, $S@ 
12 50; Barley, $6@8 50; Wheat and Oat, $7 50 
@ll; Wild Oat, mm; Clover, «6@8; Alfalfa, 
$5 50@8 50: Compressed, $6 50010 50; Stock, 

SEEDS— Yellow Mustard, per ctl, $1 40® 
1 60; Native, $1 25® 1 70; Canary, California, 
nominal; Imported, S'+ffW+o; Hemp, 3 3 4 ®4c; 
Flax, 1®1%c; Rape, 1 >'-",<•; Timothy, Pifir 
6%c; Alfalfa, 6 3 4 @7J4c for California. 

ONIONS— Per ctl, good to choice Silver 
Skins, 70@85c; Cut Onions, 50@60c. 

VEGETABLES— Beets, sk, 50©«5c; Garlic, 
lb. 4(3>4%c; Cabbage, ctl, OOWSOc; Cauliflower, 
doz, 30@50c; Turnips, 40r*60c; Carrots, 35® 
40c; Celery, bx, 40®50c; Dried Peppers, per 

Oliver Chilled Plows 







01 iver Chilled Plow Works, 37 Market Street, San Francisco Cal, 

lb, 8®10c; String Beans, 6@8c; Sweet Peas, 
per lb, 8c. 

WOOL. — Messrs. Denigan report as fol- 
lows: The market for wool is duller. For a 
few days some little activity was manifested, 
caused mainly by the agitation of the tariff 
and, to some extent, by the war scare. All 
kinds of wool were more salable then but the 
demand has dropped off again, and at the 
present time there is nothing doing worth 
speaking of. Prices remain as at our last 
quotations as follows: 

Short, trashy San Joaquin plains 3@5c 

Good San Joaquin plains 4@6c 

Southern and Coast. 4@5c 

Mountain Wools, light and free 6(ffi7c 

Mountain Wools, defective and heavy 5(5i6c 

Humboldt and Mendocino 8@9c 

The Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, Jan. 8, 1896. 

DRIED FRUITS.— On account of stocktak- 
ing and balancing of accounts by merchants, 
there is practically nothing doing in dried 
fruits of any kind this week, and any move- 
ment is simply in retail. 

In raisins it is reported some large turns 
have been made. Fifteen to twenty ears of 
second crop, loose, have been sold at i„'c under. 
The situation in the East is generally stronger 
and commission men are asking for consign- 
ments, which shows the market is getting 
bare of goods; but they are not meeting with 
much success, as far as we hear. Packers and 
holders are evidently waiting for f. o. b. buy- 
ers. The feeling is not to consign unless under 
a guarantee of 3%0, delivered. The stock of 
raisins on the coast is variously estimated at 
400 to 650 carloads. Market nominal at prices 
quoted below . 

The Zante currant case was brought up for ] 
hearing on Monday before the U. S. Circuit 
Court, but was postponed on account of pres- I 
sure of business. A question arose whether i 
jury cases took precedence of such cases. , 
Judge Beatty has this point under advise- 
ment, and will set the case for hearing at an 
early date. 

In our issue of last week we informed our | 
readers that Messrs. Porter Bros. & Co. had | 
submitted a proposal to their creditors, which 
was considered satisfactory to most of those i 
represented. We now learn that about ninety 

per cent of the creditors have agreed to the 
extension of time asked for by the firm, and 
the others are expected to fall in line within 
a day or two. On account of the large stocks 
held by the firm, it was feared the market fo 
dried fruits would be seriously affected; but, 
by the wisdom of the creditors in agreeing to 
the arrangement, the sacrifice of the firm's 
stock was avoided. We hope to be able to re- 
port in our next issue that they have re- 
sumed business. 

Apples, fancy 4V4 

" choice 4 

Apricots, fancy Moorpark II 

" choice " "... 10 

" fancy 

" choice 8H 

" standard 7 

" prime £ 

Figs, white, fancy 5 

" choice, 4 

" " standard 3 

" black, fancy 2% 

" " choice 2 

" " standard \\ 

Nectarines, choice 5 

standard i% 

" prime 4 

Pears, fancy halves W t 

" quarters 514 

" choice h 

" standard 4 

" prime 3 

Peaches, fancy 5 

" choice 4 

" standard 354 

" prime 3 

" peeled, in boxes 10 <ai2i4 

Plums, pitted 3% 

" unpitted I Of \y t 

Prunes, 4 sizes 4 


4-crown, loose, sacks or 50-pound boxes. 3 

3 " " - " " •' 2U@ 2 

2 " " " " " IK® 2 

Seedless Sultana, " " " 3\(w 4 

" Muscatel, " " " 2% 

Dried Grapes, " " 214 

3-crown, London layers, 20 pound boxes.. . 85® 1 00 
Clusters, " " 1 40(5)1 50 
" Dehesa, " " 2 25 

" Imperial, " " 2 75 


Jobbing prices: 

Almonds, paper shell 8 (31 fl 

soft shell 7 @ 8 

hard shell 314® 5 

Walnuts, soft shell 9 @10 

hard shell 7 ® 8 

Brazil 8 @10 

Peanuts, California 3%@ 4% 

FRESH FRUITS.— The same remarks apply 
to fresh fruits as to nearly all other lines. 
There is no movement worth recording. Busi- 
ness has not recovered from the holidays and 
merchants seem more anxious to find out how 
stocktaking and balancing of accounts turn 
out than to rustle around for business. Fresh 
fruits are quotable as follows: 

Oranges, seedlings $1 25@1 75 

Riverside and Redlands 2 25@4 50 

others 2 50@2 75 

Apples, ordinary, box 40® 75 

" choice to fancy 75@1 25 

Lemons (as to quality) 1 00@2 50 

movement except in a small way to local job- 
bers for immediate wants. 

Comb 10@12 

Water White, extracted 5@5K 

Dark Amber 4@4H 

Beeswax 24(3)26 


A reader of the Rural Press writes: 
1 have had the water paint called " Indu- 
■ rine " under observation for several months 
and have demonstrated to my satisfaction its 
] satisfactory appearance and lasting qualities. 
I used it in the interior of a small green- 
house, where it was subject to almost daily 
i wettings with the hose, and has maintained 
I itself admirably. I used for this purpose 
I what is called •' Outside Indurine," as I con- 
1 sidered the conditions wittiin a greenhouse as 
even more trying than the weathering of the 
| exterior. The powder form of outside indu- 
I rine which is now offered has a better body 
, and a whiter color than the old form, and is 
more economical. Indurine appears to me to 
be a most admirable material for looks and for 
durability under the most trying conditions of 
heat and moisture. 

The new Howe truss bridge spanning the 
j Sacramento river contains 1,100,000 feet of 
! lumber, and cost for labor and material $130,- 
I 000. The bridge consists of four spans and a 
I draw. Three of these spans are each 150 feet 
1 long, one is 125 feet, and the draw is 236 feet. 
| The latter will be operated by an electric 
I motor with automatic gates for the roadway, 
which gates will open or close as the draw is 
moved. It will also be equipped with hand 
machinery, to be used in case of accident to 
the automatic apparatus. 



The California Special Plows are manufactured expressly for the California trade. They are fitted with extra long adjustable Index Beams, making them desirable for Orchard 

and Vineyard Work. 


Write for Catalogue and Prices. 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 11, 1806. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 


By Worthy Lecturkh Ohlkyek. 
What is needed to make Fresno county 
prosperous is more farmers in place or 
ranchers. Ranchers are men who stake their 
whole pile on some one product-wool, wheat, 
hogs, raisins, fruit or something else-and 
buy everything they need to live on. V\ hen 
Fresno's" ranchers become farmers, r resno 
will be the richest county in the State, or as 
rich as anv other county that does the same 
thing and" much more prosperous than those 
who do not. — Fresno Expositor. 

The Expositor is off on its definition 
of the word "rancher." Webster 
says a ranch is a place where stock is 
kept, then it follows that a rancher is 
the man who tends the stock. The oc- 
cupation us found in California by the 
Argonauts bears no more semblance to 
present-day farming than does a Mexi- 
can fandango to a church social. It is 
questionable whether the word can be 
made acceptable by applying it to all 
manner of agriculture, such as a raisin 
ranch, prune ranch, peach ranch or 
nurserv ranch, to say nothing about 
calling a highly cultivated wheat farm 
a ranch and its cultivator a rancher. 

We seem prone to accept a less ex- 
alted name for our calling instead of a 
higher, if that were possible. A ranch 
is not cultivated, while a farm is; hence 
if the latter shall become a "ranch," 
the name should be changed by compe- 
tent authority. However, Fresno may 
have the genuine article. 

This is the time of year when advice 
is cheap and handy to the farmers, and 
they will do well to heed and profit by 
it. It matters not if every country 
editor and some big city editor, too, 
feel competent to instruct us, he is 
sure to say something worth hearing. 
The main trouble is that they don't 
usually agree. One says diversify; an- 
other 'says that, had Jones or Smith 
stuck to the branch he understood, he 
would not have come in competition 
with experts and lost money. One 
farmer sells his raisin crop at a big 
price; then we are scolded for not 
growing grapes. Swine growers made 
money last year, so every one who 
could rushed in this year and lost 
money. A farm in a neighboring 
county was run for a number of years 
in the most scientific manner and was 
only useful as a dump for outside capi- 
tal; and so it goes. An eminent at- 
torney with a wine vineyard once told 
the writer that farmers were the very 
worst speculators. They speculate on 
utensils, on the weather to mature the 
crop and on the market. Then he finds 
that he should have grown raisin 
grapes instead of wine, or beans in- 
stead of peas, or pumpkins instead of 
melons, or potatoes instead of oranges. 
And all the time his critics will say: 
"He might have known better" and 
"I told him so.'" Tt is well that the 
farmer is broad-shouldered and good- 
natured and able and willing to bear 
the brunt of the battle for existence, 
when, notwithstanding their defici- 
encies as heralded, they absolutely feed 
the world, keep it from starving and 
furnish the foundation for the entire 
commerce of the world. And let it be 
said that, according to numbers, no 
farmers have accomplished as much as 
those of California. 

Meeting of State Grange Execu- 
tive Committee. 

The Executive Committee of the Cali- 
fornia State Grange held its first quar- 
terly meeting for the year on Tuesday, 
January 7th, in this city. All the 
members were present, viz., W. W. 
(ireer, Cyrus Jones, Geo. P. Loucks 
and B. F. Walton of the committee, 
and Don Mills, secretary. The visitors 
were E. F. Adams, I. C. Steele. Alfred 
Holman, J. B. Carrington and Worthy 
Lecturer Ohleyer. 

The usual routine business was 
transacted. E. F. Adams of the Com- 
mittee on Education submitted reports 
and plans for the promotion of the 
educational feature of the Order in 
this State, all of which were favorably 
entertained by the committee. The 
work for the future was left in charge 

of the W r orthy Master and his subor- 
dinate officers and in due time will be 
promulgated for the instruction of 
local oflicers and Granges. 

The mass county meetings held with 
open doors, hitherto quite successful, 
were highly commended, and where 
practicable are to be continued. 

The "question card" prepared by 
the Worthy Lecturer for use in sub- 
ordinate Granges was endorsed, and a 
further supply was ordered for free 
distribution to all Granges. 

From Yuba City. 

To the Editor.— At the regular 
meeting of Yuba City Grange, held on 
Saturday, January 4th, the recently 
elected officers were installed, Past 
Master B. F. Walton acting as install- 
ing officer, with George Ohleyer as 
assistant. The ceremony was pre- 
ceded by one of the best banquets ever 
indulged in by this Grange. The prep- 
arations were on a grand scale and 
the cooking was simply perfect. The 
tables were decorated with flowers and 
evergreens and piled up with large 
golden oranges plucked that morning 
by Worthy Master P. L. Bunce from 
his orange grove just below town. 
Think of this, ye Eastern cousins ! 
These exercises concluded, all returned 
to the. hall, where the following were 
installed as officers to serve the pres- 
ent year: Master, Glenn G. Harter; 
Overseer, George Ohleyer, Jr.; Lec- 
turer, Mrs. W. E. Tucker; Steward, 
P. L. Bunce; Assistant Steward, J. P. 
Onstott, Jr.; Chaplain, Joie Walton; 
Treasurer, B. F. Frisbie; Secretary. 
Miss Allie Robinson; Gate Keeper, 
George Onstott; Pomona, Mrs. Annie 
Ohleyer; Flora. Miss Sadie W 7 alton: 
Ceres, Mrs. Lizzie Onstott; Lady As- 
sistant Steward, Miss Nellie Brophy; 
Trustee, P. L. Bunce; Organist, Edith 

Under the head of good of the Order, 
the present and future were pretty 
generally discussed and considerable 
enthusiasm was aroused. The next 
meeting will be held on Friday evening 
just previous to the regular Saturday 
meeting, which brings it on the even- 
ing of the last day of January. After 
routine business sociability and a liter- 
ary programme will be the rule, free 
to'members and invited guests. If cir- 
cumstances shall be propitious, the 
eighth question on the question card 
will*be offered for discussion, viz., 
" How can we best improve our roads 
with the material at hand without in- 
creasing our taxes ?" 

The G range selected a new corre- 
spondent, then all went home, feeling 
well repaid for the time consumed. 

Et.'REK A. 

Yuba City, Jan. <>th. 18%. 

The Starry Flag Waves in 

transacted at the last meeting was the 
adoption of the following resolutions: 

Rc8o(oed, As the construction of the Nicar- 
agua Canal is of vital importance to all the 
material interests of the Pacific States, and 
particularly that of agriculture, also for their 
protection in case of war with a foreign na- 
tion and the enforcement of the Monroe Doc- 
trine; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the canal should be con- 
structed by and owned as the property of the 
United States. 

Hi snlml. That our representatives in Can 
gress be instructed and our Senators re- 
quested to use all honorable means to further 
the construction of the Nicaragua Canal. 

Mr. N. T. Root sends the following 
resolutions adopted by Stockton 
Grange at its last meeting: 

Whereas, We have read with great inter- 
est the message of the President to Congress 
on the Venezuelan affair, therefore be it 

Rmilivd, That Stockton Grange No. TO, P. 
of H., heartily concurs in the sentiments ex- 
pressed therein ; 

Rexolved, That we approve the noble act of 
Congress in granting the appropriation 
needed for the expense of a commission to 
thoroughly investigate the matter and report 
on the same : 

Regnlpeit, That when such report is made 
and accepted there -shall be no backdown by 
this Government, come what may. 

Rexolewl, That if England persists in heren- 
croachments on this continent we recommend 
that America speak to her through her guns— 
they can be understood by kings. 

Renolrcd. That a copy of these resolutions ] 
be sent to the Presideut at Washington. 

N. T. Root, Secretarv. 

Stockton, Cat., Jan. 4th, 1896. 

Felix Gillet's Catalogue. 

From flerced. 

Kverv planter of nut and prune trees and of 
grape vines ought to examine the catalogue 
of the Barren Hill Nursery i Felix Gillet) be- 
fore making up his orders for the present sea- 
son. Mr. Gillet belongs to the old reliable 
list of nurserymen, and in his specialties re- 
tains the distinction which has long been as- 
sociated with his name. His imported stock 
is now ready. For his catalogue, address 
Barren Hill Nursery, Nevada City, Cal. 

For Olive Planters and Growers. 

We have received a copy of "The Olive 
Growers* Handbook," lsiHi, by, John S. Calkins 
of Pomona, which will be mailed free to any 
one who will write to him for it. It treats of 
the propagation of olive trees; age for trans- 
planting; time to transplant: trimming: dis- 
tance apart to plant; soil and climate; irriga- 
tion; insect pests; varieties: cross-pollina- 
tion to increase fruitfulness : dried olives: 
methods of pickling ; extracting oil: the fam- 
ily olive orchard : and the future of the olive 
in California. 

California Nursery Co.'s Price 

The California Nursery Co., of Niles, Ala- 
meda Co., has just issued a price list which 
covers the whole of their stock of trees and 
shrubs. The extent and variety of this stock 
is shown by the fact that it takes sixty 
closely-printed pages to give the prices alone, 
leaving the descriptions to two supplemen- 
tary pamphlets. The California Nursery Co. 
is very proud — and it may well be— of the fact 
that everything which it offers for sale is 
grown in its own grounds and under the eye 
of Mr. John Rock. This season's stock has 
made exceptionally good growth and is war- 
ranted free from" all injurious insects, dis- 
eases and defects. When you buy of this 
company you lainir taactly what you arc yrUinii. 
For catalogues and prices apply to California 
Nursery Co., Niles, Cal. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey A Co., Pioneer Parent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coaitt. 


551|M8. — Signal Latch— Barnes & Slater, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

551,989.— Piledkivek Hammer— J. Munro, Astoria, 

551, K33.— Vapor Burner— E. J. Nichols, S. F. 
551 .994. — Brushes — K. S. O Keeffe, S. F. 
551.909.— Can Spout— J. O Sprague, Sacramento, 

Not k. —Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey St. Co. In the shortest time possible 
by mall or telegraphic order). American and For- 
eign patentB obtained, and general patent business 
for Pacific CoaBt Inventors transacted with perfect 
Becurlty, at reasonable rates, and in the shortest 
possible time. 



526 California Street. 

For the half year ending December 31. 1895, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and 
twenty-six hundredths (4 26-100) per cent per an- 
num on Term deposits, and three and ttfty-Bve 
hundredths (3 55-100) per cent per annum on Ordi- 
nary deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
THURSDAY, January 2. 189B. 

GEO. TOURNY. Secretary. 




4« General Commission Merchants, 4* 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

Merced, Dec. 30, 1895k 
To the Editor: — The last meeting of 
Merced Grange for 1895 was a pleasant 
and most harmonious affair. During 
the short days of winter each member 
brings a luncheon, and, when the noon 
hour arrives, a free-for-all basket feast 
is spread. 
The only business of importance 


For deep or shallow wells ; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5 -in. double-actinn 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,000 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A T.AMES. Gait, Cal. 

Blake, Moffltt db Town*?, 


512 to SI6 Sacramento St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 

rvpAFNP^ bee wii.son bar drum 

DErtritEJJi advertisement last issue. 

There's Honey in Quality. 

Good butter brings 
more money to the 
dairy farmer than 
poor butter. The 
best plan ever offered 
to the public to im- 
prove the quality of 
butter is by ui-ing the 
Little Giant Cream Separator. It 
does the finest work with least expense 
and skims clean as a whistle. Any in- 
telligent boy can run it. Send for 
circular. P. M. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Elgin, Illinois. 
Rut hind, Vermont. 




Capital I'ald Up » 1. 000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided ProtitH, 130,000 
Dividends Paid to Stockholders 832.0OO 

H. M. LARUE President. 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. . . Cashier and Manager. 
C H. MCCORMICK Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits Received. Gold and 
Silver. Bills of Exchange Bought and Sold. Loans 
on Wheat and Country Produce a Specialty. 

January 1. 1894. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager 


10 lbs. 

eonomleal and 

Makes Bisulphide effective ami 
works as well on Ground Squirrels. 
For use in applying 

Price reduced to H per 6-gal. can. 
Sold by tin- trade and the manufacturer. 

I tali and Alameda Ms.. San Franeiseo 


POTATO Cutter 


It marks, furrows, cute, 
dropsand covers all in one 

Xo more cutting need 
bv hand. 

It cuts the potato the 
same as If done by hand. 

11 leaves the Meld with 
its work done complete. 

The only perfect potato 
planter made. 
Send for free catalogue to 

Dept. m PLANO IMPLEMENT CO., Piano, 111. 
SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 

' | (Established 1861). 

Weekly, •! a year. 7 Editors. 

• Free! 

All about Beei and Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 



C Ei ■ b W\ ^9 Sample copy oi 


A Handsomely Illustrated QCC CIIDDI ICC 
Magazine, and Catalog, of D tt OU tlLI tO 
I'll 1 £ 1 : . Tin: A. I. ItOOT CO.. IMedlna.O. 




January 11, 1890. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


"Laura writes from home that she 
has bought a wheel," said Mrs. Fi^g 
to the aunt with whom she is spending 
the summer. "I am glad to hear that 
the old fashion is coming in again," 
said the old lady. " I allow I II have 
to come up and teach her how to 
spin."— Cincinnati Tribune. 

A little girl who is accustomed to the 
plainest style of living was taken by 
her mother to dine with a rich friend 
lately. On her returning to her humble 
home, she called out to her sister, in an 
ecstasy of triumph and delight, O 
Polly, we had four dinners, all one 
after 'another ! "—American. 

"Seems to me," remarked Wilbur, 
as he thought about certain things, 
"that, if they have an insect called a 
bee and a bird called a jay, there ought 
to be things named after the other 
letters in the alphabet. For instance, 
a Q would make a splendid animal, 
because it has a tail to start with."— 
Harper's Young People. 

Sammy: "Who is the father of his 
country?" Jimmie: "George Wash- 
ington." Sammy. "Correct. Who is 
his uncle?" Jimmie: Why, I don't 
know." Sammy: "Uncle Sam." 
Harper's Round Table. 

Seword: "Were you aware that 
Noah understood all about electricity ?" 
Baldwin: " No, did he?" "Most as- 
suredly: he made the arc light on 

Miss Girton: " I wonder to what the 
poet alluded when he spoke of the 
embers of a dying year' ? " Bob Quiz- 
by: " November and December, T 

Turn About Toots— It takes an 
artist to mix a cocktail. Tanks— I 
daresay; I've seen a cocktail mix; an 
artist. — Puck. f 

Weary Watkins— Ever think of get- 
tin' into the poorhouse ? Hungry Hig- 
o-ius- Me? No; I don't want to be- 
come no public office holder. You won't 
find me askin' nothin' of the county as 
long as I kin git my own livin'.— In- 
dianapolis Journal. 

Elder Berry— What is your idea of 
faith? Joblots— Putting a nickel on 
the plate and expecting a crown of 
pure gold.— New York Herald. 

" I hear a good deal said about dou- 
ble taxation," said the stranger. "May 
I ask what it is?" "Certainly," replied 
the promoter; "we call it double taxa- 
tion when we have 1o pay both the city 
and the aldermen for a franchise." 

old California Theater, on Bush street, 
San Francisco, in 1878. The managers 
of the theater at that time were 
Messrs. Barton Hill, General Barton 
and Frank Lawler. The play was 
"Antony and Cleopatra," Rose Ey- 
tinge and Cyril Searle taking the lead- 
ing parts. Mr. A. H. Reese was the 
engineer in charge of the work. 
Seventeen years have worked a com- 
plete revolution in theatrical lighting, 
and to-day there is not a theater in 
the United States which could dis- 
pense with the electric light. 

Street cars are still rather expen- 
sive. The best cars, 35 to 42 feet in 
length, with modern fittings, cost from 
$2000 to $3000 in lots of ten to fifty. 
Single-truck electric cars, with elec- 
tric equipment, from $1500 to $2500. 
Trailers for motor cars or for cable 
grips range in extremes from $750 to 
$1500. Cable grip cars, with gripping 
device, $450 to $1000. The electrical 
apparatus, which consists of two 30- 
horse power motors, the controllers on 
the platforms and the wiring of the 
car- also lightning arrester, switches, 
fuse box, etc., cost $900. A few 
months ago the price was $825. The 
same outfit, but less efficient, six or 
seven years ago cost $3500. A car 
wheel costs from $6 to $10, according 
to size and weight. Car axles, $4 to 
$5: window curtains from 75c to $3 
each. Fare registers from $15 to $35 
each; gongs from 75c to $2 each; trol- 
ley wheels 50c to 75c; trolley pole $1.50 
to $3; hand brakes $5 to $50; air 
brakes $100 to $500; electric brake $25 
to $150; head lights $4 to $12; car- 
heating stoves $5 to $25; electric 
heaters $4 to $10. The cable in the 
conduit, which pulls the cable cars, 
costs from 9c to 12c per foot. At 
present an electric track complete, 
with overhead work and feed lines and 
rails of 74 pounds to the yard, ranges 
from $3 to $3.30 per foot of single 

It is believed, says Electricity, that 
the first electric light installed in an 
American theater was a Jablochkoff 
candle used as a focussing lamp in the 

A few drops of benzoin placed on 
cotton and put in or around a tooth 
lhat is aching will almost instantly 
stop the pain. 

Pacific Nursery 

Office and Greenhouses, 
Cor linker and Lombard Sts., San Francisco. 

Nursery at Milbrae, Sau Mateo Co. 



Evergreens ami Coniferous, Palms and Dracenses. 

Largest aDd best grown stock of Camellias, the 
best double sorts. Azaleas iudiea, double and 
single. Roses on own roots aDd grafted in the 
best varieties, and healthy, very strong plants. 
F. LU1>E MAN N. 


Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of 
long establishment, great experience, thor- 
ough system, intimate acquaintance with the 
subjects of inventions in our own community, 
and our most extensive law and reference 
library, containing official American reports, 
with full copies of U. S. patents since 1872. 
All worthy inventions patented through. Dew- 
ey & Co's Patent Agency will have the bene- 
fit of a description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of patent 
business, and obtain patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and foreign patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable, advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for 
Pacific Coast inventors are far superior. 

Advice and Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 

220 Market St., San Francisco. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JACKSON <fc CO. 
8ole Agents. - - No. 286 market Street, 





IMPRfWP YftTIR SPiRR TIMP You will have a good many spare hours and long evenings this 
urn nv I Li iuuii ui niiu iimu. winter, which you can use to advantage if you have a 

Home Repairing Outfit. 

All these tools are full sized, practical, neat and cheap. Not mere leys, enabling any person to fo 
his own half-soling, boot, shoe, harness and tinware repairing. Economy is wealth. Do your own re- 
pairing and thus save many a dollar. 


1 Iron Last. 1(1 inches 

1 - 8 ' 

1 •• II •' 

1 4 

1 Iron Standard, with base 

l package assorted Niiils 

1 •• 4-8 Wire Cinch Nails. 

l •■ 5-8 

1 '• B-8 ' ; 

kj doz. pair Star Heel Plates 

Ji lb. copper Rivets and Bur s.. 

1 Steel Punch 29 cts 

1 Sewing Awl. complete ...'u •• 

1 Packing Awl. '■ ....II) " 

1 Wrench for above 6 " 

l Stabbing Awl, complete. . 25 " 

1 Shoe Knile 25 " 

1 " Hammer 5(1 " 

l bottle Rubber Cement.... 20 " 

1 •• Leather '• ....20 " 

1 ball Wax .". • 

1 Ball Shoe Thread 1(1 " 

1 Bunch Bristles 

1 Harness and Saw Clamp. 

4 Harness Needles 

1 Soldering Iron 

l Bottle Soldering Fluid. . . 

1 Box Rosin 

1 Bar Solder 

Directions for use. 

J 05 

If purchased separately I lie articles would cost you not less than ISO. 50. AntfU f ATTinlptp Ifl 

38 first-class tools and materials as shown in illustration. We don't break kits. vUUIl VVUipiCIO, (pU-VV 

We are agents for this coast 
We supply everything. ' * Front street. San Francisco, CU. 


Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 


Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 

KENDALL'S SPAVIN CURE. Certain in its 
effects and never blisters. Sold everywhere. 


Choice Bulbs and Plants. 

We prepay the postage and guarantee safe delivery of the Plant 

Set A - 3 Beautiful Palms, 3 sorts, strong plants, 50c 

B— 10 Lovely Carnations, 10 sorts 50c 

C — 10 Prize-winning Chrysanthemums, 10 sorts 50c 

D— 5 Superb double Petunias, 5 kinds 50c 

E— 5 Grand large-flowered Oeraniums, 5 kinds.. 50c 

O—IO Klegant everhlooming Roses, 10 kinds 50c 

10 Flowering Plants, viz: 1 F*uchsia, 1 Heliotrope, 
1 Manettia Vine, 1 Carnation, 1 Geranium, 
1 Soiaum, 1 Petunia, 1 Ahutilon, 1 Hydran- 
gea, 1 Chrysanthemum 50c 

12 Violet Plants, 50c- tm*^%™« 

White, 3 Marie Louise. 

3 Sets 




5 Sets 



It contains a 

table Seeds 

fr\f r»lll* Illustrated Catalogue. 
^CMU lUr Dili complete list of our Flower, Vegeta- 
ble, Grass, Clover, Tree and Shrub Seeds, Fruit Trees and Small 
F'ruits; our latest importations from Germany, F'rauce, England, 
Australia and Japan; all the Latest Novelties in Flower and Vege- 

COX SEED AND PLANT CO., San Francisco 

411, 413 Sansome Street 




Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 


Iron cut punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared or coating all sizes of Pipes 
with Asphaltutr, 

4 Free Offers! 

For vears we have tried to secure for our subscribers some easy way of preserving their 
Pacific Rural Press, and binding it at trifling cost. We have at last found it and we give 
here a picture of our new binder. It takes only half a minute to insert the paper, and there- 
bere apitiuieoiu after it is kept clean, and can be always found 

when wanted. A single binder will hold an entire 
volume of the Pacific Kurai. Press. When it is 
complete it can be filed away in your library as a 
most valuable book of reference. 

As a method of keeping your papers for future 
use, it is worth ten times its cost. It makes all the 
difference between lost, torn and dirtied papers, 
scattered about the house in such confusion that 
you can never find what you require, and a hand- 
some, orderly file, which becomes at the end of the 
year a valuable volume for your library. 

A single paper found when wanted repays the 
cost of the binder twice over. We cannot too 
strongly urge upon subscribers the great impor- 
tance of preserving each issue of this paper in our 
binder. In a few years you will have an ency- 
clopedia unequaled 'in character, variety and time- 
liness. Iti this way you can in a short time possess 
a real library without expense to yourself. 

To insure a copy of the new binder to every one 
of our subscribers we make the following liberal 
offers : , . , , 

FmsT-We will send Free a binder to every sub- 
scriber promptly renewing his or her subscrip- 

t "sECONn— We will send Free a binder to every 
r>ld siihscriher who will send us a new subscription and money for the same. 
°' d wltt send Free a binder to every subscriber who will ™?™**"* mn and 

full addresses of ten people whom they have tried to get to subscribe ifW the RtmA . 

We want vou to get us new subscribers and make this very liberal oftei that you wii 
make a : specTafe ffort 1 to get your friends to subscribe, and if you are not always successful, we 
are still willing to reward you liberally for the effort. 

Fourth— We will send Free a binder to every new subscriber. 

In any communication it is necessary to state that a binder is desired, and to what ad 

dress it is to he sent. 

320 Market, Street 


.San Francisco, Cal. 


The McMahan Farm, 

Comprising some 4100 acre*, located on the banks of IMtiili Creek, Solano and Volo Comities, 
baa been placed la our hand* ror sale. 

This magnificent property is now selling^at 

$67.50 PER /\CRE ! 

In sizes to suit the requirements of the different purchasers, from ten acres up, easy terms. 

If you wish to locate on the choicest land in all California, we will be pleased to mail you detailed 
information ou application, with maps, etc., something of interest either to yourself or friends in Cali- 
fornia or in the East, who may be seeking reliable information of lands in our State. 


BOVEE, TOY & CO., Sole Agents, 

No. 19 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Ready Roofing. 

P.&B.[ Bui,din g Papers- 
Roof Paints. 



HO Battery St., San Franc-lsoo. 
Ill S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 

Write for Circulars and Samples. 

NO. 15. 


Cru^s- Compound Engines and "Whirlpool" Cemrnugai Pumps 



625 Sixth Street San Francisco. 




>.^£ PATENTED AUGUST I, 1*93. 

FIRST PRIZE — Medal and Diploma — California Midwinter Interna 
tional Exposition. 

Cheapest, best and only one to protect trees and vines from frost, sun- 
burn, rabbits, squirrels, borers and other tree pests. 

For testimonials from parties who are using them, send for descriptive 


Sole Manufacturer of PATENT TULE COVERS, 


Illustrated pamphlet mailed free. 



gjf Adapted to all soils 
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First patented by Jacob Price. 

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This Seed Sower will sow wheat UK) feet wide (working width 80 fiet), elevating just enough grain 
to distribute it properly, whether the team walks fast or slow. Price »3B. For sale by 

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Our 18Q6> 

Spray Pump 

Beats the Record. 


If you buy a "BEAN" you will have the 
best there is. 

The "BEAN CYCLONE NOZZLE," Bean's Latest, 

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Farm and Lawn Fencing and Gates. 


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Orchard and 
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Anderson Orchard Brush Rake 

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For further particulars, call on or address: 


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Aren't You TIRED 

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adafsivork. S. L. ALLEN & CO., 1 107 Harket St., PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol. LI. No. 3. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

Renewed Interest in Sheep. 

We publish on another page the facts about an 
organization of wool growers in the San Joaquin val- 
ley. We take the fact to be somewhat signifi- 
cant and we hope it may serve to call attention 
to the importance of the sheep as a factor in the 
proper diversification of farm production at least. 
The great questions of the restoration of the tariff 
and the consequent return to the sheep census of the 
country of the millions of head which have been sac- 
rificed during the last three years of discourage- 
ment, are not involved in the humbler phase of the 
subject, to which we would call attention. We be- 
lieve that California should soon have as great an 
aggregate number of sheep and as great a product 
of wool as she ever had, even if the old ranges are 
fenced and the old 
mountain sides in 
a measure cut off. 
We ought to have 
a mutton and wool 
product upon the 
farm plan, which 
would exceed in 
value any figures 
ever attained on 
the old range plan. 
Of course, this 
means the exten- 
sion of the alfalfa 
area, the devel- 
opment of vast 
amounts of water 
by irrigation en- 
terprises or by use 
of underflow, the 
growth of abun- 
dant sheep food 
and the provident 
care of it, so that 
the animals can be 
kept growing well 
from spring to fall 
without famine 
points in the wool 
staple. For this 
sort of business 
California has ex- 
ceptionally fine adaptations, as she has for all lines of 
animal industry. These advantages are so marked 
that we believe California can surpass all other States 
in the mutton and wool products, upon the farm 
basis. During recent years many of our old draw- 
backs have faded away. Wages are now as cheap 
as anywhere inside of civilization. Supplies cost but 
a fraction of what they once did, and though it 
might have been shown some years ago that Califor- 
nia could not succeed, except upon the range basis, it 
is now quite clear that another basis is quite feasible. 

But it may be claimed that sheep products are too 

low in value to encourage any investment in sheep 

farming. A writer in the National Stockman meets 

that objection in this way. 

The question "Should farmers continue to keep sheep under 
present conditions and prospects {" might be answered by 
asking another, "Should farmers continue to farm at all < " If 
the mechanic is wise he will work for $2 per day or less if he 
cannot get *4; and so with the farmer. We cannot all quit, 
because things are dull all along the line, and rush into some 
occupation we know nothing about ; besides, if we are reliably 
informed, business is dull in other branches of industry. It 
is true that the iron industry and others have improved some- 
what, but they have also had a time of depression, and it may 
come again, too. The sheep business is already better than 
it was in 1894, and the prospects are that it will continue to 
improve. I maintain that under certain conditions there is as 
much profit in keeping sheep as there is in other kinds of 
stock or in raising wheat. The farmer must certainly do 

disadvantages under which they labor. Is there no 
duty that we owe to these our brethren ? Have we 
ever tried to persuade them to take an agricultural 
paper ? " This appeal to the farmers on behalf of 
the agricultural press is a sound isssue. If each 
regular reader of an agricultural journal would tell 
his friends how much of value he finds in it, the re- 
sultant aggregate of prosperity would be altogether 
beyond computation. 

A Rustic Bridge. 

some of these things. It is not possible for all to go into the 
truck business, fruit or poultry. The best plan, we think, 
would be mixed fanning, a little of different things that can 
be properly attended to. 

Sheep are great scavengers, and there are but few farms 
that do not contain a few places where sheep can be kept ad- 
vantageously, not alone to destroy weeds, etc., but to increase 
its fertili ty. A man of my acquaintance has a farm badly 
broken by hills and ravines, besides being very stony. He 
has, I believe, about sixty ewes, and in 1894 (which was low 
water mark in most industries) sold lambs and wool amounting 
to over $300, and his only cash outlay was for a few days' 
hired help in shearing time and in harvest. This man is very 
anxious to have the duty restored on wool, but isn't going to 
quit the business even if it is not. 

We believe there are many acres, not necessarily 
stony or broken, which can now be best employed in The bridge structure shown on this page is chiefly 
growing wool. Keep good sheep, keep them well, j commendable on the ground of picturesqueness. It 
and there is little doubt that they will be fairly has not the durability nor the strength of a well- 
profitable. If such a policy should prevail we could j framed bridge resting upon good abutments, and yet 
regain our old wool income without reducing at all I such bridges have served a most excellent purpose 

^^^^^ and will long con- 
tinue to do so. 
They are readily 
built of material 
which is just at 
hand, and their 
cost is very small. 
If well located and 
the underpinning 
well shielded from 
erosion they may 
endure for a long 
time, especially if 
the logs be of the 
coast redwood, 
which is long-lived. 
But such bridges 
are only tolerable 
on side roads of 
limitid travel. In 
the natural im- 
provement of our 
highways such 
bridges must give 
way to less pic- 
tu res que but 
stronger and safer 
structures of 
frame or iron, 
which do not rest 
upon midstream 
posts. but will 
span the torrent successfully, no matter how swollen 
or angry the winter storms may make it. In spite 
of this progress and development, however, those 
who enjoy the picturesque will probably always be 
able to find si'ch bridges to exercise their pencils or 
cameras upoaj^ The form will survive because it is 
fitting to conditions which will always prevail in 
retired regions, whose natural beauty is their chief 
resource. The picture is reproduced from the Fresno 

The popularity of the pomelo seems to be still in 
the ascendant, and California planters will thereat 
be glad. A writer in a Washington journal urges 
the fruit upon her sisters who live in malarial lo- 
calities. It is a charming rival to quinine and bone- 
set, and is driving them from the field. She who 
eats her grape fruit with a spoon from the natural 
cup, or relishes it served as a salad, may gladden her 
heart with the reflection that she is not only pleas- 
ing her palate, but benefiting her health. Like 
oranges and lemons, the grape fruit has great me- 
dicinal virtues. If you are of a bilious tempera- 
ment, eat grape fruit; if fevers threaten, eat grape 
fruit; but in this latter case do so only at the advice 
of a physician, as there may be certain tendencies 
which the grape fruit would only aggravate. 


the income from other products, 
saving and a clear gain. 

It will be a clear 

We are glad to see that the service of the agri- 
cultural press in the present rapid advance of the 
people in agricultural wisdom is clearly recognized j 
by the Experiment Station people. Prof. Thomas 
Shaw of the Minnesota Station recently spoke as fol- 
lows : " Take an ordinary issue of an average farm 
paper. Look over its pages and what do we find ? j 
We see there information on its every page that 
would have rejoiced the hearts of the readers of a 
hundred years ago. We are almost sure to find in it 
something bearing upon our life work that is worth 
far more than the subscription price of the paper 
for a year. It keeps us so informed as to agricul- 
tural discovery that in our work we can keep abreast 
of the times. It summarizes knowledge in many in- 
stances and thereby saves an immense amount of 
labor on our part to get at the conclusions reached. 
And in a single article it frequently gives us the 
cream of the results of the labors of a lifetime spent 
in some special work. It is a fact that perhaps nine 
out of every ten farmers in the land do not take an 
agricultural paper at all. They do not take it be- 
cause they do not know its value. Thiqk of the great 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 18, 1896. 


Ufflce, No.wo Market St.; Elev ator, No. fl Front St.,San Francisco, Vol. 
Advertising rates made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an inquiry on any suoject »tte Bg^J 
Pkkss. with a postal stamp, will receive » reply. .^U •. ^ '^f^ « 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The auswer win ut. K i vc 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our iafext /ormn go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 

AI.FKKD HOI. MAN K.litor. 

K. J. WICKSON Spectol Contribntor. 

San Francisco, January 18, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATION.— A Picturesque Rustic Bridge in the Coast Re 

EDITORIAL -Renewed Interest in Sheep; The Agricultural Press; 

A Rustic Bridge; The Popularity of the Pomelo, 88. 1 he U cek,.M. 
THK APIARY— California as a lire keeping Stale, SB. 
TKACK AND FARM — Coach Horses From Trotting Mares, 36. 
THK FIELD.— Tobacco Crow ing iu California. 37. 
FLORIST AND i : A RDKNF.R.— California Lima Bean Industry. J7. 
Til I. POULTRY YARD — Rearing Little Chicks. :w. 
HORTICULTU KE. — Spraying for the CodlinMuth; Canned rruit 

THK Ht'niK 'OIRCLK. — A Hoy in the Library; Two Christians: 
Aunt Anniky's Teeth, 40. Gems; The Secret of Success; Fashion 

Notes, 41. . „ 

UiMKSTIC Kt'ONOMY.— Domestic Hints, 41. 

MAKKKT RKPOBT. -The Fruit Market; Local Markets, 44-45. 

PATKONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Observations; The Case of Mr. 
Norton: Orange Klectious; From Merced, 46. 

MISCKLLAN F.OUS. — The Weather; Pith of the Week s News 34. 
Cleanings: More on the Consignment Question; From Mr Bouine 
A"ain: In the Interest of California Wines, .«. When Will the 
Twentieth Century Begin ? One Phase of the Cheap Manufactures 
of Japan; Magnetic Map of the Earth, 4a. Curious Facts; Kilt- 
sun's Kxperiineiits: Productions of California m IS'.ift: Dam nit he 
Calaveras Kiver; The Mexican International Railway; I he 
Vance Brothers' Railway, 47. 


(New this issue.) Paije. 

Agricultural Implements— Hooker & Co *j 

Agricultural Implements— Deere Implement Co « 

Plows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works 44 

Seeds— John A. Sal/.erCo., La Crosse, Wis «« 

Dry Ooods, etc.— Smith's Cash Store 41 

" The Pacllic Coast Dairyman" 46 

Paint— F. W. Devoe & Co., Chicago, 111 45 

Situation Wanted—" N. N.," This Office 45 

Situation Wanted— " German." This Office 45 

Situation Wanted— Tripal, S. F 45 

The Week. 

In response to a call signed by the 

Viticiiltimil ' . r 

Horticultural Commissioner of 
Work ' Contra Costa county, Mr. Hayne 
of the State University lectured to the vine growers 
at Martinez, last Saturday, on the phylloxera and 
the means of combating it. There is estimated to 
be over a million dollars invested in vines in the 
neighborhood of Martinez, so the interest manifested 
was marked, more especially as the phylloxera has 
been found in many vineyards. It was at Martinez 
that Mr. Hayne detected the presence of the phyl- 
loxera about ten months ago, and since that time 
the skeptics have been convinced that prompt ac- 
tion is necessary; and, thanks to a vigorous, ener- 
getic County Commissioner, important steps have 
been taken. Now that the Vitieultural Commission 
is no longer in existence, the grape growers of the 
State must look to the State University and the 
County Horticultural Commissioners for information 
and relief in their vitieultural troubles. With the 
rapid spread of the phylloxera and the Anaheim 
disease, such lectures and inspections as those at 
Martinez are most timely. The University holds it- 
self ready to send its exports to any portion of the 
State when the people ask for them. 

_ , , Old readers of the RuBAX will be 

interested to know that Col. L. L. 

F. Warren, who published the 
California Farmer a generation ago in this city, is 
still on deck and has a patriotic enterprise on hand, 
which is to give a literary tea party in honor of the 
birthday of Benjamin Franklin. His plan is to cele- 
brate the event on Friday, which is the one hundred 
and ninetieth anniversary of Franklin's birth. Col. 
Warren says: " To me, who has already lived ninety 
years, there is not much left in the way of ambition, 
but it is a real pleasure to try and keep alive patriot- 
ism." To those who knew Col. Warren in decades 
agone it will seem singularly fitting that his latter 
days should be devoted to such noble pursuits. 

Probably if the Kkusobiu* ventrali* 
had known what a series of con- 
flicts his coming would excite 
among Californians he would have dodged Mr. Koe- 
bele's capturing hand. It is really wonderful how 
great a tumult this little beetle has engendered. It 
has threatened to overthrow State institutions, and 
now it is inciting county broils of great warmth and 
volume. It is telegraphed from San Bernardino on 
Monday that S. A. Pease, who was recently ap- 
pointed Horticultural Commissioner, demanded the 
office of H. B. Muscott, a member of the old board 
of commissioners, and was met with a refusal. Mr. 
Muscott proposes to fight the matter in court on the 
ground that he cannot be ousted by an order of the 
Hoard of Supervisors. This seems a very innocent 



statement and no rhizobius claws are seen in it, and 
yet in all probability the bug is at the bottom of it. 
There is great pressure, apparently, in some places 
to put rhizobius men into office, because they pursue 
a waiting policy. They believe the bug will catch 
on, consequently they are dilatory on the subject of 
fumigation and spraying. This is delightful to people 
who do not want to pay for compulsory spraying, 
and it is pleasant also to those who do not wish to 
see county money spent on vigorous quarantine and 
aggressive measures. The rhizobius is coming to be 
the emblem of those who believe in waiting for things 
to come around. 

Rev. A. T. Perkins, inventor of 
the Perkins process of preserving 
fruit during shipment by means 
of compressed air, paid California a flying visit last 
week to attend the annual meeting of the association 
which is operating his process. We were, gratified 
to see the indications shown us by Mr. Perkins of 
the success now being attained in the use of the 
process in shipping bananas and other fruits from 
New Orleans to the Northern cities. It appears 
that the process is now being used upon a consider- 
able scale in this traffic and the results have at- 
tracted such attention that the company has all the 
capital it can well use in its business. It is also pos- 
sible that the Perkins method of cooling may have 
wider application to transportation affairs than has 
been anticipated. Those who have watched the 
work of Mr. Perkins from the beginning will be 
gratified to know of his progress. 

Wool < ■ rowers' 

AsBoclal Ion. 

Wool Growers' 

Flock owners in all parts of the 
State will read with interest of 
the formation of the San Joaquin 
Association at a meeting held in 
Stockton last week. To show how wide an interest 
was thus focused, we give the names of those present, 
viz.: Henry Fisk, Jacob Klempp, William Snow, 
J. D. McCarty, George McCarty, C. W. Rhodes, D. 
J. B. Schroebel, T. C. Evans, R. T. Wheeler, Joseph 
Jacinto, O. C. Seegars and W. H. Rhodes. Letters 
stating that the writers were unable to be present 
at the meeting, but expressing sympathy with the 
movement, were received from C. W. West of Gait; 
M. Ambrose, Oakland; A. G. Brazil, Patrick Con- 
nolly, Livermore; J. Mulqueeney, Midway; M. G. 
Caliaghan, Midway; J. Labaig, Copperopolis; J. M. 
Wilmans, Newman; A. Arnold, Oakdale; J. II. Bur- 
gess, Oakdale; Buthermuth iV. Miller, Oakdale; and 
W. O. Shaw, Milton. Henry Fisk called the as- 
sembled sheepmen to order, and he was elected per- 
manent president. C. E. Williams was chosen sec- 
retary. The business transacted was done in secret, 
all but wool growers being excluded from the session. 
A resolution was adopted setting forth that the gen- 
eral purpose of the association was the promotion of 
the interests of the wool growers of the San Joaquin 
district. A specific object was the selection of 
Stockton as a central point for the storage and sale 
of wool. A committee, consisting of Henry Fisk, 
C. E. Williams and J. Klempp, was appointed to in 
terview the warehouse men for the purpose of secur- 
ing rates for the storage of wool. A local agent will 
be appointed for handling the wool shipped to Stock- 
ton. It is denied by the wool growers that the or- 
ganization is for the purpose of cutting down the 
wages of sheepherders and shearers. It was ru- 
mored that that was one of the principal objects of 
the union among the sheepmen, but the denial of the 
latter of any such object is very emphatic. The next 
meeting of the association will take place on the f>th 
of next March. There are many ways in which such 
an association can act to the advantage of the wool 
interest, and we trust it will secure wide member- 

They are having some trouble over 
the payment of the beet sugar 
bounty provided by the State of 
Nebraska. It is telegraphed that Dodge county beet 
producers will enter suit to prevent the State pay- 
ing some $40,000 to the Oxnard sugar mill, due as 
bounty on sugar from beets raised in Nebraska. 
The State law provides that the manufacturers must 
pay $"> per ton for all beets of a certain grade. It 
is claimed that this was not done by the company. 
Incidentally, the constitutionality of the law will be 

From the doings of the stockhold- 
ers' meeting of the suspended 
Grangers' Bank, held in this city 
on Tuesday, it appears that, in addition to the ordi- 
nary business misfortunes of the bank, there have 
been serious inside leaks. W. Wittland, the receiv- 
ing teller, is charged with having gotten away with 
$12,000 iu cash, and there are grave accusations 
respecting other and even greater misappropria- 
tions of money. Mr. Montpelier, who has been man- 
ager of the concern for the past twenty-two years, 
hes been superseded by Mr. August Muenter, under 
whose administration the business of liquidation will 
be performed. The new directors are: H. M. La 
Rue, Sacramento; Seneca Ewer, St. Helena: Uriah 
Wood, San Jose: Albert Meyer, J. Dalziel Brown, 

licet Sugar 

<i rangers' It 
A flairs. 

I. W. Hellman, Jr., A. D. Logan, E. S. Pillsbury, 
F. W. Lougee, H. J. Lewelling, St. Helena, and 
Thomas McConnell, Oak Grove. At the meeting of 
the directors H. M. LaRue was chosen president; 
F. W. Uougee, vice-president; August Muenter, 
cashier and secretary, E. S. Pillsbury, attorney, and 
LaRue, Hellman, Ewer, Brown and Wood as an ex- 
ecutive committee to take charge of the affairs of 
the institution. These affairs were thoroughly dis- 
cussed. The new disclosures will not in any way 
affect the security of the depositors. There will be 
ample funds to pay every dollar, and it is believed 
that the stockholders will get something like seventy 
per cent of their money. 

The Weather. 

During the last two days rain has been falling gen- 
erally over the whole of California, with the excep- 
tion of the extreme south. Prom Fresno and San 
Luis Obispo on the south clear up through northern 
California to Oregon and Washington the downpour 
has been welcomed by the farmers. From all indi- 
tions the Weather Bureau concludes that the storm 
will extend southward till it covers the whole State. 
While it is true very few districts have been suffer- 
ing for the lack of moisture, and these only to a very 
limited extent, the rain has been welcomed every- 
where. Early sown grain is up and looks well, and 
the present rain will start the late grain. 

The total rainfall for the season is still consider- 
ably under the average, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing report for the week ending B a. m. Wednesday 
(16th inst.). It is compiled from official sources and 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Rural Press: 


Total Rainfall for the 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 
Same Date 

Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Maximum Temperature 
for the Week 

Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 



15 96? 

24 52 

18 20 j 



Red Bluff 


6 88 

17 73 

12 90 ! 







9.43 1 



San Francisco 



16 12 

II 53 





1 15 


4 55 



San Luis Obispo 


4 nil 





Los Angeles 

1 71 

7 St 




San Diego 

1 57 

1 54 

3 68 





2 21 

1 96 



* Indicates no record. 
I Incomplete. 


" To consign or NOT TO comn^ 1 is a question just now 
being industriously agitated in Kintrs county. 

The orange crop of the Butte county district is of excep- 
tionally line quality. The OtOVtUe Rfffteter has carefully gone 
over the figures for orange shipments for But te county, and 
finds that a trille over MOO boxes was the product. Thirteen 
hundred boxes were sent out by express. 

Mksshs. PORTED BROS, inform us that they expect to open 
up for business some time this week or beginning of next. 
Most of their creditors have now signed an agreement grant- 
ing them the extension of time asked for, but a few are out of 
town and this has caused a delay iu completing the list. 

Tim /.ante has been set for hearing on Febru- 
ary :td peremptorily. Without reflecting in any way on the 
other members of the Federal bench, it must be gratifying to 
the fruit growers to have the case tried by Judge Monovv, 
who, from his long connection with this and kindred subjects, 
will be able to decide the disputed |>oints intelligently and 
without delay. 

Tiik Sebastopol Cannery Co. is in financial trouble, a local 
bank having brought suit against about thirty individual 
stockholders for a debt of $S'J00. This sum represents part of 
the original cost of the plant, which is now three years old. 
The stockholders would like to sell the cannery, which is 
splendidly equipped and is in the midst of a highly prolific 
fruit district. 

The New York Sun says: "The orange is a more expensive 
luxury in Florida than in New York. California and Italian 
oranges of inferior quality are sold in Florida towns this win- 
ter for "> cents apiece. The damage that last year's frost did 
to Florida can be appreciated only by those who have visited 
the State. Orange groves that were worth from $10,000 to 
* 'o,0(Hl apiece a year ago are almost worthless now, and it will 
be eight or ten years before the State can recover from the 

Stockton-, January 18. — J. W. Rockwell, a San Franciscan 
who has been traveling through the State for many years 
engaged in buying sheep on his paper, was to-day sentenced 
to seven .years in the State prison for defrauding an island 
sheep-raiser out of over fclOOO. Kockwell bought the sheep 
several years ago and gave the owner an order on a San Fran- 
cisco house for the money. He shipped the sheep to the city, 
sold them and pocketed the money. He then left the State 
and returned when he thought his crime had been forgotten, 
but Sheriff Cunningham soon found him. 

The period for the Cloverdale Citrus Fair has been fixed for 
Jan. 39th, :;oth and 31st. It promises this year to be some- 
thing more than a local affair. The whole of Sonoma county is 
takiug a lively interest in it already, and displays by the sev- 
eral towns in the county will form interesting features of the 
exhibition. Among the displays will be Sonoma county wines, 
famous all over the world. Of course, everything wili be sub- 
ordinate to the citrus fruit displays, which will this year 
equal anything of the kind seen at the Midwinter Fair. Fear is 
entertained that the pavilion will not be large enough to hold 
all the displays; still, those that it will contain will be worth 

January 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


coming miles to see. The orange crop this year around Clo- 
verdale is thrice that of last year, and the fruit is large in 
size and luscious in taste. Trees are loaded to the ground 
with both oranges and lemons. 

San Jose Herald : The figures showing the shipments of 
products from the Santa Clara valley during the year 1895 
have been completed. The total amounted to 111,420, 17."> 
pounds, against 106,950,215 pounds for 1894, 97,781,265 pounds 
for 1893, 76,873,765 pounds for 1892 and 63,640,675 for 1891. The 
increase of last year's shipments over those of 1894 was 4,459,- 
760 pounds and over those of 189 1 47,769,800 pounds, or nearly 
double. This increase of nearly five million pounds over the 
shipments of 1894 is the more remarkable when is considered 
the fact that of all the fruit grown in the valley, prunes alone 
were anywhere near a full crop. Canned goods fell seven 
million pounds below the shipments of 1894 ; green fruit about 
the same, but dried prunes more than made up for these de- 
ficiencies by extending the shipments of the year previous by 
nineteen million pounds. These figures, while absolutely cor- 
rect in so far as the shipments for the calendar year are con- 
cerned, are not to be taken as showing the pack of fruits of 
the season, since the dried and canned fruits of each season 
which remained in warehouses and exchanges at the close of 
the year and is moved during the early months of the next 
year, are naturally credited to the wrong year. 

Pith of the Week's News. 

Ex-Gov. J. B. Foraker (Rep.) has been elected United 
States Senator to succeed Brice (Dem.) 

An attempt in the House of Representatives to abolish the 
custom of delivering eulogies upon dead members has failed. 

The Legislatures of Ohio and New York have by formal 
resolution appealed to the general Government to recognize 
the independence of Cuba. 

It will surprise many to learn that the annual pension 
charge on account of the civil war is still increasing. Last 
year it called for $138,000,000. This year it will require f 140,- 

Utah has elected two Republican Senators— Frank J. Can- 
non and Arthur Brown. Both are pronounced free silver men. 
The first named is a son of George Q. Cannon, the old-time 
Mormon Representative at Washington. 

Tim Cuban patriots have not succeeded in the attempts 
against Havana, but they are still hovering about its gates. 
It has been a week of hard fighting, with honors about even 
between the Spaniards and the Cubans. 

The Boer authorities have assured the United States Gov- 
ernment that Americans under arrest in the Transvaal will 
not suffer. They may, however, be fined heavily; and it is 
feared that their property will be confiscated. 

John Bkown's old farm in Essex county. New York, has 
been bought by a syndicate and turned over to the State, to 
be maintained as a public park. Brown's body " lies moulding 
in the ground" of this park and is visited bv thousands each 

The Sultan will not permit the Red Cross Society to dis- 
tribute relief to the Armenians. He reserves all charities to 
the " regular and legitimate channels " of Turkish authority. 
It is about time somebody exploded a bomb under his serene 

J. Si.oat Fassett of New York is said to be making a tour 
of the West and South in the interest of Gov. Morton's Presi- 
dential schemes. In our judgement Mr. Fassett may just as 
well stay at home. This is not a year when either party is 
likely to select a candidate from New York. 

The admission of Utah into the Union has revived the ambi- 
tion of New Mexico, Arizona and Oklahoma for independent 
statehood ; and each now have special delegations at Wash 
ington log-rolling to that end. There is a strong impulse at 
Washington— especially among the silver men to — abolish the 
territorial system altogether. 

Among the persons under arrest at Johannesburg, Africa, 
charged with treason against the Boer republic, is John Hays 
Hammond of California, who is engaged in mining operations. 
His situation is said to be serious and his friends are bringing 
to bear all the influence they can muster in his behalf. The 
State Department at Washington has taken up his case. 

Dispatches from Persia report a series of destructive earth- 
quakes. At the village of Janjabad on the 2nd inst. 300 per- 
sons were killed. Another earthquake occurred on January 
5th, and was very severe. It was felt over an area of 100 
square miles. The town of Goi was destroyed and a thousand 
houses were demolished. In addition great damage was done 
to many villages. The loss of life was very great. There 
were 800 persons killed in Goi alone, and large numbers of 
cattle and sheep perished. 

If any reliance may be placed on the expressions of the 
English newspapers as reflecting the plans of the Government 
the Venezuela difficulty will soon be disposed of by arbitra- 
tion. This is now the popular English talk; and it would, of 
course, be hailed with pleasure in this country. In connection 
with this matter, a suggestion that England and the United 
States join in establishing a permanent Court for the deter- 
mination of international questions is being agitated ; and on 
both sides of the Atlantic it is receiving much favor. 

The tariff bill described in these columns two weeks ago 
and which was subsequently rushed through the House of 
Representatives by Speaker Reed, has encountered unex- 
pected opposition in the Senate. The silver Senators, includ- 
ing no less than ten Republicans whose votes are necessary 
to pass the bill, have joined in a league which insists that 
there shall be no tariff legislation until the silver issue is dis- 
posed of — that is, until free coinage is enacted. Unless 
pressure can be brought to break down this league, there will 
be no tariff legislation this winter. 

The population of Utah, just admitted to the sisterhood of 
States, is 247,324. Although Utah is a country of somewhat 
diversified resources, the people are largely given to farming. 
Most of the land requires irrigation, and out of the 467,162 
acres under cultivation, 417,455, or nearly 90 per cent, are 
irrigated. Out of the 3,500,000 acres that are irrigable only a 
little more than one-ninth have been reclaimed, so there are 
yet almost limitless opportunities for the agriculturist. The 
farmers, in spite of hard times, seem to have been fairly pros- 
perous, for out of 20,581 farms in the state only 2,128 are 
mortgaged. The remaining 17,453 are free from incumbrance. 

The waste of public money has apparently reached a point 
in Glenn county where the people have risen in self defence. 
A dispatch from Willows dated the 9th inst. says: "The 
largest representative meeting of taxpayers ever held in 
Glenn county assembled in Star Hall to-day. Speeches de- 
nouncing the extravagance of the Board of Supervisors were 
made. A committee of ten appointed to perfect plans of perma- 
nent organization were appointed and a resolution was adopted 
condemning the extravagance and expenditures of the Super- 
visors and calling on the board to cease incurring unnecessary 
obligations, and to stop illegal diversions of money. The dis- 
trict attorney was called upon to examine claims filed and to 
bring suit for the recovery of the money illegally paid out. 
The committee then waited on the Board of Supervisors at 
the courthouse, accompanied by citizens representing $5,000,- 

000 of the taxable property, and presented the resolution 
with a request for curtailment of expenditures. The people 
are thoroughly aroused and there is an undercurrent of feel- 
ing that will cause serious disturbance if this extravagance 
keeps on. 

Senator Hill, of New York, has come out in a public inter- 
view condemning the "society" influence at Washington 
as a mischief and a nuisance. He would like it if all the 
women could bejpacked off home, leaving the men to attend to 
the public business undisturbed and uninfluenced by dinners, 
parties and the like. The Senator is quite right though there 
is, perhaps, little use in saying so. The women will stay and 
the dinners and parties will still go on. It is to be noted, 
however, that the men who are most rarely seen in the fash- 
ionable procession at Washington are the men of most power 
and greatest usefulness. The dancing and dining-out mem- 
bers are not those who do the most work or win the most 

Washington, January 8th. — It may be two weeks before 
the Wright irrigation law cases can be heard in the Supreme 
Court. They were on the calendar for Monday of this week, 
but it so happens that they were placed fifteenth on the list. 
Thomas B. Bond of Lakeport, who will appear for plaintiff in 
the case known as Tregea vs. the Board of Directors of the 
Modesto irrigation district, arrived in Washington several 
days ago. C. C. Wright of Los Angeles, author of the Wright 
irrigation act, is also in the city. He will appear for the de- 
fendant in error. It is possible that Judge John A. Boalt of 
San Francisco will also arrive in time to take part in the argu- 
ments. Judge A. L. Rhoads of San Francisco is also ex- 
pected. He will appear with Mr. Wright for the defendant. 

The Emperor of Germany has not answered the hopes 
of those who expected him to throw a fire-brand into the 
powder-house of European peace. He has made no reply to 
England's claim of suzerainty over the Boer republic and may 
not do so. Still, it is generally believed that he will, in case 
of an aggressive movement on the part of England against the 
Boers, assist the latter. In the meantime, England is in- 
tensely aroused. The people are in a fever heat of patriotic 
enthusiasm, and the administrative authorities are not be- 
hind them. In a week a fleet of 22 war ships has been put in 
commission, and to-day (Wednesday) it is being reviewed 
with great ceremonies in Portsmouth harbor. Just what will 
be done with this fleet is not clear — but probably nothing. 
It is, no doubt, intended merely to show that England is 
ready for war. It is possible, however, that it will sail for 
South Africa; also that it will sail for Venezuela. In the 
one event it would encounter the forces of Germany, 
and in the other those of the United States. In all likeli- 
hood, it will end in a great naval pageant, thus gratifying 
the English imperial spirit without doing any harm to any- 
body. Nobody now seriously expects war. 

Mn. W. H. Mills urges the setting up in this city of a new 
exhibit of California products. The. California State exhibit 
will be returned from Atlanta within a short time, and it is 
intended to make this the nucleus of what Mr. Mills intends 
the complete exhibit to be. Mr. Mills' proposition, if carried 
out by the State Board of Trade, will be very extensive and 
comprehensive in its scope. The territory which is mentioned 
as con tributary to California's commercial interests comprises 
all the Pacific States and Territories, Alaska and the Hawai- 
ian Islands. A sample of each of the articles produced in those 
sections, if gathered together at one exhibit, will make a 
great and varied display. The purpose is to have the display 
cover a complete mineral exhibit, samples of all salable things 
of home manufacture, a full exhibit of pottery clays and sand 
for glass, samples of the various kinds of building stones 
found in this and adjacent States, street paving materials 
and woods of all kinds for manufacturing purposes. It is in- 
tended to have complete catalogues of the articles included 
in the exhibit. Mr. Mills has also conceived the idea of insti- 
tuting competitive exhibits for the different counties of the 
State. The plan is to award cash prizes or medals for the 
best exhibit of fruit or agricultural products. 

More on the Consignment Question. 

Maintained that the Fruit (irower is Safer in the llaiKlsof the 
Commission Merchant than in Those of the Speculator. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 9, 1896. 

Editor Pacific Rural Pkess :— We hope we are not pre- 
sumptuous in again coming to the defense of the consignment 
feature of the California dried fruit industry. The article on 
this subject in your issue of December 28th by "A Grower," 
while dealing more courteously with the Eastern commission 
men than is usual with dissatisfied'eousignors, does not set 
forth any forcible arguments against consigning. He appa- 
rently does not stop to consider that there can be, and inevi- 
tably would be, a very dark and dreary side to the f. o. b. 
business as well as to the consignment, and we doubt if he 
ever will be able to make the majority of intelligen ; growers 
believe there is more money in keeping their fruit at home 
until forced to sell to a few speculators, at the hitter's own 
prices, than to distribute it through the more direct and 
quick avenues to consumption by consigning. If all the grow- 
ers could be brought together into one powerful organization, 
so that they could be the dictators of prices instead of the 
speculators, it would be decidedly different; but that day is 
not likely to ever dawn. 

Let us assume that all the growers have set their foot down 
and refuse to part with their fruit until some cash buyer 
shall happen along to take it off their hands. The business is 
necessarily thrown into the hands of a very few men — men 
who must have unlimited capital to swing such an enormous 
business. Now then, men of capital are not in business for 
the benefit of the growers. They haven't as much interest 
in the grower as the commission men, for it is decidedly to 
the business interest and advantage of the commission men to 
get the grower every dollar possible for his products. The 
more money for the grower, the more business and profit for 
the commission man. Again, if the business was all done on 
an f. o. b. basis, the wholesale grocers, the only medium 
through which the fruit can reach the consumer, would be 
compelled to buy in car lots thousands of miles away from 
home, with uo positive assurance as to what they were get- 
ting or whether they could sell out again after receiving the 
fruit. Consequently, as dried fruit is not an absolutely 
necessary staple to carry, like flour, sugar, tea and coffee, a 
great many of the grocers would stay out, gradually lose in- 
terest in that branch of their business and the consumption 
would in time be greatly diminished. For dried fruit is a line 
that must be "eternally pushed," and right here is where 
the consignment feature comes to the rescue of the grower. 
He consigns his fruit, or at least what he cannot sell at satis- 
factory prices at home (as, of coarse, there is always some 
f. o. b. selling possible) to, let us assume, some reliable dried 
fruit commission house or broker East. The commission man 
is constantly before the grocers, urging sale of the goods, and 
is distributing samples to the grocers' traveling men to take 
out on the road with them, and interest in this line is not 
allowed to flag, hence the fruit is gradually pushed into con- 
sumption. We can see no better plan for the grower to pur- 
sue so long as the production continues larger than the 
natural consumption 
"Grower" criticizes our remarks regarding supply and de- 

aTexcSn^o^tfi 1 "' 068 ,' ^j* 68 the poul try-house case as 
tainu ?, o thw rule. "Supply and demand" are cer- 
tainly the only natural regulators of prices, but of course 

utL r rlvTnnM 1 T 1 te S f that t Can be foreib * ^Posed that would 
hv si.nnlv ^ ° r , a " me . P^s that had been established 
nouUrT house H ? nd - f°V nSt * m:e ' a multiplication of these 
the K f irth^f h ' anda fe - w mol ' e powers to get it into 
star K, ho h , e cor " mis sion men are not to be trusted and 

^thSnn^i^ ea ^ y ^ SBe , aKevtr!lir> at ereat expense, 
with bills of lading in their pockets for their dried fruit fol- 

anTsolltt^L SU, ' h h a gr0wer landed hei '« some time ago 
and sold to the first man he struck a carof as fine three-crown 
raisins as we ever saw at 2% cents-market firm, 3' cents 
Presume he will go back home and lav it all onto the poor 

weT S thf"' The hardeSt blow ' the E ^°"'-" m ^ets 
weie given this season was a few weeks ago, when a large 
raisin packer of California made a deal with a large Chteafo 
«ni m, n „ e . nabhng / t0 Send an a ^ ent trough ^e country 
n™^TS?A t4 ? 6 ? tS for four -"-owns, 3 cents for three 
«-m ? nd 2 ^ ents f°.'- two-crowns, while the market was 

nrin P r Th^ OO< h l -' On h tl0n at * t0 - cent advance over these 
prices There has been no recovery since, and heavy losses 
were brought to those who had stocked up at higher prices 
Supply and demand didn't dictate this lowering of prices, and 
th P Vrowr L ' h v?' t S h aS these that brin S disastrous' results to 
Lr theTow prSs. commissl ™ men are held responsible 

h, T ^ SUm fL taUup ' weassertthatthe ? row eris safer in the 
hands of the commission merchant than in the hands of the 
speculator. Yours t ruly, W . A. Banks Company. 

From Mr. Bonine Again. 

To the Editor: -We are nearing the end of the competitive 
system ; it has been patched up and patched up and can hardly 
hold together any more. The deep and loud unrest proclaimed 
everywhere by men is but the consciousness of the injustice 
of our system. The next step for humanitv to take is co- 
operation. As to how far and how much they should co oper- 
ate time— the great physician— alone will demonstrate 

I have asked this question here, " If our dried fruit was all 
in California to-day, could we not set the price;" I am an- 
swered, " Yes " There, then, is the sole trouble ; it has been 
put out of our hands. I have asked again, "If vou all had 
your iruit in California to-day, and vou set the price at 4 
cents per pound for prunes, 00s and lOOs-that is not an exor- 
bitant price-do you think they could be sold !" And they sav 
Yes." My neighbor has had a friend visiting him from the' 
East, who stopped at Salt Lake on his Western trip, and 
while there an acquaintance said to him, "Go into the com- 
mission business with me. You are going to California You 
solicit consignments of potatoes, cabbage, etc., and I will sell 
them here and we will divide profits." He replied, " I do not 
understand the commission business." The other said " You 
get the consignments-I will sell; and we willretum what »v 
hm-r a in mil In.'' I have spoken to several fruit men who con- 
signed and received 2@2V 4 c down, and they all say they do 
not expect anything more. And you call this business ' An 
agent said to me this fall, " I wrote (Harry I will call him 
who was at F resno or San Jose) that I bought" eight carloads, 
all consigned, and he was just wild and jumped up and down 
and came down and hired me, and we went at it and got ten 
carloads consigned. Are the 2-eent fellows jumping up and 
down; Had they not better be scratching the tops of their 
heads and seeing if there isn't something wrong there* Thev 
plow and cultivate, prune and thin, fight scale bugs aud pa'v 
heavy taxes, work from early morn even until old Sol has 
sunk into our Western sea, and they take 2 cents— and don't 
expect any more-and call this business. The Mexicans call 
it " Miu grande cabasa." 

The largest prune grower in our valley said to me last Sun- 
day : " I expect to be offered one cent a nound for my prunes 
next year aud I am going out of the business." His orchard 
has other value beside growing prunes, so he can help himself. 
Let me pose as a prophet for a few minutes : If you growers 
will not use your reason and co-operate, you will suffer until 
you are forced to, and, when all is told, the old aphorism "mis- 
ery loves company" i* true, and the majority of mankind will 
not learn until things are rubbed into them by misery. When 
a man's business is flourishing and his belly is full he will not 
do very much hard thinking, but two cents a pound and ex- 
pecting no more, is not an awful, rushing, hiring-all-the-help- 
you-can-get kind of a business, and will not fill a man fear- 
fully to aldermanic proportions style, and his only recourse to 
looking a little fat, is to keep a few prunes back and eat them 
dry and drink water. E. A. Bonine. 

Lamanda Park. 

In the Interest of California Wines. 

Washington, January 11.— Representative Johnson will in- 
troduce three bills in the House to-morrow, all of which are 
of importance to California. One has considerable to do with 
the wine men who have been masquerading foreign wines un- 
der the name of American goods to avoid paying certain in- 
ternal revenue duties. Mr. Johuson's bill is an amendment 
to Section 332M of the Revised Statutes imposing tax on imita- 
tion wines. The bill provides for striking out of said section 
the following words after the word champagne: "But not 
made from grapes grown in the United States, and all liquor 
not made from grapes, currants, rhubarb or berries grown in 
the United States." 

Mr. Johnson says that quite a number of unscrupulous wine 
men have been in the habit of adding a very small portion of 
American wine to foreign liquor and then labeling it underan 
American name to avoid the tax. It is the intent of Mr. 
Johnson's amendment to provide for a tax on all wines and 
champagnes which are not made wholly from grapes, currants, 
rhubarb or berries grown in the United States. 

Another bill is an amendment to the act entitled "An act to 
provide for the collection of internal revenue and for other 
purposes," the intent of which act is to allow for loss in trans- 
portation of spirits in certain cases. Mr. Johnson's bill pro- 
vides for the addition of the following : 

That the provisions of the existing laws for abatement of the tax 
on distilled spirits lost in transportation from bonded warehouses 
for export or for transfer to manufacturing warehouses, provided 
that such losses are without fraud, collusion or negligence of the 
distillers, owners and transportation companies, and their agents 
Of employes, be made applicable to loss in the transportation of 
distilled spirits from the distillery warehouse or from the distillery 
to the general bonded warehouse, special bonded warehouse or win- 
ery, also from one general or special bond warehouse to another 
aod from the special bonded warehouse to the winery. 

The third bill is an amendment to Section 8 of the act en- 
titled, "An act to amend the laws in relation to the internal 
revenue," so as to extend its provisions to the fruit distillers. 
Mr. Johnson's amendment reads as follows : 

The Commissioner of the Internal Revcuuc upon production to him 
of satisfactory proof of actual destruction by accidental fire or 
other casualty, and without any fraud, collusion or negligence of 
the distiller, of any spirits or fruit d Stlllatlons In process of manu- 
facture or distillation, or bef re- being removed to the distillery, 
warehouse, special bonded warehouse, winery, or tax paid, shall 
not assess the distiller for the deficiency iu not producing 80 per 
centum of the producing capacity of his distillery as established by 
law, when the deficiency is occasioned by such destruction, nor 
shall he in such cases assess the tax on fruit spirits so destroyed. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 18, 189G. 


California as a Beekeeping State. 

Prof. A. J. Cook of Claremont, Los Angeles 
county, is giving Eastern people many reasons why 
the beekeeper's lot in California is a desirable one. 
The facts are just as good to induce those already 
here to diversify their labor, where conditions are 
favorable for it, and for that reason we take this 
sketch from the columns of the American Bee Journal. 
Prof. Cook is so well known at the East that his 
statements will command general respect. 

/.in hi California. — The beekeeper, like men of any 
other pursuit, wishes a pleasant home and surround- 
ings. If his lot falls in southern California, he has 
the grandeur of mountain scenery, constant sum- 
mer, with very few days that know any frost, and 
about as many weeks that are unpleasantly hot. 
From October to March a little fire is needed much 
of the time in early morning and late evening, with 
an occasional day when a fire all day is pleasant. 
And, if we may judge from the two seasons of my 
sojourn, only the month of September is oppressive 
for its heat, and then less than half the time, so that 
no one can complain who loves warmth and sun- 

Warmth and sunshine bring fruit, and so every 
month in the year one can have, at very slight ex- 
pense, the most luscious fresh fruit. Oranges from 
February to June, strawberries every mouth, and 
plenty and cheap from May to November; blackber- 
ries from May to September in profusion, with cher- 
ries or plums most of the time; lemons the entire 
season, and luscious apples and pears all the winter 
months, or from September to March, and the most 
delicious apricots, nectarines or peaches from May 
or June to September. Thus, to the lover of fruit, 
southern California comes with wide-open arms to 
offer the best of all climes and zones. Nor are the 
social attractions less inviting. Culture, refine- 
ment and genuine heart sympathy and regard are 
most luxurious products of this sunny southland. I 
never met such Christian courtesy, such a warmth 
of interest, such hearty fellowship, as I have met 
since coming to this genial clime. Thus the bee- 
keeper of southern California may surround himself 
with all that makes life rich and full of the best of 
comfort and blessing. 

No Wintering Problem* in California. — Again, no 
winter problem confronts the California beekeeper. 
There is not a month in the year when the bees do 
not gather and even store some honey. The euca- 
lyptus, which is rapidly coming to the very front as 
a shade tree, has scores of species, many very beau- 
ful, and all very rapid growers. Most are good 
honey trees, and by proper selection we may secure 
beautiful species that will give a succession of bloom 
throughout the year. The only danger comes from 
starvation, and that never threatens any but the im- 
provident beekeeper. There are occasional years — 
about one in five, if we can judge from the past 
twenty years — when the bees will gather no honey, 
not even enough to keep them from starvation. Thus 
every wise beekeeper will never extract so closely 
as to run any risk. He will always leave, at the 
close of the season ample food for a year. And then 
if the fifteen to twenty-live inches of rain which in- 
sures a honey crop comes with winter, he will in the 
spring extract the surplus from the hive, which will 
surely be cured to the satisfaction of the most fas- 

Again, as abundant rains insure a crop, the bee- 
keeper knows in winter what the harvest will be; so 
there are no long months of fruitless expectation. 
This fact has further advantage— it prevents buying 
supplies, unless they are to be needed, and gives one 
certain warning months in advance that he is to 
look about for some occupation other than that of 

The Honey Crop Reasonably Sun. — As I have said, 
seasons of failure do not come oftener than one year 
in five; and it looks as if, with suitable forethought, 
removing bees to regions of alfalfa bloom, or orange 
orchards, or bean fields, we may at least secure suf- 
ficient stores for the bees even in the "off " years. 
This is likely to be even more probable with the ma- 
turity of the numberless eucalyptus trees now being 
planted. The year 1804 was a very dry one — only 
eleven inches of rainfall here at Claremont, and much 
less fell in considerable of the beekeeping range. 
Fifteen inches is the reported minimum for a honey 
crop from the usual forage of sage and wild buck- 
wheat. Thus, last year, there was a total dearth of 
nectar secretion in many regions. Yet several api- 
arists in the regions of alfalfa fields secured a fine 
crop. Others, doubtlessly, could have reaped a sim- 
ilar good fortune had they known the value of alfalfa 
as a honey plant, and moved their bees to regions of 
its bloom. 

Figures of Honey Yields.— There are two other 
features of California apiculture which are unique 
aud very encouraging. 1 refer to the great produc- 

tion in favorable seasons, and the astonishing num- 
ber of colonies which can be kept in one locality at 
such times with profit. The past season, though not 
one of the very best, illustrates both of these points. 
In large apiaries of from 200 to 800 or more colonies, 
the product was from 100 to 150 pounds per colony. 
Thus, several apiarists that I have known of, secured 
upwards of thirty tons of honey, with less than 500 
colonies of bees. With a knowledge of the flora of 
this section, this is not so hard to understand as the 
enormous yield of wheat and hay to the acre that is 
sometimes reported in sections of this State — fifty 
bushels of wheat and eighteen tons of hay; for in no 
sections of my acquaintance are the flowers so long 
in bloom. White and ball sage are in bloom for two 
months or more, and the famous wild buckwheat 
even longer. Thus the nectar is not only very 
abundant in the flowers, but the latter continue to 
yield for a very long period of time. 

Bee PaaturiKje. — The pioneer beekeeper of California 
and once the largest producer of honey in the world 
the celebrated J. S. Harbison, now of San Diego — 
has demonstrated that ball sage, an excellent honey 
plant, can be easily transplanted and made to grow 
in all the hilly regions of southern California. As 
these wide ranges are useless for other purposes, we 
may hope that the importance of the beekeeping in- 
dustry of southern California may in the future wax 
rather than wane. The great increase of the euca- 
lyptus plantation will also tend in the same direction. 

If the growers of alfalfa were, also, at the same 
time beekeepers, or would become partners with 
beekeepers, so as to delay cutting the crop a little, 
till the bloom had offered a honeyed banquet for the 
bees; or if some of each cutting was held for seed, 
there might be still another considerable increase 
in the honey product. How few, too, realize at 
present from the extensive bean flora of Santa Bar- 
bara and Ventura counties. Mr. Mendleson, the 
past season, secured a fine crop of bean honey after 
the regular season was over. T sampled the honey, 
both comb and extracted, and can speak truly of 
its excellence. Here, then, is a further opportunity 
to increase the honey resources of our section. 

Belief Mn rki ti in/ Reijuireil. There seems, then, but 
one serious obstacle in the way of exceptional suc- 
cess in apiculture in southern California. I refer to 
the poor market for the honey. Prices range away 
below what is reasonable and right. Finest grades 
of extracted honey sell for 3 cents to 4J, when fi 
cents is the minimum that should ever be paid for 
first-class extracted honey. It is not that the con- 
sumer gets it at these figures — the low price is due 
to the system of marketing. Impecunious produc- 
ers, to secure ready and needy funds, sell at starva- 
tion rates, and fix the price. The producers do not 
propose to suffer this system to continue. They are 
organizing to control the output as the orange men 
are now controlling their product by aid of the fruit 
exchanges. The beekeepers seem unanimous in the 
desire to form a honey exchange. We believe they 
have the intelligence, the energy and the wisdom to 
make a success of the undertaking. 


Coach Horses From Trotting Mares. 

The demand is for stylish carriage horses and the 
production of them from the great surplus of trot- 
ting mares may be very profitable. At least Mr. 
John A. Craig thinks so in the Horseman, and he- 
gives reasons for his belief. 

How the Trotters Come to He. — In the early days of 
New England history the pacer predominated; then 
a change in the method of travel from going about 
on horseback to the use of light vehicles brought the 
roadster into prominence. Development in this 
direction, requiring a faster gait, ultimately de- 
manded the trotter. Speed was considered the most 
valuable characteristic that could be attached to our 
light harness horse, and it has been the potent 
power in placing the American trotter in its pres- 
ent position. The horses of all nations have been 
brought here with unusual enterprise, and into the 
web and woof of the American trotter there has 
been knit the best blood of thoroughbred and hack- 
ney descent. It would be hard to find a breed of 
light horses that has not contributed through some 
source to the foundation for the American trotter, 
and it would seem that we have the material here 
for producing the fruit of European experience and 
its product. 

.1 Sit/iiifiiiuit fiistntiee. — The first time I had this 
forced upon my observation was during a sale at 
Dexter Park, Chicago. Naturally disposed by pre- 
vious observation and experience to think that a 
coach horse had to be either of thoroughbred, hack- 
ney or French coach descent, I found pleasure in 
trying to support the supposition by the best sales 
that were being made. A beautiful pair of bay geld- 
ings just about sixteen hands, five and six years old, 
were being shown in suitable harness and attached 

to a proper conveyance. I did not hesitate to say, 
as they moved past, that they were surely thorough- 
breds. The neat, lean heads, lengthy and graceful 
necks, and unusually clean cut legs, showing the 
tendons and the prominence of the joints distinctly 
convinced me of this. I5ut they moved beautifully! 
The knee was not lifted inordinately high, and the 
foot was carried as if going over the rim of a wheel. 
The hind legs moved well under the body and there 
was due flexing of the hock. Courage and fire re- 
flected from every move in action, but when the rein 
brought a halt they assumed with the immobility of 
a statue the pose which is considered characteristic 
of the coacher. This exhibition of European train- 
ing and manners convinced me of the foreign con- 
nections of the horses. They sold for $2000 after a 
short but spirited bidding contest. Wishing to learn 
more of the team, and especially of the breeding on 
the maternal side, I consulted the consignees and 
learned, to my astonishment, that they were both 
sired by a son of the " monarch of the homestretch," 
Robert McGregor, and their dams were by Romulus. 
Again, another pair of geldings, 15.3 hands and five 
and six years old, were being sold in the same build- 
ing. They were brown and approached more nearly 
to the cob type than the previous pair. Their heads, 
small and beautifully jeweled with large, intelligent 
eyes, were carried gracefully on arched necks. 
Short-coupled, round-ribbed and full-quartered, the 
impression came to me at once that they were got 
by a hackney, out of rather small mares with an 
abundance of quality. Their legs were short, but 
they knew how to pick their feet from the ground 
with a peculiar snap and go straight away with a 
balanced movement. One or two turns past the 
stand, a careful pose, and they went away with $2200 
to the credit of their owners. Doth these horses 
were sired by a Morgan horse and out of trotting- 
bred mares. These instances and many others have 
convinced me that it is possible to produce a coach 
horse in America that will equal, if not excel, that of 
any other nationality. 

The Trotter as a Coacher. — In the formation of a 
family or breed to be known as American coachers, 
I do not think that a demand will be made on any 
other breed of light horses outside of the standard- 
bred trotter. The stallions that have been bred for 
speed have the quality, courage and breeding pre- 
potency needed, while from others of slower confor- 
mation the mares can be obtained that will in time 
produce the desired type. Appearances and man- 
ners are important qualities, and in the breeding 
operations these qualities, together with action, 
must be favored. The absorption of blood that con- 
tributes to these in a marked degree should be en- 
couraged, though it may be that speed is sacrificed. 
The hackney breeders rightly recognize the merit of 
other strains that show qualities they may need by 
allowing within their books such animals of thor- 
oughbred or trotting-bred ancestry as can pass 
inspection, and it would seem that similar tactics on 
the part of breeders of trotting horses would hasten 
the evolution of the American coacher. It would 
specially assist in the development of the peculiar 
action that characterizes the coacher. As require- 
ments are for the registration of standard bred 
horses, there is abundant liberty for the formation of 
an American coach breed without going beyond the 
bounds prescribed. Between 2:20 and 2:30 there are 
enough horses of the coach type, and some few of 
them with the coach action, to furnish the material 
for the basis of a breed or strain. 

/fine to Breed to This /'mi. — In the matter of breed- 
ing there are many methods that will find support- 
ers. Some would be of the opinion that cross breed- 
ing the trotter with some of the European coach 
breeds would be the most effective method ; others 
that in-and-in breeding the strains we have already 
would give the most effective results, while many 
more would advocate line breeding within a family 
already known to possess the desired characteristics 
to a marked degree. From a general study of the 
breeding of all domestic animals, I have thought that 
what maybe termed "balanced breeding" offers 
the best guidance in the improvement of any class 
of stock. Historical evidence for the annals of all 
breeds shows that certain strains differing some- 
what in characteristics seem to unite so as to pro- 
duce balanced results. The coach horse is, of all 
classes of domestic animals, a balanced product, and 
it seems to be that balanced breeding would be very 
effectual in a matter of this kind. In the hackney 
the Fireaway-Denmark union seems to give excep- 
tional results, while among our own horses (lamble- 
tonian Clay, Hambletonian-Mambrino Chief, as well 
as other unions, have been very effectual, and this 
same favorable result from uniting certain strains 
is characteristic of all breeding operations in horses, 
cattle, sheep or swine. As far as I have been able 
to study it, the reason for this seems to be in the 
fact that it is the most successful way of offsetting 
merits and demerits of temperament and conforma- 
tion. As to the breeding of the horses that will 
claim the title of the American coach horse, I be- 
lieve it will be through the union of mares of the 
strains that show some of the features of coach form 
and much of the action required, with the stallions 
that reflect the quality, beauty and courage which is 
characteristic of our fastest trotting strains. 

January 18, 1890. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Tobacco Growing in California. 

It is evident that much interest is taken in experi- 
ments to demonstrate the adaptation of California 
conditions to the tobacco crop. The Rural con- 
stantly receives inquiries for suggestions as to how 
to proceed with experimental growth and curing 
and for the seed. To meet this interest we have ob- 
tained from the University Experiment Station at 
Berkeley some notes which are merely suggestive 
to growers, and not intended as the description of a 
fixed method in all respects. There is much to be 
learned before that can be reached. 


Capt. Emil Kellner, foreman of the Agricultural 
Grounds at Berkeley, has prepared the following 
hints to experimenters with tobacco: 

The Seed-bed. — A great deal of care should be exer- 
cised in the preparation of the seed-bed. A bed of 
100 square feet will furnish plants for an acre of 
land. Select a sheltered spot, sloping to the sun, 
and protected from the north against cold. Clear 
off all rubbish, and gather brush, wood, logs or poles 
and burn the same on the spot for several hours, 
until the entire surface is baked thoroughly. The 
burning is done to destroy all the seeds of weeds 
and grass, which would interfere with the growth of 
the young tobacco plants. The soil, after the burn- 
ing, should be well raked and cleaned, and then 
spaded a few inches deep, but not deep enough to 
bring any subsoil on top. Mix the seed with fine 
sand or ashes and scatter over the surface of the 
bed. Press the seed down with a plank and water 
lightly. The bed should be surrounded by a plank 
eight or ten inches wide to hold a frame covered 
with canvas, cheesecloth or any other cheap mate- 
rial, which will protect the plants from frost and 
insects. Make a trench around the bed to carry off 
any surplus rainwater. The time to sow the seed 
is from January to March. 

Soil. — Further experimentation is needed to de- 
termine with what soils and climatic conditions satis- 
factory results will be obtained in growing tobacco 
in California. The soil in Berkeley (adobe) produced 
a rank leaf, but of fine texture. Sandy soil and a 
drier atmosphere will produce a smaller leaf and a 
fine quality. Coarse tobacco will bring no price in 
the world's market. The profit is in growing the 
finest qualities. 

Preparation of the Soil. — The land should be deeply 
plowed in January or February, and after a month 
plowed again. Before planting, the land should be 
harrowed, and, if necessary, rolled and harrowed 
again. Deep cultivation before planting is neces- 

Transplanting. — In planting, the rows should be 
marked off with some implement. The plants, when 
large enough and when the danger of frosts is over, 
should be taken out of the seed-bed and trans- 
planted — if possible, after a rain or during cloudy 
weather. In dry weather, watering must be re- 
sorted to. Young tobacco plants are very brittle 
and tender, and must be tenderly handled, for 
bruised and broken plants will not live. Set the 
plants two to three feet apart in the row, and keep 
the rows four feet apart for cultivation. 

Cultivation After Planting. — After the plants have 
been in the ground ten days, hoe around them, re- 
plant those that are missing, then run a cultivator 
through the rows close to the plants. This should 
be repeated every ten days until the leaves reach 
well out; then stop the cultivation, as the singletree 
will break the leaves. 

Topping the Plants- — Topping should be commenced 
when the flower buds appear. No rule can be laid 
down. The sooner you top the plant the larger the 
leaves will be; if smaller leaves are desired, top 
later. Some growers leave from nine to fourteen 
leaves; others from twelve to twenty-four leaves. 

Suckering the Plants. — After topping, a new growth 
called suckers will come out of the axils of the leaves, 
which must be removed by breaking them off at 
least every ten days. These suckers abstract much 
matter which would otherwise make a fine, silky 
leaf. Two or three suckerings will suffice for a crop. 

Insects. — The tobacco worm, so much dreaded in 
the southern States, has not appeared here much so 
far, but will come. The 'flea beetle is the only pest 
so far noticed. 

Ripening. — The leaves change from green to a yel- 
lowish green, and become marbled with spots; the 
leaf thickens, and becomes sticky; in doubling the 
leaves they will break very easily. This is the time 
that the leaf is ripe and ready to be pulled. Pulling 
should be done from time to time as the leaves 

Curing, — Air curing in this climate seems the most 
practical way. We have pulled the leaves as they 
ripened, piled them in piles in the shade, or covered 
them with straw or hay and allowed them to heat, 
which has turned the leaves from green to yellow. 

Care should be taken not to allow the leaves to heat 
too much or long, as they will turn black and be 

We have strung the leaves a dozen or more on a 
string and hung them in a barn where they soon 
turned to a tobacco color. The tobacco began to 
ripen in Berkeley July 13th and September 13th, in 
just two months, we exhibited colored tobacco at the 
Mechanics' Pavilion in San Francisco. 

In October or November, the tobacco should be 
taken down from the curing shed, when moist, (be- 
fore a rain the tobacco becomes limp and can be 
handled without breaking) and tied into bands of 12 
leaves and packed and pressed closely in a box, and 
kept in a dry place to prevent molding. After the 
winter it will be ready for the manufacturer. 

Tobacco must be experimented with to tell posi- 
tively which are the desirable and marketable vari- 
eties. People should go slow in planting tobacco. 
They must first learn now to cultivate and cure the 
crop, and to find a market for it, and then venture 
on a larger scale. 


University Bulletin 109, describing the University 
seed distribution for 1895-6, offers for trial seed of 
the following varieties: 


1. Sumatra. 

2. Zimmer's Spanish. 

3. Connecticut Seed Leaf 

4. Harby (Turkish). 

5. Pumpelly. 

6. Landreth. 

7. Imported Havana. 

8. Comstock Spanish. 

9. Little Dutch. 
1U. F.ast Hartford. 
11. Vuelta de Abajo. 

12. Persian Rose. 

13. Persian. 

14. Rano de Sumat ra. 

15. San Juan de los Remedios. 

16. Pure Havana. 

17. Partidas. 

18. Little Orinoco. 

19. Fiji Orinoco. 

20. Brazilian. 

21. Remedios. 


22. Lacks. 

23. Conqueror. 

24. Ragland's Imp. Bright. 

25. Bullion. 

26. Hester. 

27. Imp. White Burley. 

28. Yellow Pryor. 

29 Granville Yellow. 

30. Sweet Orinoco. 

31. Ragland's Imp. Yel. 

32. Elkerson's Yellow. 

33. White Burley. 

34. Flanagan. 

35. Famions. 

The seed will be furnished in small packets at two 
cents for each variety ordered. Use the numbers 
in ordering and address applications to E. J. Wick- 
son, State University, Berkeley, Cal. The charge 
is made merely to cover cost of packing and postage. 


California Lima Bean Industry. 

One of the most interesting lines of production in 
southern California is the lima bean business, which 
brings considerable income to two counties. The 
growth of limas is for seed purposes and for con- 
sumption as a table vegetable. Mr. L. B. Hogue of 
Santa Barbara, an old correspondent of the Rural, 
has written a very interesting account of this busi- 
ness for the American Florist, which is welcome at 
the East because California is such a promising 
source of supply of the Eastern markets. We are 
glad to have so good an account for the delectation 
of California readers. 

History of the Lima Bean Business. — There is a de- 
lightful little valley near Santa Barbara, fronting 
on the beach, sheltered on" the ocean side by the 
Santa Barbara island, and on the land side by the 
great coast range, which here drops back in a semi- 
circular form, to make room, as it were, for this 
gem of beauty and productiveness. The fortunate 
possessors of homes in the Carpinteria valley are 
prosperous, contented and happy. The singularly 
sheltered location of this valley, coupled with the 
wonderful fertility of the soil, renders it available 
for some special products which few other sections 
can grow successfully. 

More than twenty years ago a farmer in the Car- 
pinteria experimented with the lima bean. None 
of them had been grown on this coast for market at 
that time. The experiment proved a perfect suc- 
cess. Every requisite for producing this variety 
in its perfection seemed to be supplied here. A re- 
munerative price was readily obtained for the mature 
bean. From this time others began to grow them. 
The demand grew with the increase of the product. 
The profits became much greater than were those of 
any other farm crop, which proved a great stimulus 
to improved methods. Something like exact science 
was finally reached in the matter of the preparation 
and cultivation of the soil. The primitive way of 
harvesting by hand, where one man could cut one 
acre per day by hard work, was superseded by a 
simple horse power device, with which one man 
could cut fifteen acres per day. Also implements 
were invented for cultivating the land before plant- 
ing, which facilitated the work in like manner. To 
the credit of these farmers let it be said that the 
machinery for the successful cultivation and har- 
vesting of this crop was invented by them. 

Beginnings in Ventura. — As a matter of course, the 
success of the industry in the Carpinteria soon 
attracted wide attention, and farmers in other parts 
of the State began to make trials to grow the lima 
bean. Their efforts, though, proved to be failures. 

One section, however, that of the Santa Clara val 
ley of the south, in Ventura county, and only about 
twenty miles from the Carpinteria, would seem to 
possess nearly all the requirements in soil and cli- 
mate. But someway the business did not "pan 
out " right, as the "forty-niner" would say. The 
Carpinteria farmers had their eyes on the opera- 
tions in Ventura county, however. They noticed 
that their own farms were usually from ten to twenty 
acres, while the Ventura farms averaged at that 
time about one thousand acres to each farmer. They 
noticed, also, that the farming was done in a slip- 
shod, out-of-season fashion that would not succeed 
even in their own section. Finally some of them 
rented small tracts of land in the Santa Clara val- 
ley and instituted their methods of farming, when 
lo ! Dame Nature smiled upon them. Ye rancher on 
a thousand acres came around to see how it had hap- 
pened that the despised "small farming" had re- 
sulted in as much clear gain from a few acres as he 
had received from his thousand. Other practical 
bean growers settled in the valley and the ship- 
ments of limas from southern California doubled, 
trebled and quadrupled — when finally improved facil- 
ities had rendered large farming practicable. How- 
ever, the average yield per acre — about one ton — 
continues larger in the Carpinteria valley than in 
most other places. 

Although numerous attempts are made to grow 
the lima bean in other sections of the State, the 
fact remains that nearly all of this variety shipped 
from California came from the extreme southern 
part of Santa Barbara county, and from the valleys 
of Ventura county lying near the coast. The little 
valley of the Carpinteria sends out about one hun- 
dred carloads, and those of Ventura about twelve 
hundred carloads annually. (Estimate of ten tons 

At times in the history of this industry the prod- 
uct increased faster than the demand, but cheap 
goods forced a larger market and ultimately a much 
greater demand, until now little fear is entertained 
of low prices, because the yield will probably de- 
crease on account of extensive orchard planting. 
The deep, rich, loamy soil so requisite for the lima 
bean is also required to produce the best results in 
English walnut, apricot and lemon orchards. 

Planting ami Cultivation. — The methods adopted 
here in growing and harvesting the lima bean could 
not be pursued in countries where rain falls during 
the summer season. The cultivation proper is all 
done during the winter and spring and before the 
beans are planted. The cultivation is very thorough 
and by the best of implements. 

After all danger of rain is passed in the spring, 
say from the 1st to 20th of May, the seed is put into 
the ground in rows about forty inches apart and from 
six to fourteen inches in the row with machines 
which plant from two to four rows at a time. After 
the crop is well up and growing some weeds will have 
started too. These are destroyed by using a horse- 
power weed knife, which passes just under the sur- 
face ground, killing the weed in one or two rows at a 
time without disturbing the soil, which is by this 
time perfectly dry on top. As the season advances 
the plants send out their vines over the dry sur- 
face, until the ground is finally hidden from sight, 
and thus, all through the latter part of our rainless 
summers, thousands of acres may be seen covered 
with beautiful light green foliage. 

Harvesting. — In the latter part of September the 
beans are all cut loose from the ground a little below 
the surface and are forked into piles convenient for 
pitching onto wagons. They are then allowed to dry 
in the sun for about two weeks before threshing. 
Formerly all threshing was done in the following 
manner: A round space on the ground sixty to 
eighty feet is made quite wet, then it is wagoned 
over, packed and smoothed down and allowed to dry 
hard. Two or three big wagon loads of beans are 
placed in a ring on this floor during very dry clear 
weather. Formerly horses attached to light wagons 
were driven over the beans (usually two or three 
teams at a time), till they were all shelled from the 
pods. The vines are then thrown off and more 
beans from the field placed. This process is con- 
tinued until there are many tons of beans on the 
floor under those that are being thrashed out. After 
this the whole mass of chaff and beans is run through 
winnowing and screening machines and the beans 
placed in sacks of seventy -five to eighty pounds each 
and are ready for market. Of late years the teams 
on the floor are attached to disc machines instead of 
wagons, which greatly facilitates the work. 

The process of thrashing by large steam machines 
which clean up from fifty to seventy-five acres of 
beans per day, has more recently been adopted by 
most of the large growers. It is a singular fact, 
however, that while the expense to the farmer who 
employs the steam thresher is usually five dollars 
per ton, the work is done by the first named method 
at about four dollars per ton. The machine threshed 
beans also have to be recleaned before they are 
marketed, and are broken so much that they are 
never fit for the seed trade. Yet there is one great 
advantage with the steam thresher. The rainy 
season, so called, is approaching and a shower is 
liable to fall in October while the threshing process is 
in full blast, so that any beans that are caught on 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 18, 189G. 

the floors are ruined if they do not manage to cover 
them in some way, while by the machine process all 
beans are sacked as they are threshed. 

Growing Seed Limas for the East.— Nineteen years 
ago an eastern seed firm, having learned of the suc- 
cessful culture of the lima bean in this section, made 
arrangements to have a small lot grown, to be used 
in his business. The project proved to be a feasible 
one. Other wholesale seedsmen gradually c ame into 
this field and made contracts for seed. Some of 
them were at first unfortunate in dealing with care- 
less farmers, the business proving unsatisfactory. 
The demand upon careful seed growers, however, in- 
creased until they virtually held a monopoly of that 
branch of the seed business in the United States, 
the writer having had contracts with eastern seed 
houses amounting to nearly one hundred and fifty 
tons in a single year. Within the past two or three 
years the extensive wholesale dealers in beans for 
all purposes have been securing the contracts of 
seed houses and farming them out to whoever would 
grow them for the lowest price, with the result that 
an inferior grade for less money is now being sup- 
plied, while the careful and successful seed growers 
have mostly gone out of the business into other 
horticultural pursuits which promise better returns 
for their skill. 

Other t Beam in the Limn Region. — This history, it 
will be noticed is of the lima bean in particualr, be- 
cause it constitutes the main bean industry of this 
section and because it is the only section where they 
are grown in quantity, as has already been stated, 
yet some hundreds of carloads of other varieties — 
notably the small white beans — are grown here for 
the eastern markets. These are produced also in 
other parts of the State. The same process of culti- 
vation and harvesting is in the main adopted for all 

For the benefit of some readers it might be well to 
state even at this late date in the history of agricul- 
ture in California that these crops are grown with- 
out irrigation and without any rain from the time 
the seed is planted till the beans are harvested, un- 
less it be that an unwelcome shower is liable to come 
in the harvesting season in the month of October. 

Statistics of the Crop. — One of the best posted men 
in Ventura sends the following estimate of the pro- 
duction of beans in Ventura and Santa Barbara 
counties. He estimates that the cars average ten 
tons each. 


1893— Limas 15<KJ carloads. " 

" Other sorts 7.">o carloads. 
1896 — Limas 1100 carloads. 

" Other sorts 000 carloads. 


1803— Limas 350 carloads. 
" Other sorts 4 carloads. 
18115— Limas ISO carloads. 
" Other sorts 5 carloads. 

The year 1894 is not given because of failure on 
account of drouth, the only failure in eighteen years. 


Rearing Little Chicks. 

J. H. Bear & Son, of the Le Grand Poultry Ranch, 
West Riverside, send us a copy of their catalogue 
for 1890, which is a very attractive publication. In 
addition to business matters, there are suggestions 
on the care of poultry, which may assist some of our 
readers. As the hatching season is at hand, we 
take an account of rearing little chicks, which gives 
the practice of Mrs. Bear, who has personal charge 
of this branch of the work of the ranch. 

A Hanu Macb Brooder. — One thing very essential 
to success is the proper heat and cleanliness in 
brooder, and this must not be neglected, as heat is 
often more important than food. Watch the chicks 
closely. If they crowd they are cold. Tf they 
spread out they are comfortable, but if they spread 
out and pant and hold their bills open, they are too 
warm. Always be sure that the brooder is well 
ventilated, as pure air is just as important as pure 
food. In giving them fresh air avoid draughts, as 
that is almost certain death to little chicks. 

I have found the very simplest form of artificial 
mother may be made to answer, and we have used 
them with wonderful success, as the number of 
chicks we have raised in that way will speak for 
itself. In fact we have only one regular hot water 
brooder, and that we warm up and put our chicks in 
when we first take them out of incubator, until they 
begin to get around pretty strong on their feet, 
then we remove them to the quarters they are to 
occupy for the next three or four weeks, or ready to 
separate the cockerels and pullets, which we do as 
soon as we can tell their sex. 

The pen is ">xK feet, the brooder is 2xH feet and 
will accommodate 100 chicks at first, or until two 
weeks old, then they must be divided, as they will 
not thrive with so many together. The brooder is 
15 inches high and has two little openings in one end 

for chicks to run in and out, with a cover made to 
lift off the top. It has a floor at bottom that fits in- 
side, so it can be taken out and cleaned. Near the 
front we dig out the dirt, so we can fix one of the 
boxes we get with two five-gallon cans of gasoline 
in. Fill the can with boiling water, leave the top 
unscrewed so the can will not draw out of shape, 
and set this in so the water will not run out, put 
the floor back and cover thick with clean sand. Do 
this about an hour before you place chicks in. When 
they are quite young we have a frame made with 
some canvas tacked on so it does not come out to 
front; this we let bag down on them a little, and 
have flannel strips sewed on about 2A inches long, so 
they can run under, and this will fall down around 
them and keep them quite comfortable. 

You can saw blocks to hold frame up. It will take 
quite short ones at first. We have two or throe 
sets and as they grow we put the longer blocks 
under so as to raise the cover, and you will be sur- 
prised to see how comfortable and satisfied they are. 
If you look at them a little while after they are put 
in, you will see them sitting with their heads all 
peeping out, as happy as if their natural mother 
was hovering them. 

As they yrow older we sometimes take the can 
with hot water in and slip in a gunny sack, so it will 
not burn them if they touch it, and just set in on 
the brooder floor, and they will sit in the space all 
around. Cover up with gunnys so they bag down a 
little and put top on and it will keep them comfort- 
able for 24 hours. Of course we could buy many 
brooders that would be less trouble, but I am writ- 
ing this for the benefit of many who do not fed able 
or disposed to put much money in such an outfit 
until they find out whether they like the business or 
could make a success of it. One thing, there is no 
lamj) and you can go to bed feeling there is no chance 
for tire in that direction. 

Chickens hatched by incubators or taken from the 
nest before the hen has called them to food thrive at 
least as well as with the natural parents, and grow 
up tame and familiar, and almost to a degree beyond 
belief, knowing as they do no other friend than the 
hand that feeds them. 

Feed for Young (Thicks. — For 24 hours after hatch- 
ing chickens require no food at all. For the first meal 
I sprinkle rolled oats, such as is used for breakfast; 
rubbing it very fine, keeping a little where they 
can pick at it; in this way they will soon learn to 
eat themselves. Then I give hard boiled egg and 
stale bread crumbs moistened with milk or water. 
Chop this line and feed every morning until a week 
old, keeping the oats and cracked wheat in a trough 
before them all the time. Another good thing to 
keep before them, instead of the oats and cracked 
wheat, is parched wheat and corn. Parch sepa- 
rately and grind fine together. At noon you can 
feed some bread crumbs without the egg, as I have 
found they do as well or better with the dry feed and 
is much less trouble than running every two hours. I 
keep it in little round tin dishes, one inch or a little 
more, so they cannot scratch it out and waste. 
Give water in a vessel from the first so they cannot 
possibly get wet or in it, as it will chill them, whic h 
almost means certain death. Milk is good if con- 
venient, but you must not let them have it when 
sour, as it will cause bowel trouble. 

The second week I give a combination of feed: two 
parts corn meal, one part bran, one part shorts, a 
handful of line bone meal, two handfuls of oilcake 
meal, sometimes using instead flaxseed meal, a 
tablespoonful to a quart of the mixture is fine for 
them; it often corrects and wards off bowel trouble, 
especially when they have stoppage of vent. A tea- 
spoonful of powdered charcoal is a good addition, 
and always put in a dash of salt; this preparation is 
better baked and can be mixed with milk or water; 
if the milk is sour use a little baking soda. If I use 
water 1 add a little-soda or baking powder and often 
beat up an egg or two and stir in. If I do not bake 
it, I simply scald about an hour before feeding so it 
will swell, as corn or bran is not digestible for 
little chicks in new state. Mix about as thick as 
corn bread, so it will crumble up as nice as the cen- 
ter, with no waste. This may seem a good deal of 
trouble but I find it quite convenient, as it is always 
ready if any one happens to come in at feeding time, 
as they often do. 

After the second or third week, just scald and 
feed morning and noon, for the morning meal 
add some lean meat chopped if possible, as it aids 
them so much while feathering. For noon I chop 
cold boiled potatoes, cabbage, onions, lettuce, alfalfa, 
or any vegetable I can find handy, as they relish it 
and it is really necessary they should have some 
kind of green vegetable food. I give a little cracked 
wheat in the middle of the forenoon and afternoon 
and let them have a good feed of it for the evening 
meal. Teach them to eat whole grain by throwing a 
little in now and then in the straw or litter, and 
make them work and scratch hard between each 
meal for exercise. Feed this way until about ten 
weeks old, after which you can feed anything they 
will eat, the same as any adult fowl. Always keep 
plenty of clean, sharp sand or grits, and a dust bath 
with a little sulphur or lime stirred in with the dust, 
and keep these where they can have free access to 


Spraying for the Codlin Moth. 

At the last meeting of the Santa Rosa Horticul- 
tural Society, Mr. J. H. Hornbeck gave advice on 
spraying for the destruction of the codlin moth. The 
moth works on the apple, pear and quince. So far 
as known, nothing is of much value, except to spray 
the young fruit with Paris green — about one pound 
to 200 gallons of water, as soon as the bloom has 
fallen off. Do not wait till all your trees are ready, 
but commence as soon as the first one is ready, as 
they do not all get ready at one time. There is at 
least two weeks difference in time of trees shedding 
their bloom. And it is well for the orchardist that 
this is so, as he will not do his work in a hurry. In 
ten or twelve days go over them again in the same 
order, and in fifteen or twenty days thereafter go 
over them again. If the work is thoroughly done, 
this will be enough for the early apples and pears. 
But the later fruit wiil need two or three more 
sprayings. Of course, every orchardist knows his 
early from his late trees, and will arrange his work 
so as to make the last spraying one month before 
the time of gathering. 

( 'ost of Spraying. — The expense of this operation is 
not so great as some people would infer. Paris 
green costs about forty cents per pound, at retail, 
and ten cents for fifty gallons of this solution is not 
much, considering the benefits to accrue. The cost 
for 200 trees of ten or twelve years and from twelve 
to fifteen feet in height would amount to about $5, 
including every item of expense, and, according to 
this authority, the result would be from 70 to 90 per 
cent of good, sound fruit from the trees so treated, 
as against no fruit at all worth gathering from the 
unsprayed trees which had felt the ravages of the 
moth. A complete spraying outfit, including a good 
pump, hose, pipe, couplings, and everything else 
needed, can be bought for $11.80. 

An E.rjx rimi'iil Suggested. — Some fruit men will ob- 
ject to so many sprayings on account of the expense. 
To those who take that view I would recommend a 
little experimenting. For instance, spray a part of 
your trees and leave the other part unsprayed, and 
note the difference at gathering time. The expense 
will not appear so great then. Paris green costs 
about forty cents per pound, at retail, and teu cents 
for fifty gallons is not very great expense. I would 
suggest to every one present that, during the coming 
summer, he try the plan above outlined, and, about 
November next, report to this society the results, 
whether success or failure. We sometimes learn as 
much by our failures as by our successes. 

Persistent Work Essential. — We must not flatter 
ourselves with the idea that some providential inter- 
ference in the way of parasites will relieve us of this 
codlin moth fighting. Eternal vigilance is the price 
of good fruit as well as of liberty. 

Dr. A. F. White, who also had a good essay on the 
codlin moth, emphasized this last idea as follows: 
Remedies, however inherently efficient, will prove 
unavailing without energetic concert of action. It 
will accomplish but little to disinfect a single tree in 
a single orchard, or a single orchard in a neighbor- 
hood. Every fruit grower in every community in 
the land should be required to cleanse his orchard 
most thoroughly from this destructive pest, and to 
see to it that it is kept so for all the time. In this 
conflict the all-prevailing universal motto is: "Utter 
destruction to the codlin moth." 

Canned Fruit Outlook. 

The Cutting Packing Co. of this city, in their cir- 
cular for January, note continued dullness in the 
canned fruit trade, and say: 

Altogether we do not look for any improvement in 
prices or demand generally until at least two months 
later, by which time we shall probably strike some- 
thing of a spring demand; but this, at the same 
time, is altogether problematical. So far as pros- 
pects for a new crop are foreshadowed by climatic 
influences, everybody unites in prophesying one of 
the largest ever known in the State in 1896. 
Prophets, however, are at a discount, as dull times 
the past three years have produced a much larger 
crop of them than of fruits, even, and as most of 
their predictions have failed to materialize, little 
confidence is placed in them. 

We are somewhat surprised at the large stocks of 
table fruits taken by our export friends, and look 
with a great deal of interest as to what distribution 
will ultimately be made of such amounts, feeling that . 
the foreign market is bound to be overstocked sooner 
or later, as it was several years ago, and from which 
condition of affairs it took at least two years to re- 
cover. It is possible, however, that the low prices 
at which the goods have gone to the United King- 
dom and elsewhere may allow them to be distributed 
much more freely than we anticipate. 

January 18, 1806. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


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The Pacific 

Rural Press. 

January 18, 1896. 


A Boy in the Library. 

Alas! what ruin has he wrought 

In learning's dim domain ! 
Invader of the realms of thought . 

And levelcrof brain! 
How did he gain the library key 

And scale the topmost shelf 
To batter Dante's bust, to be 

Lamb s butcher— by himself ? 

My Milton shows an inky mark— 

A page is missed from Moore ; 
And Chaucer from his corner dark 

Has tumbled to the floor. 
And Baxter— he of saintly " Kest, 

And meditation deep- 
Brought from the regions of the blest, 

Lies in the touseled heap! 

Sago treatises on ancient Creek 

And dissertations long, 
And soul-enchanting love-lays speak 

Promiscuous from the throng. 
From corners drear I sadly hear 

Old Duncan's dying groans; _ 
A haudful's gone from Hamlet's hair 

And Ban<(UO suns his bones ! 

Then in the rare and classic wreck 

I see the tyrant's form: 
His arms are round his mother's neck— 

A refuge in the storm! 
And as his rosy lips meet mine, 

And showery ringlets fall, 
A world of Shakcspeares I'd resign— 

His kiss is worth them all ! 

— Atlanta Constitution. 

Two Christians. 

Two Christians traveled down a road, 

Who viewed the world with different eyes; 
The one was pleased with earth's abode, 

The other longing for the skies. 
For one. the heavens were so blue 

They tilled his mind with fancies fond; 
The other's eyes kept piercing through 

Only for that which lies beyond. 

For one, enchanting were the trees, 

The distance was divinely dim. 
The birds that Muttered on the breeze 

Nodded their pretty heads for him. 
The other scarcely saw the flowers, 

And never knew the trees were grand; 
He did but count the days and hours 

Till he might reach the promised laud. 

And one to a little kind caress 

Would to a tender rapture move ; 
He only op'ed his lips to pray 

The Cod who gave him things to love. 
The other journeyed on his way, 

Afraid to handie or to touch ; 
He only op'ed his lips to bless 

He might not love a thing too much. 

Which was the best; Decide who can ! 

Vet why should we decide 'twixt them; 
We may approve the mournful man, 

Nor yet the joyful man condemn. 
He is a Christian who has found 

That earth, as well as heaven, is sweet; 
Nor less is he who, heaven bound, 

Has spurn'd the earth beneath his feet. 

Aunt Anniky's Teeth. 

Aunt Anniky was an African dame 
fifty years old and of an imposing ap- 
pearance. As a waffle-maker she pos- 
sessed a gift beyond the common, but 
her unapproachable talent lay in the 
province of nursing. She seemed born 
for the benefit of sick people. She 
should, have been painted with the ap- 
ple of healing in her hand. For the 
rest, she was a funny, illiterate old 
darkey, vain, affable, and neat as a 

On one occasion my mother had a 
dangerous illness. Aunt Anniky nursed 
her through it, giving herself no rest 
night nor day until her patient had | 
come "back to de walks an' ways ob 
life," as she expressed the dear moth- 
er's recovery. My father, overjoyed 
and grateful, felt that we owed its re- 
sult quite as much to Aunt Anniky as 
to our family doctor, so he announced 
his intention of making her a handsome 
present, and, like King Herod, left her 
free to choose what it should be. I 
shall never forget how Aunt Anniky 
looked as she stood there smiling and 
bowing, and bobbing the funniest little 
courtesies all the way down to the 

And you will never guess what it 
was the old woman asked for. 

"Well, Mars' Charles," said she (she 
had been one of our servants and al- 
ways called my father Mars' Charles), 
" to tell \'Ou de livin' trufe, my soul an' 
body is a-yearnin' fur a han'sum chany 
set o' teef." 

"A set of teeth?" cried father, sur- 
prised enough; "and have you none left 
of your own ? " 

"I has gummed it fur a good many 

ye'rs," said Aunt Anniky, with a sigh; 
"but not wishin' ter be ongrateful ter 
my obligations, I owns ter bavin' five 
nateral teef. But dey is po' sogers; 
dey shirks battle. One ob dem's got a 
little somethin' in it as lively as a 
speared worm, an' I tell you when any- 
think teeches it, hot or cold, it jest 
makes me dance ! An' anudder is in 
my top jaw, an' ain't got no match fur 
it in de bottom one; an' one is broke 
off nearly to de root: an' de las' two is 
so yaller dat i's ashamed ter show 'em 
in company, an' so I lif's my turkey- 
tail ter my mouf every time I laughs or 

" Well," said my father, "lam going 
to the village to-morrow, Anniky, in 
the spring wagon. I will take you with 
me, and we will see what the dentist 
can do for you." 

"Bless yo' heart, Mars' Charles!" 
said the delighted Anniky; "you're jest 
as good as you' blood an' yo' name, an' 
mo' I couldn't say." 

The morrow came, an' with it Aunt 
Anniky, gorgeously arrayed in a flam- 
ing red calico, a bandanna handker- 
chief, and a string of carved yellow 
beads that glistened on her bosom like 
fresh buttercups on a hillside. 

1 had petitioned to go with the party, 
for, as we lived on a plantation, a visit 
to the village was something of an 

A brisk drive soon brought us to the 
center of " the Square." A glittering 
sign hung brazenly from a high window 
on its western side, bearing in raised 
black letters the name Doctor Alonzo 

Dr. Babb was the dentist and the 
odd fish of our village. He beams on 
my memory as a big, round man, with 
hair and smiles all over his face, who 
talked incessantly, and said things to 
make your blood run cold. 

He motioned Aunt Anniky to a chair, 
into which she dropped in a limp sort 
of way, recovering herself immediately, 
however, and sitting bolt upright in a 
rigid attitude of defiance. Some mo- 
ments of persuasion were necessary 
before she could be induced to lean 
back and allow Dr. Babb's fingers on 
her nose while she breathed the laugh- 
ing gas ; but once settled, the expres- 
sion faded from her countenance almost 
as quic kly as a magic lantern picture 
vanishes, and in an incredibly short 
space of time her five teeth were out. 
As she came to herself, I am sorry to 
say, she was rather silly, and quite 
mortified me by winking at Dr. Babb 
in the most confidential manner, and 
repeating over and over again, 
" Honey, yer ain't harf as smart as yer 
thinks yer is ! " 

After a few weeks of sore gums, 
Aunt Anniky appeared radiant with 
her new teeth. The effect was cer- 
tainly funny. In the first place, black- 
ness itself was not as black as Aunt 
Anniky. She looked as if she had been 
dipped in ink and polished off with 
lamp black. Her very eyes showed but 
the faintest rim of white. But those 
teeth were white enough to make up 
for everything. She had selected them 
herself, aud the little ridiculous milk- 
white things were more fitted for the 
mouth of a Titania than for the great 
cavern in which Aunt Anniky's tongue 
moved and had its being. The gums 
above them were black, and when she 
spread her wide mouth in a laugh it 
always reminded me of a piano lid 
opening suddenly and showing all the 
black and white ivories at a glance. 
Aunt Anniky laughed a good deal, too, 
after getting her teeth in, and declared 
she had never been so happy in her life. 
It was observed, to her credit, that 
she put on no airs of pride, but was as 
sociable as ever, and made nothing of 
taking out her teeth and handing them 
around for inspection among her 
curious and admiring visitors. But 
finally destruction came upon thern in 
a way that no one could have foreseen. 

Uncle Ned was an old colored man, 
who lived alone in a cabin not very far 
from Aunt Anniky's, but very differ- 
ent from her in point of cleanliness and 
order. In fact. Uncle Ned's wealth, 
apart from a little corn crop, consisted 
in a lot of fine young pigs that ran in 
and out of the house at all times, and 
were treated by their owner as ten- 

derly as if they had been his children. 
One fine day the old man fell sick of a 
fever, and he sent in haste for Aunt 
Anniky to come and nurse him. He 
agreed to give her a pig in case she 
brought him through; should she fail to 
do so, she was to receive no pay. 
Uncle Ned got well, and the next 
thing we heard was that he refused to 
pay the pig. My father was usually 
called on to settle all the disputes in 
the neighborhood ; so one morning 
Anniky and Ned appeared before him, 
both looking very indignant. 

"I'd jes' like ter tell yer, Mars' 
Charles," began Uncle Ned, " ov de 
trick dis miser'bleole nigger played on 

"Goon, Ned," said my father, with 
a resigned air. 

"Well, it war de fift' night o' de fe- 
ver," said Uncle Ned, "an' I wuz a- 
tossin' an' a-moanin,' an' old Anniky 
jes lay back in her chair an' snored as 
ef a dozen frogs wuz in her throat. I 
wuz a-perishin' an' a-burnin' wid thirst 
— an' I hollered to Anniky; but lor! I 
might as well a-hollered to a tomb- 
stone! It wuz ice I wanted! an' I 
knowed dar wuz a glass somewhar on 
my table wid cracked ice in it. Lor! 
lor! how dry I wuz! I neber longed 
fur whisky in my born days ez I panted 
fur dat ice. It wuz powerful dark, fur 
de grease wuz low in de lamp, an' de 
wick spluttered wid a dyin' flame. But 
I felt aroun', feeble-like an' slow, till 
my fingers touched a glass. I pulled it 
to me, an' I run my han' in an' grabben 
de ice, as I s'posed, an' fiung it in my 
mouf, an' crunched an' crunched — " 

Here there was an awful pause. 
Uncle Ned pointed his thumb at An- 
niky, and said, in a hollow voice: " It 
wuz Anniky's teef." 

My father threw back his head and 
laughed as I had never heard him 
laugh. Mother from her sofa joined in. 
I was doubled up like a jackknife in 
the corner. But for the principals in 
the affair, neither of them moved a 
muscle. They saw no joke. Aunt An- 
niky, in a dreadful, muffled, squeaky 
sort of voice, took up the tale: 

" Nexsh ting I knowed, Marsh 
Shades, somebody's sheizin' me by de 
head, a-jammin' it up 'gin de wall, a- 
jawin' at me like de angel Gabriel at 
de rish ole sinners in de bad plashe 
an' dar wash ole Ned a-spittin' like a 
black cat an' a-howlin' so dreadful dat 
I tough t he wash de bebil; an' when I 
got de light, dar wash my beautiful 
chany teef a-flung aroun' like scattered 
seed corn on de flo', an' Ned a-swarin' 
he'd have de law on me." 

"An' arter all dat," broke in Uncle 
Ned, " she purtends to lay a claim fur 
rn y P'K- But I says no, sir; I don't pay 
nobody nothin' who's played me a 
trick like dat." 

"Trick!" said Aunt Anniky, scorn- 
fully; " whar's de trick ? Tink I wanted 
yer ter eat my teef ? An' furdermo', 
Marsh Sharles, dar's jes dis 'bout it. 
When dad night set in, dar warn't no 
mo' hope fur old Ned dan fur a foun- 
dered sheep. Laws-a-mussy ! dat's why 
1 went ter sleep. I wanted ter hev 
strengt' ter put on his burial clo'es in 
de morn in'. But don' yer see, Marsh 
Sharles, dat when he got so mad, it 
brought on a sweat dat broke de fever! 
It saved him! But fur all dat, arter 
munchin' an' manglin' my chany teef, 
he has the imperdence of tryin' to 
'prive me of de pig dat I honestly 

It was a hard case. Uncle Ned sat 
there a very image of injured dignity, 
while Aunt Anniky bound a red hand- 
kerchief around her mouth and fanned 
herself with her turkey tail. 

" I am sure I don't know how to set- 
tle the matter," said father, helplessly. 
" Ned, I don't see but that you'll have 
to pay up." 

"Neber, Mars' Charles neber." 

"Well, suppose you get married," 
suggested father, 'brilliantly; "that 
will unite your interests, you know." 

Aunt Anniky tossed her head. Uncle 
Ned was old, wizened, wrinkled as a 
raisin, but he eyed Anniky over with a 
supercilious gaze and said, with dig- 
nity, " Ef I wanted ter marry, I could 
get a likely young gal." 

All the four points of Anniky's tur- 
ban shook with indignation. "Pay me 

fur dem chany teef I" she hissed. 

Some visitors interrupted the dis- 
pute at this time and the two old dar- 
kies went away. 

A week later Uncle Ned appeared, 
with rather a sheepish look. 

"Well, Mars' Charles," he said, 
"I's 'bout concluded dat I'll marry 

" Ah A is that so?" 

"'Pears like it's de onliest way 1 
kin save my pigs," said Uncle Ned, 
with a sigh. " When she's married she s 
boun' ter 'bey me. Women, 'bey your 
husban's; dat's what de good Book 

"Yes, she will bay you, I don't 
doubt," said my father, making a pun 
that Uncle Ned could not appreciate. 

"An' ef ever she opens her jaw ter 
me 'bout dem ar teef," he went on, "I'll 
mash her." 

Uncle Ned tottered on his legs like 
an unscrewed fruit-stand, and I had my 
opinion as to his "mashing" Aunt An- 
niky. This opinion was confirmed the 
next day when my father offered her 
his congratulations. "You are old 
enough to know your own mind," he 

" I's ole, maybe," said Anniky, "but 
so is a oak tree, an' it's wigorous, I 
reckon. I's a purty wigorous sort o' 
growth myself, an' I reckon I'll have 
my own way wid Ned. I'm gwine ter 
fatten dem pigs of his'n, an' you see 
ef I don't sell 'em ne.x' Christmas fur 
money 'nough ter git a new string o' 
chany teef." 

"Look here, Anniky," said father, 
with a burst of generosity, "you and 
Ned will quarrel about those teeth till 
the day of doom; so I will make you a 
wedding present of another set, that 
you may begin married life in har- 

Aunt Anniky expressed her grati- 
tude. "An' ciis time," she said, with 
sudden fury, " I sleeps wid 'em in." 

The teeth were presented and the 
wedding preparations began. The ex- 
pectant bride went over to Ned's cabin 
and gave it such a cleaning up as it 
never had. But Ned did not seem hap- 
py. He devoted himself entirely to his 
pigs and wandered about, looking more 
wizened every day. Finally he came 
to our gate and beckoned to me mys- 

"Come over to my house, honey," he 
whispered, " an' bring a pen an' ink an' 
a piece o' paper wid yer. I wants yer 
ter write me a letter." 

I ran into the house for my little 
writing desk and followed Uncle Ned to 
his cabin. 

" Now, honey," he said, after barring 
the door carefully, "don't you ax me 
no questions, but jes put down de 
words dat comes out o' my mouf on dat 
ar paper." 

" Very well, Uncle Ned; go on." 

"Anniky Hobbleston," he began, 
'dat weddin' ain't a-gwine ter come 
off. You cleans up too much to suit 
me. I ain't used to so much water 
splashin ' aroun'. Dirt is warmin'. 
Spec' I'd freeze dis winter if you wuz 
here. An' you got too much tongue. 
Besides," I's got anodder wife over in 
Tipper. An' I ain't a-gwine ter marry. 
As fur de law, Is a-leavin' dese 
parts, an ' I takes de pigs wid me. 
Yer can't fin' dem, an' yer can't fin' 

iighest Honors — World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 



Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 

January 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


me. Pur I ain't a-gwine to marry. I 
wuz born a bachelor, an' a bachelor 
will represent myself befo' de judgment 
seat. If you gives yer promise to say 
no mo' 'bout dis marryin' business, 
p'raps I'll come back some day. So no 
mo' at present from your humble wor- 
shipper, " Ned Cuddy. " 

"Isn't that last part rather incon- 
sistent ?" said I, greatly amused. 

" Yes, honey, if yer says so; an' it's 
kind o' soothin' to de feelin's of a 
woman, yer know." 

I wrote it all down and read it to 
Uncle Ned. 

"Now, my chile," he said, " I'm a- 
gwine ter git on my mule soon as de 
moon rises ter-night, an' drive my 
pigs ter Col'water Gap, whar I'll stay 
an' fisb. Soon as I'm well gone, you 
take dis letter to Anniky, but min' 
don't tell her whar I's gone. An' if she 
takes it all right, an ' promises ter let 
me alone, you write me a letter, an' 
I'll get de fust Methodis' preacher I 
run across in de woods ter read it ter 
me. Den, ef it's all right, I'll come 
back an ' weed yer flower gyardin fur 
yer as purty as preachin'." 

I agreed to do all Uncle Ned asked, 
and we parted like conspirators. Sure 
enough, next morning Uncle Ned was 
missing, and after waiting a reasonable 
time, explained the matter to my 
parents, and went over with his letter 
to Aunt Anniky. 

" Powers above !" was her only com- 
ment as I got through the remarkable 
epistle. Then, after a pause to collect 
her thoughts, she seized me by the 
shoulder, saying: " Run to yo' pappy, 
honey, quick, an' ax him if he's gwinc 
ter stick to his bargain 'bout de teef. 
Yer know he p'intedly said dey was a 
weddin' gif." 

Of course my father sent word that 
she must keep the teeth, and my 
mother added a message of sympathy, 
with a present of a pocket-handker- 
chief to dry Aunt Anniky's tears. 

But, " It's all right," said that sen- 
sible old soul, opening her piano-lid 
with a cheerful laugh. "Bless you, 
chile, it wuz de teef I wanted, not de 
man ! An', honey, you jes sen' word 
to dat shif'less ole nigger, ef you know 
whar he's gone, to come back home an' 
git his crap in de groun'; an' as fur 
as I'm consarned, you jes' let him know 
dat I wouldn't pick him up wid a ten- 
foot pole, not ef he wuz ter beg me on 
his knees till de millennial day." 


If thou wouldst hear what is fitting 
and seemly, inquire of noble women. — 

Social stability requires character, 
character requires religion, religion re- 
quires worship and worship requires a 
Sabbat h.--Guizot. 

Peace is the greatest of blessings 
when it is won and kept by manhood 
and wisdom, but it is a blessing that 
will not long be the housemate of cow- 
ardice.- Lowell. 

The humble, meek, merciful, just, 
pious, devout souls are everywhere of 
one religion; and, when death has taken 
off the mask, they will know one an- 
other, though the diverse liveries they 
wear here make them strangers. — 
William Penn. 

Christ's cradle was as wonderful as 
his cross. Persuade me of the first 
and I am not surprised at the last. 
The door by which lie entered was as 
tremendous as the door by which he 
went out. He had only two friends — 
they, his parents. No satin-lined cra- 
dle, no delicate attentions, but straw, 
and the cattle, and the coarse joke 
and banter of the camel drivers. From 
the depths of that poverty he rose un- 
til to-day he is honored throughout all 
Christendom and sits triumphant on 
the imperial throne in heaven. — Dr. 

"It is beautiful to give one day to 
the ideal — to have one day apart. One 
day for generous deeds, for good will, 
for gladness. One day to forget the 
shadows, the rains, the storms of life; 
to remember sunshine, the happiness of 
youth and health. One day to forget 
the briars and thorns on the winding 
path, to remember the fruits and flow- 

ers. One day in which to feed the 
hungry, to salute the poor and lowly. 
One day to feel the brotherhood of 
man. One day to remember the heroic 
and loving deeds of the dead. One day 
to get acquainted with children, to re- 
member the old, the unfortunate and 
the imprisoned. One day in which to 
forget yourself and think lovingly of 
others. One day for the family, for 
the fireside, for wife and children, for 
the love and laughter, the joy and rap- 
ture of home." — Robert Gr. Ingersoll. 

The Secret of Success. 

One day, in huckleberry time, when little 

Johnny Flails 
And half a dozen other boys were starting 

with their pails 
To gather berries, Johnny's pa, in talking 

with him, said 
That he could tell him how to pick so he'd 

come out ahead. 
"First find your bush," said Johnny's pa, 

"and then stick to it till 
You've picked it clean. Let those go chasing 

all about who will 
In search of better bushes; but it's picking 

tells, my son — 
To look at fifty bushes doesn't count like 

picking one." 
And Johnny did as he was told; and, sure 

enough, he found 
By sticking to his bush, while all the others 

chased around 
In search of better picking, 'twas as his father 

said ; 

For while all the others looked he worked, 

and so came out ahead. 
And Johnny recollected this when he became 

a man ; 

And first of all he laid him out a well-deter- 
mined plan. 

So while the brilliant triflers failed with all 

their brains and push, 
Wise, steady-going Johnny won by " sticking 

to his bush." 

—Nixon Waterman. 

Fashion Notes. 

Many very fashionable people cling 
to the wearing of black and white. 
They do not do so under mourning pre- 
tense, but because they find it so very 
becoming to them. This is particularly 
the case with women a little inclined 
to embonpoint without being at all fat. 
Many have the large frame that sug- 
gests plumpness without being at all 
suggestive of too much adipose. These, 
once having taken on the black and 
white fever, as one woman calls it, find 
it hard to drop it. 

Medium-sized tortoise shell combs, 
ornamented with applied silver, are 
more popular than anything else just 
now, but they really show up better in 
light hair than in any other. Black- 
garnet and mat jet combs and hair 
are being imported from Paris. 

Forget-me-nots and good luck horse 
shoes and such like simple things are 
not even spoken of this season. Every- 
thing is literary, historic and symbolic. 

Chinchilla is one of the very fashion- 
able furs of the season. 

Among the waists for dressy after- 
noon wear with black or dark skirts 
are those of chine, taffeta or faille silk, 
with dark grounds well covered with 
shadowy Pompadour figures. 

Very stylish and English-looking 
suits for boys from four to ten years 
old have knickerbockers and the yoke 
Norfolk jacket introduced in the 
spring, very much like those worn by 
men when golfing. 

Empire capes with picturesque col- 
lars and jaunty coats of boucle cloth 
are everywhere seen, the latter lined 
with a richly-plaided silk, sufficiently 
pretty to make one feel inclined to 
turn the wrap inside out. 

Sailor suits for boys of two or three 
years are of blue or tan or white serge, 
made in the simplest fashion, with a 
full drooping sailor blouse, large sailor 
collar, and either a kilt or gathered 
skirt. Rows of narrow braid trim the 
collar and cuffs. 

Little kilt suits of black velveteen, 
or velvet if not beyond the limit in 
price, which have a short jacket worn 
over a fine white lawn blouse, with a 
wide collar and trimmed elaborately 
with lace or handsome embroidery, 
which washes better, are the proper 
party dress for very small boys, while 
those of more mature years wear knee 
breeches and an Eton coat of black 
cloth over a white vest, with a stiff 
linen shirt front and turn-down collar. 


Domestic Hints. 

Vanilla Cream Sauce. — Beat to a 
cream three tablespoonfuls of butter, 
and gradually beat into this two-thirds 
of a cupful of powdered sugar. When 
this is light and creamy, add a tea- 
spoonful of vanilla; then gradually beat 
in two cupfuls of whipped cream. Place 
the bowl in a pan of boiling water, and 
stir constantly for three minutes. Pour 
the sauce into a warm bowl, and serve. 

Beefsteak Pudding. — Line the pud- 
ding dish with crust made of chopped 
suet and flour mixed with water, 
rolled out. Cut up a pound of round 
steak sprinkled with flour, pepper and 
salt, chop a small onion fine, put all 
into the lined basin, add a cupful of 
water, cover over with the suet crust, 
and tie in a well-floured cloth, put the 
basin lid downwards in a saucepan of 
boiling water, leave lid off the sauce- 
pan, let it boil two and a half hours. 

Queen Fritters.— To make the bat- 
ter for queen fritters, which is the 
same as that for eclairs and cream 
puffs, put two ounces of butter and 
half a pint of water on the fire. When 
it boils add half a pint of flour, stir and 
cook for just one minute. Remove 
from the fire and break in four eggs, 
one at a time, and beat each in thor- 
oughly before adding the next. When 
all have been added, beat vigorously 
for about five minutes. Then scrape 
the sides of the pan and drop the bat- 
ter by teaspoonfuls into boiling fat. 
As it is necessary that it should cook 
thoroughly, however, do not make the 
fat quite so hot as for croquettes and 
cooked meats. Allow the batter to 
swell and cook a little more slowly, and 
the fritters will emerge a delicious 
golden brown. Serve sprinkled with 
powdered sugar flavored with vanilla 
powder. Stew. — A lamb stew is one of 
most savory and excellent of dishes. 
Take a pint of cooked lamb cut in small 
chunks. Melt a tablespoonful of butter 
in a saucepan and add a teaspoonful 
of flour. When they are melted to- 
gether pour in a pint of stock, or, if 
not convenient, the same quantity of 
gravy and water, with any bones of 
the lamb which are on hand. If the 
stock is used the sauce will require 
only twenty minutes' slow cooking at 
the back part of the fire; but if it is 
necessary to prepare stock from bones, 
this cooking must be continued an 
hour. At the end of this time take out 
any bones and add a sprig of parsley, 
one of thyme, a spray of celery and 
half a bay leaf. These four herbs, 
which constitute a flavoring " bouquet " 
are not essential, but they always im- 
prove the flavor. Season the stew 
with a teaspoonful of salt and an even 
half teaspoonful of pepper and one 
tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce, 
or Parisian sauce. When the sauce 
boils up, add the lamb, with the same 
quantity of potatoes if you wish, and 
let it simmer three minutes, but no 
longer. This stew may be improved 
by frying a minced onion at the begin- 
ning in the butter, adding the flavor- 
ing bouquet and half a cup of tomatoes 
after the floor has been stirred in. In 
this case the sauce must be strained be- 
fore adding the lamb. Mutton makes an 
excellent stew, prepared in the same 
way as lamb, adding slices of carrots 
and tiny onions, fried brown in butter, 
as well as potatoes. 

A lawyer, residing in the north of 
England, and noted for his laconic 
style of expression, sent the following 
terse and witty note to a refractory 
client, who would not succumb to his 
reiterated demands for the payment of 
his bill: "Sir, if you pay the inclosed, 
you will oblige me. If you do not, I 
shall oblige you." — Green Bag. 

He — Yes, I consider it dangerous to 
travel in the car that's next to the 
engine; people there are always killed 
when there is a collision. Nervous 
Party — 'Then why do they put it on if 
it is so dangerous ? — St. Paul's. 

A sermon over twenty minutes long 
is a clerical error. — Texas Sittings. 


In the big department store 

Our Cheapest 

Table Linen 

Is red damask, pretty patterns 30c 

In white, California mills, wide 35c 

Then we have it from these prices up as high as 
you would want to go, even for a wedding present. 

Velvet or Velveteen. 

We^have about 12 pieces to close 2g CCfltS 

Colors are seal brown, navy, black, moss green. 
They are good standard 50-cent quality. At EO 
cents we carry complete lines. Mention this 


For infants, or child's coats or cloaks, bath 
gowns, night wrappers; %, goods. In wool, 35 
cents. All colors in general use Do you want 
pink or stripe ? 


Our counters and shelves are too full of rem- 
nants. If you have children in the house — and 
nearly everybody has— you can save a lot of money 
by answering these questions: Boys or girls t 
Ages ? What wanted for ? We have to sell rem- 
nants at some price, we have BO many. 


Everybody buys the soft finish goods called by 
various names. We keep the largest variety in 
town; from6J4 cents to l%% cents, and even 15 for 
wide shirtings. We seldom touch the cheap 
grades at 5 cents; they do not please— nor wear. 

We Make Up 

Child's or infants' little coats or cloaks, ladies' 
wrappers and Sunday dresses, ladies' night wrap- 
pers and underwear, sunbonuets for everybody 
that wants them, child's and misses' dresses, all 
kinds; aprons for all uses, in every style; men's 
night shirts or day shirts; all made by white 
labor— given to those who need the work. It will 
not pay you to sit and sew. Send to 


414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., Cal. 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 18, 1896. 

Discussion has again begun as to 
when the twentieth century will begin. 
Those who claim that it begins Jan. 1st, 
1900, would probably decline to accept 
a payment of 1899 dollars from a 
wealthy debtor who owed them $1900. 
On.Dec. 31st, 1900, the full term of 100 
years comprising the century will have 
elapsed, and at midnight on that date 
begins another century — the twentieth, 
according to our little record. It 
would be interesting to know just how 
long man has been keeping an account 
of time. Several times since the world 
became inhabited an effort has beeu 
made to keep some sort of tally of the 
years, and after consecutive counting 
of the years for a few thousand of the 
earth's annual journeys round the 
sun the count has been broken, some 
great war or famine or catastrophe 
sweeping away all vestige of the rec- 
ord. Time and again the effort has 
been made. Of all chronologies the 
Chinese seems most definite and con- 
secutive. They have an unbroken 
count of years amounting now to over 
5000. About 1901 years ago a general 
understanding was had in Europe to 
date from the birth of Christ, and 
according to that nearly all those influ- 
enced by Western civilization count by 
that system, calling this year 1890, 
A. D., though, in comparison with 
older systems, 1890 looks very meager. 
Along in the coming centuries will 
doubtless ensue some cataclysm that 
will upset all the present chronology, 
and then in 2300, or 2700, or whatever 
it may happen to be, this A. D. sys- 
tem will be dropped and men will 
begin at 1 again, as they have so often 
done before in the circling cycles of 
Time's changing course. 

One noticeable phase of the cheap 
manufactures of Japan, now threaten- 
ing the industrial life of this coast, is 
the additional leverage secured by dis- 
regard of ordinary business laws. In a 
piratical way the Japanese artisan pays 
no attention to the fact that a particu- 
lar piece of mechanism is patented. 
He takes it apart and reproduces it 
without the slightest regard to the pat- 
entee's rights. Were an American 
artisan to attempt such a theft the 
law would speedily enjoin him, but in 
Japan the inventor is powerless. This 
is simply one feature of the kind of 
competition to which this country is 
subjected. Jt is not "a local issue." 
It affects alike the manufacturing in- 
terests of the entire nation. There is 
but one remedy, legislation embracing, 
in general, remonetization of silver and 

A report to the French Academy of 
Sciences states that seven well equip- 
ped expeditions have been sent out to 
gather material for a magnetic map of 
the earth. 

Caller — And this is the new baby ? 
Fond Mother — Isn't he splendid? 
Caller — Yes, indeed. Fond Mother — 
And so bright ! See how intelligently 
he breathes ! — Tit-Rits. 


Unequalled in 



+ ♦ Fully Guaranteed. -f + 

Will be sent on trial to responsible people wishing 

to purchase. 
Catalogue* free on application. 


33H Post Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


— THE— 

World's Washer 

In its washing prin- 
ciple is like the 
Humboldt, but it is 
"chock full" of improvements. 
Child can use it. Clothes clean, 
sweet and white as snow. Lasts 
a lifetime. Sent freight paid. Circulars free. 
O. K. KOSS, 10 McLean St., Lincoln, 111. 






Certain In its effects and never blisters. 
Read proofs below : 


Shelby, Mich., Dec. 16, '93. n 

|j Dr. B. J. Kendall Co. 
N Sirs : — I have used your 
R c n .m« .Cure with 

Kendall's jj 

,j Spavin Cure with good success for jj 
I curbs on two horses and it is the best j 
Liniment I have ever used. 

Yours truly, August Fredrick. 

1 For Sale by all Druggists, or address 
,] l)r. 11. J. KEXDAZL COMPANY, jj 





and Head Noises relieved by using 
Wilson's Common Sense Ear Drums. 

New scientific invention; different 
from allotherdevices. The only safe, 
simple, comfortable and invisible 
Ear Drum in the world. Helps where 
medical skill fails No wire orstrin« 
attut hinent. Write for pamphlet. 
j 300 Truslin.L-.. LoahTlllr, Kr. 
( llii U . ..... . .... , V„ York. 

OUlces: j 

The Elephant Never Checks His Trunk 

He must have it bandy. For the samo 
reason the coil of the serpent is not stowed 
away in the end of its tail. Llke-Wlsedy) 
the Page Fence is colled its whole length, 
and is always ready for business. 


Our 160 page, finely illustrated 
Combined Poultry Guide and t 
Catalogue will tell you what you ( 
wish to know about ( 


We manufacture a complete line of Incubators, 
. Brooders and Poultry Appliances. Guide and Cata- 
; logue 10c. 'stamps or silver! Worth One Dollar.) 
j Reliable Inruhalor^Brond^ 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

J F. B. BUKKK, B26 Market St.. S. F. Al Prize Hol- 

stelns; Grade Milch Cowb. Pine Pigs. 


All horizontal lines are cables; not affected by heat 
and cold- adjusts Itself to hilly (troand without 
buckling. Built for service and durability, write 
for lull Information 


JOHN W00DL0CK, General Agent, 

36 Beale Street San Francisco, Cal. 


Poultry Guidefor 1896 Finest 
book ever published, cootainB nearly 100 
pages, all printed in colors, plans for beat 
poultry houses, sure remedies and recipes 
fat all diseases, and howto make poultry 
,^sand gardening pav. Sent post paid for 35c. 
^J'John Bauscher, Jr.,box60Freeportj 111. 


Eggs, Poultry, Butter, Cheese, Honey, Etc. 


so" Front st reel 

San Francisco. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J.C.C. registered prize herd 
Is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devous and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Pine Individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Parm. Danville. Cal. 

I'ETEK SAXE A SON, Lick House. S P., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle. Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

•IKHSEVS AND HOLSTKINS, from the best 
Butter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs 
and Poultry. William Niles & Co., Los Angeles. 
Cal.. Breeders and Exporters. Established In 187M. 


J. AY. FOROEUS, Santa Cruz. Cal. B. P. Rocks. 
Bro. Leghorns. B. Mlnorcas. Pekln Ducks. The 
largest establishment on the coast. Lot of cocker- 
els cheap for farmers' flocks. Satisfactory hatches 
guaranteed in every sitting. Try good stock. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

M lis. J.O. FREDERICKS, Madison, Cal, Bl. Mln- 
orcas and Ilr. Leghorn Eggs for sale at .We per doz. 

WILLIAM Nl LES * CO. .Los Angeles.Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

MANHATTAN EG<; FOOD, Bed Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale, Tillman & Bendel. S. P. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., 9. P.— BERKSHIRES. 


Best Stock: Thoroughbreds. Win. Nlles & Co., 

Los Angeles. Cal. Established in 1876. 

A. P. HOTALING — Berkshire's from imported 
stock— May-field. Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co.. Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co.. Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton. Regist'd Berkahires. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. II. GLIDE, Sacramento. Very large choice Span- 
ish, French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 


You Can Largely Increase 

Your income by buying an Incu- 
bator and engaging In the chicken 
business. Send stamp for our 
catalogue of Incubators, Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul- 
try Appliances generally. Remem- 
ber the Hest is the Cheapest. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St., 
Oakland, Cal. 

I Write now. I 
Oes Moines I 
Incubator Co. I 

Bon6DesMoine8.Ia 1 



Our magnificent 
t e w catalogue 
giving full in- 
formation re* 

Sarding nrt iflcia ] 
Etching & Brooding 
and treatise on poul- 
try raising sent for 4c 
stam?iH. Circular free. 


and Book of Valuable Kecipes, 64 large 
pages, contains 8 beautiful colored plates 
of fowls, gives description and prices of 
45 varieties, with important hints on care 
of poultry, and pages of recipes of great 
value to everyone. Finest Poultry Book 
published for 1896 Postpaid only 10 cts. 
C. N. Bowers, Box 21, Dakota, III 





Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 686, Los Angeles, Cal. 


At the STATE FA1K our BERKSHIRES won Five 
Firsts and Three Sweepstakes Premiums. We have 
a few choice pigs on hand, also a few Jan'y and Feb'y 
sows— just the age to breed. Correspondence solic'td. 


I se it once and you will USE IT ALWAYS. 

A Sure Preventive and Positive Cure for all Diseases of Poultry. Will make 
hens lay when eggs are high. 
1 lb., 25c; 34 lbs.. 756; 10 llm., #2.00; 3rt lbs,, 84.00. 

WILKINSON, Bay and Webster Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 



are heavy feeders of Potash. 
Potash exerts a marked Influ- 
ence on the quality and quan- 
tity of the fruit. As many 
soils arc largely deficient in 
Potash, a heavy application of 
a fertilizer containing not less 
than 12% of 

Actual Potash 

should be made. The best 
groves in the state will bear 
testimony to these facts. 

Our pamphlets are not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain- 
ing latest researches on the subject of tertilizati«m, and 
are rrally helpful to larmers. They are sent free for 
the asking. 


0, Nassau St., New York 

nEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco.. Cal. 
are our Agents for the Pacific Coast . 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Pacific Nursery 

Office and (Ircenhouses, 
Cor Baker and Lombard Sts.. San ETnu&elMO. 

Nursery at Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 



Evergreens and Coniferous, Palms and Dracemrs. 

Largest and best grown stork of Camellias, Ihr 
best double sorts. Azaleas indica, double and 
single. Roses on own roots and grafted in the 
best varieties, and healthy, very strong plants. 
F. I. II 1> KM ANN. 



Has on hand of his own growing a choice stock of 
yearling and two-year-old nursery trees, 
consisting of 

French Prunes, Tragedy Crimes. 

Koyal. Blenheim, Moorpark, Krench and 
Newcastle Apricots. 

I. X. L., Nonpariel, Texas Prolific, Lanqoe- 
doc, La Prima and Ne Pins Ultra A in <is. 

Crawford. Sal way. Susquehanna. Muir, Fos- 
ter and other Peaches in variety. 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Nectarines, 
etc., etc. 

Also Orange and Lemon Trees, Acarias. 

Texas Umbrella Trees, tirape Vines anil Small 

Fruits in endless variety- 
Guaranteed true to label and free from insect 

pests. For particulars, prices, etc., address 

J. A. ANDERSON. Lodl, Cal. 



well begun Is half done. Begin 
well by getting Ferry's Seeds. 
Don't let chance determine 
your crop, but plant Kerry's 
Seeds. Known and sold 

Hefore you plant, get 

Ferry's Seed Annual 

for 1S96. Contains more prac- 
tical information for farmers 
and gardeners than many high 
priced text hooks. Mailed free. 



Pear and Cherry Seedlings. 

No. 1, A and up. . $5.00 per 1000. 

No. 2, J to A 2.50 

No. 3, T V to J 1.50 

Terms cash before shipment. Mention this paper. 

Sunrise Nurseries Montavllla. Oregon, 


a Bbl. 

ir.-.t growem »f POTATOES for BrnJ I 
I, „ hi "Rural Wew-Yerker" ■!»•« *»l 
Kurly WlMauofa " % nf 7Sll bu.hel 
neraore. Prb-c* .llei cheap. Our irmi Beei 

hook. 1 IS nip. nnd .iiinplc 1 4-l»nj r„ r 
■oatuae. JOHN I. S AI./.Ktt SKMM <>.. Ul r„... . « I.. 


Australian Salt Bush Plants 

For alkali land, for sale by Lord & Wal 

609 K. Sod St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 


VAr from jt.' 8500. a month nl homoorlri.,. 
rllnf. »..rk furjonnr mud o 1. 1. I»..n'i r. I) on olh- 
pr». Euru your own living. Oolflt ruroUbed frv*. 
(Jet to work al onev.ClUClUU MiU CO. thlea** 

January 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

New Varieties of 

" Clairac 


Average size (cured). 

The FINEST and LARGEST prune ever intro- 
duced into this State, grading (cured) from 20 to 35 
per pound ; splendid to ship East as a plum. 

The CLAIRAC MAMMOTH was originated 
from the seed; nothing "hybridized" about it. 
We can, therefore, guarantee the character of this 
remarkable prune to be " constant." All our trees 
of that prune are on Myrobolan root; on peach it 
is too liable to sever from the stock. Prices, $.3, $-1 
and $5 per dozen, according to sizes; $24, $30 and 
$35 per hundred. 


We would caution the public against buying 
trees purporting to be that New Prune of ours, 
under any name whatever, as we know of some 
unscrupulous nurserymen in the State trying to 
pass the " Robe Imperial " a large and juicy plum, 
under the name of "Imperial" short, for the 
Clairac Mammoth. We assure the public that 
those nurserymen are frauds, and contemptible 
frauds, they claiming to have bribed an employe 
of ours to obtain scions of that prune ! 

Ghatenay D'Ente Prune. 

This is another new variety of French Prune, 
earlier than the earliest. We particularly recom- 
mend this valuable variety to Oregon prune grow- 
ers, as it would permit them to dry their prunes to 
the sun. 

Two more new varieties of prunes under "ex- 
perimental test " test in our grounds. 

Nut Trees of All Kinds. 

23 Varieties of English Walnut (GRAFTED 

9 Varieties of French Chestnuts. 

4 Varieties of Almonds. 

8 Varieties of Filberts. 

241 Varieties of Grapes. 

62 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 

New Pears, New Cherries, New Apples, New 
Fruit in general, etc. 

Send for General Descriptive; Catalogue and 
Price List. 

Felix Gillet, 

Barren Hill Nursery, Nevada City, Cal. 
French Prune ! Royal Apricot ! 

Black Tartarian and Royal Ann Cherries. 
Cork Elm, Birch, Linden, Maple, Hawthorn. 
Acacias, Magnolias. Dracaenas, Pittosporums. 
Laurestinus Carnations. 
Roses and Palms in large quantities. 
Gums and Cypress in boxes. 

Send for price list. 

E. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 

For Planting Season of 1896 

We offer for sale a choice lot of 

Budded Orange and 
Lemon Trees, 

One and two-year buds of the leading varieties, on 
sour or sweet stock. 

Prices to Suit the Times. 

SEEDLING ORANGE TREES at your own price. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 

Orovllle, Butte Co., Cal. 

Santa Rosa Nurseries. 

A Fine Stock of Clean, Unirrigated Trees. 

All the Standard Varieties. 

Also California Red (best, most prolific and 
largest early Plum), Wonderful Tennant 
Prune, Best New .Japan Plums and 
Young-Bearing Apples. 

A?.?. RE 1! R. W. BELL, 


Established 1876. 

riyrobolan Nursery 


Offers for the season of 1895-6 a complete 
assortment of 

Fruit Trees. 

Plums, Prunes and Apricots on the true Myrobolan 
Root my specialty. No cut-backs or held over 
tree, dug-stock. No insect pests. 

JAS. O'NEILL, Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Olive Growers Handbook 

and Price List Free 


Olive Trees. 

All Sizes. 


John E. Packard, 

Pomona, California. 

Olive Trees. 


Send for Price List. 




Union Nursery Sacramento, Cal. 

Frank Kunz, Proprietor. 


C. F. LOOP & SON, 
Send for Price List. Pomona, California. 


Sent Free on Application to 
F. M. HUNT Redlands, Cal. 



Trees! Trees! Trees! Trees! 


Get Our Prices Before Buying your Stock. 


RIO BONIT0 NURSERIES, Kiggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

*»- Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Biggs, Butte County, Cal. 




Fruit Trees, Olive Trees, Grape Vines, 
Ornamental Trees and Roses, 



GEORGE C. ROEDIING, Proprietor, 

Special and Important to All Fruit Growers. 



Stockton, Cal. 

We have been 
orTiTF appointed b y 
fell it. Stark B i- oh.. 

CAOEN, Louisiana, Mo., 
Fu on sole agents for 
ik. the Splendor 
Pl ' une on the 
Pacific coast. 

Trees grown 
by us at our 
nurseries here. 

Every tree to 
be sold under 
their register- 
ed trade mark. 

The Splendor 
has the sweet- 
ness of the 
D'Agen, but is 
several thins 

Send for description and special order blank at once. Only a limited number left. larger. 

We have a large list of new varieties of Peaches. Plums and Prunes. Also a large list of Roses. 
Greenhouse Plants, etc. Catalogue and Price List sent upon application. 


Successors to Leonard Coates. NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 




Largest and Most Complete Stock 

On the Pacific Coast. 



California Nursery Co., 

JOHN ROCK, Manager. 



(Atriplex semibaccatum) 

-S E E D.- 


Descriptive Circular sent on application. Correspondence invited. 


SEEDSMEN & NURSERYMEN. 419-421 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 18, 189G. 


Market Review. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1890. 
WHEAT— The market for wheat is not so 
firm as at our last report. War rumors from 
Europe are more conciliatory in tone and this, 
together with the rain which has fallen, has 
tended to weaken the market. The condition 
of the market from now on depends a good 
deal upon the weather. If we have continued 
rains the chances are wheat will drop lower, 
while if dry weather prevails prices will 
stiffen. Australian crops are reported a fail- 
ure and this should tend to stiffen prices for 
the higher grades. A large amount of surplus 
wheat is exported from Argentine and all the 
European countries have had a good season. 
Shipments during the week to Australia, 
which call for high grade wheat, caused an 
advance and prices ranged from J 1.1 5 to 
$1.17%. Doings in the Produce Exchange 
show that futures are also weaker. To-day's 
quotations are: May, $1.07?, ©WW 5 spot 
wheat, $1.06 perctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— The butter market 
continues steady though inactive, with prices 
all round about the same as last week. The 
dealers fear a reaction if the present prices 
are forced higher. Already the market is 
il ragging on this account, and a rapid decline 
will be the inevitable result should a break 
take place. We quote as follows: 

Butter, creamery, fancy, per pound 26@27(4 

" " seconds, " ■•.MGii-ti 

" pickled, " 18@30 

Cheese, fancy mild, " 10®1114 

" fair to good. " 7@ 9 

Eastern, " 12@12* 

The Dairymen's Union report for 18th inst. 
is as follows : 

The Eastern market shows a further decline, 
with liberal ollerings and a weak feeling, Cream- 
ery being quotable at •H^-iSc for fanciest. The 
market shows 150 packages received from the 
East Id San Francisco during the past week, and 
taking this in comparison with the receipts of 
fresh butter, California product which are 1696 
packages, it is seen that if the 150 packages of 
Eastern were kept out of this market, our prices 
would necessarily advance l!4c per lb higher than 
they are when taking the market at about 26c per 
lb. The California market is steady throughout, 
with practically no pickled butter or packed de- 
scriptions in tirst hands. Prices are well sus- 
tained, based on a quotation of 26 to 2Hc for fancy 
creamery goods. Humboldt county has about 
closed down for the season, so local and Southern 
goods are taking its place. We are endeavoring to 
prevent prices from being forced too high, for in 
that event a reaction will take plaee and cause a 
rapid decline. The general receipts of the home 
product for the week compared with last year 
show about 8 per cent less, but the ruling price is 
1 1 per cent higher, thus showing that an increase 
in price is liable to be detrimental. Cheese is well 
sustained at prices ranging from 6 mile. a trifle 
above the latter quotation being obtained for 
strictly fancy, mild, new. 

EGGS— The market for eggs is reported 
this week to be very weak, with prices show- 
ing a downward tendency. 

Fancy ranch, per dozen 25@27 

Choice " " 83004 

Fancy store, " 21@22 

Choice " '• 19(n20 

POULTRY— There is no change to report 
this week in the prices of poultry. While re- 
ceipts have been light, there has been a very 
short demand, more than offsetting any defi- 
ciency in the supply. Our quotations for last 
week will therefore stand. 

Live Turkeys, gobblers, per pound lOTo; 11 

" " bens 10# 11 

Dressed Turkeys I jw || 

Roosters, old, per dozen 3 ;•„« | 00 

" young 4 oCKffi-l 50 

Broilers, small 2 5tJ@3 00 

" large 3 500(4 00 

Hens 4 01X^5 00 

Ducks 4 00fai5 50 

Geese, per pair 1 soisil 75 

Pigeons, per doz 1 oogj&l 25 

young I 25(„ i 75 

POTATOES-There is a little better de- 
mand for some varieties, such as River Bur- 
banks, and should the present weather con- 
tinue for a few days longer, there will be 
more demand for Early Rose for seed pur- 
poses, and as this variety is scarce, prices are 
apt to be higher. We quote as follows: 

Oregon Hurhauks 55fni70 

Salinas '• x '.'.'.'.'.'.15&I6 

giver '• 35^50 

Reds BOaao 

Early Rose 5t)g)65 

Oregon Garnets oW«.70 

BKANS -The market for beans is reported 
quiet, with a little more inquiry for Eastern 

Bayos fl 05(S.l 15 

But'e 1 * • I 70@1 90 

-, ln , k 1 Uu@l 15 

R, ea 1 20ft 1 35 

Lima 2 60@2 75 

Horse 1 3o@i 70 

Pea-. 1 50@1 75 

Small white 1 40@1 55 

Large , 10@] ;tt 

g'ack Eye 1 75^1 95 

Red Kidney 1 75@i 95 

FLOUR- Net cash Family extra, $3 65® 
:t 75 per bbl : Bakers' extra, $8 45@3 55; Su- 
perfine, #2 50(®2 75. 

BAKLEY— The market is extremely quiet, 
although there is some demand from iuterior 
points for seed and feeding purposes. Quotable 
as follows: Feed, 70c; brewing, 7.V« *.V. as to 

OATS-Feed, fair to good, 57 1 /J(J«o5c; No. 1, 
67%@80c; choice to fancy, H2 l /,0j :85c ; Surprise, 
90cW*1 : Milling, (>.V}i.75e; Norwav, black, *P,/, 
1 80; Gray, 67%r f £77%c; Red, 85@95c. 

BUCKWHEAT— 87 Vj<7495c perctl. 

RICE MEAL— Mill prices, %13@W per ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— New or old process, mill 
prices, $21 per ton. 

FEED CORN MEAL— Choice grades, per 
ton, $19 50r«!2O 50. 

CRACKED CORN-Choice quality, per ton, 


BRAN— No. 1, $12 50(318 50 per ton. 

CORN— New crop, small Yellow, ctl, S7^(ffi 
90c; large Yellow, 87'</<fi90e ; White, s.v« 
87 1 /,c. 

RYE— 75fe80c per ctl for new. 

MIDDLINGS— Fair to good per ton. $isft 
IS 50; No. 1, $19fa)20; extra choice, $21. 

l>er ton, $21. 

GROUND BARLEY— Choice to fancy, $10 
@W 50 per ton. 

STRAW— Good to choice, per bale, 40®00c. 

HAY— New crop, per ton: Wheat, $8(?£ 
12 50; Barley, $6@8 50; Wheat and Oat, $7 50 
tV/11 : Wild Oat, *r,iW'.l ; Clover, *0rws ; Alfalfa, 
nOlfS :,0; Compressed, *f. r>(ir«l(l .".0: Stock, 

SEEDS— Yellow Mustard, per ctl, $1 Ai)0r 
1 50; Native, $1 25'ftl 75; Canary, California, 
nominal; Imported, '.S^fteAc ; Hemp, 3 3 4 r</4c; 
Flax, l Vl 7 „e; Rape, l\0r.'2\n; Timothy, 5 1 ,/ 
(a.C> l / 3 c\ Alfalfa, O^fttO^c for California. 

ONIONS— Per ctl, good to choice Silver 
Skins, 70@85c; Cut Onions, 50@00c. 

VE<: I '.TABLES— Beets, sk, 60(3 "Be : Garlic, 
lb. 4c«4 1 .',c; Cabbage, ctl. OOfesOc; Cauliflower, 
doz, a If'/ 50c; Turnips, 40r«o0c; Carrots. :C>r« 
40c; Celery, bx, 40f«,50c; Dried Peppers, per 
lb, 8f?10c; String Beans, bVffiHe; Sweet Peas, 
per lb, 8c. 

HOPS — The market for Hops is practically 
dead, being quoted at from 4 to lie per It., but 
with no demand. 

LIVESTOCK— The prices quoted are per 
lb (less 50 percent shrinkage on cattle), de- 
livered and weighed in San Francisco, stock 
to be fat and merchantable. 

Cattle— No. 1 Steers, per lb, ft'^ftfti'ic; sec- 
ond quality, 5@5%o: No. 1 Cows and Heifers, 
4%@5c; second quality, 4®i 1 /,. 

Sheep— Wethers, dressing 50 lbs and under, 
per lb, 8%@3c; Ewes, dressing 50 lbs and un- 
der, 2' 4 (<r_ >:l 4 c. 

Lambs —First quality, per lb, 2i,'S;5c gross 
weight; second quality, 2(?£2%c, gross weight. 

Hogs— Hard grain-fed, under 100 lbs weignt, 
3V«3%c per lb: over 100 lbs weight, :iV«4c. 

Calves— Light, per lb,3%@4«, gross weight ; 
heavy, 3f«,3%c gross weight. 

FRESH MEATS — Wholesale butchers' 
prices for whole carcasses :' 

Beef, first qualitv, lb, o(w5 l / 3 c; second, 4%0t. 
4 a 4 c; third, 3%(ffi4c. 

Veal— Large, 5(</!0c per lb : small, 6fg)7%c. 

Mutton— 4f«;5e per lb; Spring Lamb, fiftf.Oc. 

HIDES AND SKINS— Wet salted hides of 
good quality are as follows: 

Heavy steers, over 50 lbs., sound, 7c; culls, 
0c; medium steers, 48 to 56 lbs., sound, 0c: 
culls, 5c; light steers, under 48 lbs., sound, 
5c; culls, 4c; heavy cows, over 50 lbs., sound, 
5%c; culls, 4%c; light cows, 30 to 50 lbs., 
sound, 5c; culls, 4c; stags, sound, 4c; culls, 
:ic; kips, sound, 5c; culls, 4c; veal, sound, 0c; 
culls, 5c; calf, sound, 8c; culls, 7c. 

Dry hides, over 10 lbs., sound, 10%c; culls, 
7%c; dry kip and veal, 11 to 10 lbs., sound, 9c; 
culls, 0%@7c; dry calf, under 4 lbs., sound, 
15c; culls, 10c. 

Goatskins— Prime, each. 20ft/.35e: damaged, 
10«20c ; kids, 5c. 

Sheepskins— Long wool, each, 6O@70c: me- 
dium wool, 40fe50c: short wool, :Wn 4()c ; shear 
lings, 10(g20c. 

WOOL — The prices of wool still remain sta- 
tionary, with only a very moderate demand. 

Short, trashy San Joaquin plains 3@5c 

Good San Joaquin plains 4@6c 

Southern and Coast 4@5c 

Mountain Wools, light and free. . . 6@7c 

Mountain Wools, defective and heavy 5(6.6c 

Humboldt and Mendocino 8<ffi9c 

HONEY AND BEESWAX — We can only 
report the same as last week. Nothing doing. 

Comb 10@12 

Water White, extracted 5@5M 

Dark Amber 4@4*4 

Beeswax M09B 

The Columbian Bank. 

The annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the Columbian Banking Company was held at 
the office of the company, No. 230 Bush street, 
on Saturday, January 11, 1*90. The manager's 
report showed a satisfactory business for the 
year, and that the bank was on a dividend- 
paying basis. The following directors were 
unanimously elected to serve for the ensuing 
year: I. J. Truman, John Coop, J. C. Currier, 
W. S. Miller, N. C. Hawks, C. O. Ferry and 
F. L. Turpin. After the adjournment of the 
stockholders' meeting, the new board met 
and elected the following officers: I. J. Tru- 
man, president; W. S. Miller, vice-president: 
C. O. Perry, manager and cashier. 

The Successful "Successful." 

The Successful Incubator, manufactured by 
the Des Moines Incubator Co. of Des Moines, 
la., in competition with some of the leading 
incubators of the country at the Kansas Citv 
Show recently, won first honors. This is in- 
deed a very great victory for the Successful 
Incubator, and it looks very much as if some 
pretty close competition for honors will be the 
result of the exhibits at the shows to be held 
at other places. The Des Moines Incubator 
Co. has recently issued its annual book— a 
complete treatise on poultry, which will be 
sent to any one for 10 cents in stamps. 

New Catalogue. 

A very handsomely illustrated catalogue 
'or 189b has just been issued by the Cox Seed 
and 1 lant Co. It contains new things in 
flowers and vegetables, and will be found in- 
teresting and instructive by gardeners and 
florists. Do not fail to get one. Sent free on 
addressing the Cox Seed and Plant Co 411 
and 413 Sansome street, San Francisco 

The Earth on Edge 

requires different tools from those used on 
level land. 

Have You a Hillside 

orchard, vineyard or farm? If so, it will pay 
you to investigate 


Nos.5U, 52&53 



3 Sizes — Steel Mouldboard Chilled or Steel 




Oliver Chilled Plow Works, 


Express Co. 


A few applications. If your horse is lame and you cannot locale it 
apply the Klixir, which locate.', lameness by remaining moist 011 the 
part affected, the rest drying out. A few more applications will 
elfect a cure. Never scars or changes the hair. 


Is the standard remedy for folic. Curbs. Splints. Contracted and 
Knotted Cords, Shoe Hoi Is, Callous of all kinds, etc. Will relievo 
all Spavins, Ring Hone, Cockle Joints, etc. It is warranted to give 
satisfaction. Highly endorsed by prominent horsemen. 

Tut tie's Family Klixir cures Rhumatism. Latirippe, Pneumonia, 
Lameness, all Joint Alfect ions, etc Sample of either Klixir sent 
free for three 2 cent stamps to pay postage. Price of either Klixir 
is only fto cents, and they can be bought of any druggist, or will be 
sent, charges paid, on receipt of price. 

DR. S. A. TUTTLE, Sole Proprietor, 

27 Rcvcrlv Slrcet Boston, .Mass. 


A M I L T O IN. 



"o Castings to Break. NoWearout to It. > 

Adjustment piudeflt operated. SnveitHcost flmtHen- )• 
won. Aduptedtn genera 1 fnrm purpottee. HA8 NO « 
EQUAL. Write for proof. W 
»> Park 8t. t Mansfield, Ohio. . 


revi rses w ithout detaching ; with or without Kx- 
tension h>;ads. Write for Special Circular. 
San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles. 

Blake, Moffltt dfc To\A/ne, 


512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 

HLAKE, MOFFITT ft TOWNE, Los Angeles. 
BLAKE, McFALL ft CO Portland. Or. 

January 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


The Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1896. 
DHIED FRUITS— The market for these 
goods still continues of a retail nature, hardly 
anything being done in spot goods. From all 
the reports coming to hand, it does not seem 
that there is any large supply of consigned 
goods on hand in Eastern cities, except possi- 
bly in the large centers, such as New York, 
Chicago, Philadelphia and St. Louis. Infor- 
mation given us by various houses in the busi- 
ness goes to show that they are all in receipt 
of requests for consignments, which they are 
refusing to make. Some of them are inform- 
ing the Eastern commission houses that they 
are in the market to make f. o. b. sales, not to 
consign. The Eastern men claim that their 
jobbers prefer buying in small lots from spot 
stocks, as in this way they do not take any 
chances of a decline in prices. 

This week the San Francisco end of the line 
has been favored with many requests for 
samples of any goods still on hand, not, we 
understand, that there are any buyers in 
view of the present movement, but for the 
purpose of finding out if Calfornia will sell 
carload lots at a shade under what spot stocks 
in neighboring towns can be delivered in 
their own towns for. In other words, they 
wish to know whether they can buy cheaper 
in California than in New York, Chicago or 
other large centers, freight being considered. 
Eastern men know that their people are run- 
ning short and that they will be in want of 
goods before long, consequently they wish to 
be prepared. 

Enquiries are now being made for apricots, 
peaches and prunes. In talking with a promi- 
nent commission merchant to-day he summed 
up the situation as follows: " Market strong, 
with a latent undercurrent in our favor. The 
position of prunes and apricots is exceedingly 
strong. Peaches are in much less supply than 
was supposed and the coming spring demand 
will, in our opinion, cause marked advance as 
they are below value." 

We trust this opinion will be speedily con- 
firmed and better prices realized. There 
does not seem to be any valid reason why 
dried fruit, especially peaches, should be 
changing hands at such low figures. 


Apples, fancy 

" choice 

Apricots, fancy Moorpark 

" choice " 

" fancy 

" choice 

" standard 

" prime 

Figs, white, fancy 

" choice, 

" " s'andard 

" black, fancy 

" " choice 

" " standard 

Nectarines, choice 

" standard 

" prime 

Pears, fancy halves 

•' " quarters 

" choice 

" standard 

" prime 

Peaches, fancy 

" choice 

" standard 

" prime 

" peeled, in boxes 

Plums, pitted 

" unpitted 

Prunes, 1 sizes 

San Joaquin valley on January 1st at 500 

GREEN FRUITS— This market is reported 
as steady in price but quiet. 

Oranges, seedlings, per box $1 25@1 75 

" Navels, Riverside & Redlands 2 25@2 75 

others 1 25@2 25 

Apples, ordinary, box 40(5} 75 

choice to fancy 75@1 25 

Lemons (as to quality) 1 ixxaa 50 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


—Wagon Jack— Arata, Brunnelli & Arata, 

,— RaijCj Fastener— C. G. Chamberlain, Pa- 
Grove, Cal. 

—Saw Sui'poht— A. J. Deetz.Sisson, Cal. 
— Kunnei. — A. G. Dyer, S. F. 
—Securing Wheels to— W. F. Mc- 
ey, Seattle, Wash. 
Gas Lighter— P. Meyer, Alameda, Cal. 
Br.ow-OFt' — Thomas Mitchell, Grants- 
, Nev. 

— Mop— E Stebinger, Portland, Or. 
—Dish Cleaner— M. Stone, San Diego, Cal. 
—BOLL Paper Holder— Sullivan & Math- 
Seattle, Wash. 

Note.- Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
(by mail for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in the 
Hhortest possible time. 



S. F 

552, -Kill. 

558,38 1 



A Very Desirable Calendar. 

4'/ 2 



H'/ 2 













3'/ 2 

<ai2'/ s 

(«' l'/ 2 


4-crown, loose, sacks or 50-pouud boxes. 3 
3 " " u " " 2 

2 " *' " " " i%@ 2 

Seedless Sultana, " " " 3%tg) 4 

" Muscatel," " " 2*4 

Dried Grapes, " " " 2(4 

3-crown, London layers, 20-pound boxes.. . 85@1 00 
Clusters, " " 1 40@1 50 

" Dehesa, " " 2 25 

" Imperial, " " 2 75 


Jobbing prices : 

Almonds, paper shell 9 O10 

soft shell 7 @ 8 

" hard shell 3*4® 5 

Walnuts, soft shell 9 @10 

hard shell 7 8 

Brazil 8 <ai0 

Peanuts, California 3%® 4% 

RAISINS-In this market there is little 
doing; all the Eastern centers seem to be 
overstocked with layer raisins and there is 
very little prospect of making sales to any ex- 
tent till next fall. Some sales at extremely 
low prices have been made in the East in 
order to close out various consignments. 
Loose raisins however seem to be in small 
supply in the East, if we may judge from in- 
quiries for this class of goods. Market re- 
ports we get show that raisins are selling 
delivered at 4-crown, loose, 4%@4%c;3-crown, 
:\or.V 4 c; 2-crown, 2%(<fi2 : \c. ; Seedless Muscats, 
2-\(,r.i\o; Sultanas, 4 l / t (<(i')C. 

The agent of the Southern Pacific R. R. 
Co. at Fresno reports the stock of raisins in 

The calendar we always welcome has just 
reached us. We refer to the one published 
by N. W. AvEit & Son, Newspaper Advertis- 
ing Agents, Philadelphia. The firm's well- 
known motto, "Keeping Everlastingly At It 
Brings Success," appears this year in a new 
and very attractive form. The daily presence 
of this inspiring motto is worth far more than 
the price of any calendar. The date figures 
are so large and clear that they can easily be 
seen across the room. The reading matter 
on the flaps will also possess interest to the 
progressive. Those who have used this cal- 
endar in other years will not be surprised to 
learn that the demand for it is constantly in- 
creasing. Once introduced, it becomes a wel- 
come friend. Its price (25 cents) includes de- 
livery, in perfect condition, postage paid, to 
any address 


Thus a Texas lady writes, and I grew it for 
less than %c a pound from Salzer's Great Cof- 
fee Berry, coffee better than Rio! That's a 
general verdict! A 15c package gives :i() lbs. 
Largely used in Germany, France, Holland 
and England. 00,000 bushels Seed Potatoes 

If you will cut this out and send it 

with 15c stamps to the John A. SalzerSecd 
Co., La Crosse, Wis., you will get a package 
of above great coffee seed and our 148 page 
seed catalogue ! Catalogue alone 5c. 

Horse Owners! Try 




A Safe Speedy and Positive Cora 
The Safest, Beit BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Horses 
OR FIRINC Impassible to produce scar or blemish. 

Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or 
sent by express, charges paid, with full directions 
for its use. Send for descriptive circulars** 

with long practical experience in California 
and Europe, wants responsible situation. Compe- 
tent fruit-grower, vineyardist and wine-maker. 
Will prove satisfactory in every branch of the 
business. Addreas N. N., this office. 

a horticulturist , to take charge of a vineyard 
or orchard, ditches, irrigation of whatever magni- 
tude. Address TRIPAL, 204 Lombard Street, San 
Francisco, care of Rev'd D. O. Kcllcy. 

reliable man with small family; thorough ex- 
perience in horticulture, gardening and dairy. 
Best of references. Address HERMAN, this 

About Dehorning. 

The advantages of the dehorning process 
are so many and so obvious that it seems 
almost superfluous at this late day to discuss 
the matter. It improves the temper of the 
animals, prevents monopolization of food, shed- 
room and shade by the stronger or more 
vicious, increases the flow of milk, and is of 
marked value in the process of fattening. 
When done properly, the operation is painful 
only for an instant. Where the saw is used 
the operation is necessarily more prolonged 
than with an instrument like the Keystone 
Clipper (made by A. C. Brosius, Coehranville, 
Pa.), which can be used readily by one having 
had no experience. It is made with such lev- 
erage power as to be practicable for all horns, 
and one of its greatest advantages is that it 
cuts clear and clean, with no crushing. Farm- 
ers, do not hesitate to dehorn your cattle. It 
is money in your pocket. 


For House, Barn, 
Buggy or Furniture. 

At Manufacturer's Lowest 
Prices. Shipping Charges Prepaid. 

Sample cards and full information free for the 
asking. If you intend lo paint let us hear from you. 
It will be money in your pocket. 

F. W. DEV0E & CO., 1U S. Clinton St., Chicago. 


This is a photograph of the Stump Puller at work 
on redwood stumps on the farm of C. E. Ogburn, 
Guerneville. California. ! 

In the improved form In which ii is now offered 
to the public, it is universally admitted to be the 
most practical, powerful and successful machine of 
the kind in America, and the only machine in exist- 
once that can be successfully operated on hill land. 

Send for catalogue to 

A. BARNES, Manager, 
83 and 84 Zoe Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Our illustrated catalogue tellayou HOW""'l 
WHEN to spray— mailed Free to fruit Grow- 
er!) and Dealers. The largest and best hue of 
Spray Pomps and Nozzlesin the world. 
> THE DEM INC CO. Mfrs. Salem, Ohio. 
Western Acency : Henion & Hubbell, Chicago. 

C/tLltOhfll/l r~mJI}$ 

— f\ ND — 


A Manual of Methods which have Yielded 
Greatest Success; with Lists of Varieties 
Best Adapted to the Ditterent 
Districts of the State. 

Practical, Explicit. Comprehensive. Embodying 
the experience and methods of hundreds of success- 
lul growers, and constituting a trustworthy guide 
by which the inexperienced may successfully pro- 
duce the fruits for which California is famous. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. By Edwakd 
J Wickson, A. M., Assoc. Prof. Horticulture and 
Entomology. University of California; Horticultural 
Editor Ptwitic Rural Press, San Francisco; Sec'y Cali- 
fornia State Horticultural Society; Pres. California 
State Floral Society, etc. 

Large Octavo. b'j'J pages, Jully illustrated, price, W3.00. 


Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

A Hard Road to Travel. 

These frosty 
mornings the 
road that leads 
to the creamery 
is a hard road to 
travel. How 
comfortable it 
would be for you 
if you had a 
Safety Hand 
Separator and could do the skimming 
at home, and had nothing but cream 
to haul. Then see the saving in sweet 
skim milk. Send for circulars. 

P. M. Sharples. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Elgin, Illinois. 
Rutland, Vermont. 



220 Market Street. 

San Francisco. Cal 

Trade Mark— Dr. A. Owen 


The latest and only scientific aDd practical 
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a genuino current of Electricity, for the cure 
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lime during working hours or sleep, and 



pn^wvnus DISEASES 


Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
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Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
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before it is too late. 

Leading medical men use and recommend the 
Owen Belt in their practice. 


Contains fullest information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
and how to order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Belt and Appliance Co. 


The Owen Electric Belt Bldg., 201 to 211 State Street, 

fhe Largest Electric Belt Establishment in the Work) 


POTATO Cutter 


It marks, furrows, cuts, 
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Mo more cutting seed 
by hand. 

It cuts the potato the 
same as if done by hand. 

It leaves the Held with 
its work done complete. 

The only perfect potato 
planter made. 
Send for free catalogue to 




52« California Street. 

For the half year ending Decemher 31, 1895, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and 
twenty-six hundredths (J 26-100) per cent per an- 
num on Term deposits, and three and fifty-five 
hundredths (3 55-100) per cent per annum on Ordi- 
nary deposits, free; of taxes, pay aide on and after 
THURSDAY, January 2. 1896. 

GEO. TOUKNY, Secretary. 



The California Special l'lows are manufactured expressly for the California trade. They are fitted with extra long adjustable Index Beams, making them desirable for Orchard 

and Vineyard Work. 


Write for Catalogue and l'rices. 


-4-21 &. -4-2 3 MARKET STREET 



The Pacific Rural Press 

January 18, 1896. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 


lly Worthy Lectuhek Ohi.kyeh. 


In accordance to previous announce- 
ment, Grass Valley Grange installed its 
new officers on Saturday evening, Janu- 
ary 11th. The State Lecturer by invi- 
tation was present and acted as install- 
ing officer, assisted by Brother Mont- 
gomery of Grass Valley. The members 
came together at 7 i\ U. and for an hour 
there was general reception and greet 
ings for a happy New Yeer. At 8 
o'clock a short session of routine busi- 
ness was had, after which the doors 
were thrown open and a very interest- 
ing programme of literary exercises 
was executed. This consisted of reci- 
tations, readings, remarks on leading 
topics and vocal and instrumental mu- 
sic—all of which was of a high order 
and heartily enjoyed. During the ren- 
dition of the programme the officers 
were installed to their respective chairs 
and the Grange was equipped for 
another year with a competent board 
of managers. The pleasant and enjoy- 
able exercises were concluded with a 
banquet, in a rear hall, that could 
hardly be excelled in quantity and 
quality and the social amenities pecu- 
liar to the Grange. Besides the mem- 
bers, many invited guests were pres- 
ent, who entered into the festivities 
with a zest that marked them as real 
Patrons of Husbandry. As the time 
pointed toward 1 a. ,m., the assemblage 
dispersed amidst cordial hand-shak- 
ings and good wishes for the future. 
The writer cannot omit extending 
hearty thanks to each and all for so 
much pleasure and kindness received 
at the hands of Grass Valley Grange. 

The wagon road from Marys ville to 
Grass Valley, along which the stages 
make daily trips, passes through 
Smartsville, Penn Valley and the once 
noted mining camp of Hough and Keady. 
It (the road) was good, bad and indiffer- 
ent, and I mention it only because just 
now there is so much road talk. The 
rains, having come in showers with in- 
tervening dry spells, the best roads 
found were the graded earth roads in 
Yuba county. These were as smooth 
and hard as a floor and delightful to 
travel. The worst were the rocky 
mountain roads, seeming to have been 
located where the rocks most abound. 
Through much use the earth is con- 
stantly worn away from the road bed, 
exposing the under rocks to jolt the 
vehicles, and again, the man that casts 
the loose stones out of the road had 
not been along recently, hence their 
number was somewhat annoying to 
team and driver. Having mentioned 
the extremes of quality, I must refer 
briefly to the indifferent. It was 
nothing less than the artificially grav- 
eled road. There are eight or ten miles 
of this sort of road out of Marysville 
toward the foothills. These were a 
constant grind to the wheels and almost 
as jolting and annoying as the hill 
roads. This kind of top dressing is, of 
course, an improvement on mud in a 
wet season, but for dry weather when 
the finer particles of earth have worn 
away they are extremely uncomfortable 
and annoying. A well-drained earth 
road seems best after all. 

It may not be generally known that 
the road to Grass Valley passes through 
an orange belt that has no superior in 
the State for size and quality of fruit 
and productiveness of the trees. If 
any one ever thought this golden fruit 
was confined to the valley, he only 
needs to see these foothill trees and 
groves to dispel that idea. They are 
to be seen in every dooryard laden with 
deep yellow fruit peeping out from the 
dark-green foliage, and in many in- 
stances there is a doubt which color 
predominates. Smartsville is the 
center of attraction in this thermal 
belt, and her oranges already grace 
the tables and fruit stands of Chicago. 
But the orange belt does not stop at 
Smartsville. It extends far towards 
Cirass Valley, if it does not overtop the 

rim of her western boundary. From 
what was observed along the stage 
road from where the hills sink into the 
great valley on the west, for a distance 
of twenty miles up the hills to an eleva- 
tion of 1500 feet, every rod square, 
where not too rocky, would grow an 
orange tree as successfully as any coun- 
try on the globe, and the strip reaches 
from Shasta to San Diego, with the 
center resting in Butte, Yuba, Placer 
and Sacramento counties. But the 
fruit possibilities do not stop at oranges 
or lemons. The foothill country nearly 
to the summer snow-line is famous for 
the production of apples, pears, 
peaches and every variety of small 
fruits. And it could be extended an 
hundred-fold if the market warranted. 

A few miles above Smartsville lies 
Penn Valley, one of the most charming 
spots on the entire route of forty miles. 
It is nearly level, and is cut up into 
farms of small dimensions and is under 
a high state of cultivation. The chief 
production is hay and grain for home 
use to be fed to cattle, hogs, sheep, 
etc., and fruits also chiefly for home 
consumption in the absence of a handy 
market. A wider market for dried 
fruits will give this romantic valley a 
fruit and land boom. This valley con- 
tains about 2000 acres, is well watered 
and timbered and contains many great 
oaks measuring from four to six feet in 
diameter, which are probably several 
thousand years old. Near the head, or 
a little beyond, the remains of an old 
and almost deserted mining camp is 
situated. And who is it that has not 
heard of "Rough and Ready?" Me- 
thinks I can yet hear the voice of the 
stage driver of old when calling for 
passengers at Marysville, "All aboard 
for Timbuctoo, Rough and Ready, 
Grass Valley and Nevada." 

The Case of Mr. Norton. 

To the Editor: — I note in current 
issue of your valuable and usually well 
informed journal a statement that "a 
suit has been commenced by a commit- 
tee of Highland Grange in regard to 
the matter of false returns by commis- 
sion houses in San Francisco," and that 
"it is proposed to make a test case in 
this instanee, carrying it to the Su- 
preme Court, if necessary." 

The facts are that no suit has been 
commenced by the committee, and 
none will be or can be, as the commit- 
tee or the Grange has no claim of any 
kind against the firm in question. 

If anything is done a criminal infor- 
mation will be filed, whose prosecution 
will be in the hands of the district 
attorney of San Francisco, and whether 
he would carry any point of technical 
defense that might be raised, and de- 
cided against him in the lower courts, 
to the Supreme Court we, of course, 
do not know. 

But it is very unlikely that the 
Highland Grange committee will file 
any information. The only reason for 
so doing would be the establishment of 
the truth of the allegation that Tro- 
bock & Bergen merely followed a 
general custom in selling at one price 
and reporting another. The commit- 
tee does not yet assume that to be the 
case, but will endeavor to ascertain. 

In case that is found to be the cus- 
tom, it would, in the opinion of High- 
land Grange, justify the filing of a 
complaint, and the public proof which 
the accused would doubtless make in 
defense would be that they merely fol- 
lowed the custom of the trade and 
hence committed no crime, although 
the law says it is a crime. If that 
practice be usual, we think the com- 
mission men ought to show it. It has 
never before been publicly claimed by 
them to be the practice, and the farm- 

Do you know a good farm 
and fruit paper when you see 
it? Let us send you the 
Rural New-Yorker this week. 
Send your address ; no money. 

The Rural New-Yorker, 

400 Pearl street, New York. 

ers do not so understand it. We think 
they should understand it. 

But I am satisfied that Highland 
G range will not undertake this labor. 
It will prefer to protect its own mem- 
bers in easier ways, which it will have 
no difficulty in doing. We think our 
duty as a Grange will have ended when 
we have made the issue, ascertained 
the facts, and placed the evidence in 
the hands of the Master of the State 
Grange and Brother Walton, who has 
been appointed by the Executive Com- 
mittee to take up the matter. We are 
not likely to exert any pressure upon 
them, or seek to influence them in any 
way. We think the State Grange the 
proper leader in such matters. If it 
leads, we will follow and sustain its 
offiers. Edward F. Adams, 

Chairman Com. of Highland Grange. 

Wrights, Jan. 11, 1S96. 

ard, C. Pyster; Treasurer, James 
Blood; Secretary, H. A. Stinson; Gate 
Keeper, H. D. Woods; Pomona, Sister 
R. Waswell; Flora, Sister C. Blood; 
Ceres, Sister C. E. Pinny; Lady As- 
sistant Steward, Sister S. Wood. 


Master, C. A. Kennedy; Overseer, 
Charles Clawson; Lecturer, F. E. 
Hunter; Steward, H. Schieck; Assist- 
ant Steward, David Schieck; Lady 
Assistant Steward. Miss Minnie Bryn- 
ning; Chaplain, Mrs. M. A. Zane; 
Treasurer, J. M. Zane; Secretary, Mrs. 
L. E. Hendlev; Gate Keeper, James 
Sutherland;. Pomona, Mrs. Mary Ken- 
nedy; Flora, Miss Paulin Clawson; 
Ceres, Mrs. H. A. Miner, who was also 
elected Organist and Trustee for the 
term of three years. 

From Merced. 

" R. G. S. " writes from Merced under 
date of the 7th inst. that the 4th was a 
red-letter day in that Grange. The 
weather was perfect, the attendance 
large and nearly one hundred partook 
of the New Year's feast. The cere- 
monies of installation were performed 
by Bro. Ostrander, assisted by Bro. 
Bickford. The lecturer announced that 
the question for discussion for the next 
meeting would be "In what line has 
the Grange succeeded in doing the 
most good ? " Several propositions 
for membership were received. Sister 
Lander brought in some fair looking 
red apples beinjj the second crop from a 
June tree. Merced Grange is in a 
happy and prosperous condition. 

Orange Elections. 

A Mountain j 
of Dishes 


Master, Charles J. Wood; Overseer, 
Mrs. S. Flourney; Lecturer, D. N. 
Sherburn; Steward, F. B. More; Treas- 
urer, R. 0. Baldwin; Assistant Stew- 
ard, C. E. Howard; Chaplain, Mrs. 
Laura Flourney; Secretary, Miss S. E. 
Wood; Pomona, Miss Mira More; Flora, 
Mrs. W. Z. Stone; Ceres, Mrs. M. W. 
Hall; Gate Keeper, M. W. Hall; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Miss Mabel Bord- 
Master, D. M. Winans; Overseer, 

C. D. Grover; Lecturer, Mrs. Lecken- 
by; Steward, G. W. Parks; Assistant 
Steward, M. D. Hopkins; Chaplain, 

D. G. Heald; Treasurer, A. S. Hall; 
Secretary, W. W. Chapman; Gate 
Keeper, H. Johnson; Pomona, Mrs. 
Miller; Flora, Sister M. Kelsey; Ceres, 
Mrs. F. W. Stratton; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Sister S. Heald; Trustees, 
T. Skillman and F. W. Stratton- Or- 
ganist, Mrs. D. M. Winans. 


Master, E. A. Farnhan; Overseer, 
C. B. Keyes; Lecturer, J. D. Gould; 
Steward, Willie Philcher; Assistant 
Steward, E. Farnhan; Chaplain, Mrs. 
C. Schellhouse; Treasurer, S. W. Phil- 
cher; Secretary, S. S. Gladney; Gate 
Keeper, Mrs. Jennie Gould; Ceres, 
Mrs. C. Schellhouse; Pomona, Mrs. C. 
B. Keyes; Flora, Allie Sprague; Lady 
Assistant Steward, Miss Ella Philcher. 


Master, O. N. Caldwell; Overseer, 
Andrew Martin; Lecturer, Delos Wood; 
Steward, John Pyster; Assistant Stew- 

confronts the average farmer's wife 
after all the family and the farm hands • 
have dined. They are greasj/ dishes. 1 
too, and hard to get pcr/ec«.// clean with * 
ordinary soapand water. A good many 

• tanners' wives and other men's wives, 
g too, have discovered thai the best, 
quickest and eaticst way to wash dishes i 

• is to use 

Washing Powder 

• in t be 'iivli water. It acts like magic 

• cuts the grease and makes the dishes 
5 ch ixn. All cleaning is made easier by ' 
J| this great cleanser. It Is cheap, too— , 

that's the best of IL 25c. for a large pkg. i 


G«>i.!> Dcst Washino Powpkr has 
an additional value to the farmer for 
destroyim; insects. Semi us your name 
and address and we will mail you an 
important booklet containing recipes 
for making kerosene emulsions, for 
spraying crops and treesand livestock. 


Chicago, St. Louis, New York, 9 
Boston, Philadelphia. 

he I acific Loast Dairyman. 


Semi monthly, In pages. Good illustrations. 
Trice tfl.OO per Year. 

Sample copies free. 

The Pacific Coast Dairyman Publishing Co., 

Tacoma. WaHhinj^ton. 


Those who desire to read law at home can ob- 
tain information as to what hooks to purchase at 
the least possible cost to complete the course, by 
addressing CHAS. A. II. SMITH, 261 Second St., 
Oakland, Cal. 

Pain often con- 
centrates all 
its Misery in 





If you want to feel It con* 
ccntrate ita healing In 

a cure. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors, 220 Market St., San Francisco. 

Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old experienced, 
first-class agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and agents in Washington and the capi- 
tal cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our scientific and Patent Law Li- 
brary, and record of original cases in our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can 
be offered home inventors by other agencies. The information accumulated through long and careful 
practice before the Office, and the frequent examination of patents already granted, for the purpose of 
determining the patentability of inventions brought before us, enables us to give advice which will 
have inventors the expense of applying for patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars and 
advice sent free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 220 Market St., 3. P. 

January 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Curious Facts. 

An Antarctic iceberg has been seen 
that was twenty miles wide, forty miles 
in length and four hundred feet in 

A curious fact has been noted by 
Arctic travelers — snow, when at a very 
low temperature, absorbs moisture and 
dries garments. 

A doctor claims that a drop of castor 
oil in the eye to remove a foreign body 
is as efficacious and more often man- 
ageable than the frequently recom- 
mended flaxseed. 

The largest dammed body of water 
in the world will be secured by the 
building of a dam at Cloquet, Minn., on 
the St. Louis river, 900 feet long and 
80 feet high, by which back water will 
be extended 60 miles. 

According to M. Chervin, in a paper 
to the Societe d'Anthropologie, the low 
birth rate in France is largely due to 
prodigality in Paris and thrift in the 
provinces. M. Rochard, however, 
ascribes it mainly to alcoholism, the 
annual consumption of alcohol having 
enormously increased of late years in 
France. Paris has a wine shop for 
every three houses. 

The cliff where more sea-birds are \ 
said to build their nests than any other 
place in the world is on the coast of 
Norway. It is 1000 feet high, and goes 
by the name of Svoerholtklubben. 
Kittiwakes have built their nests of 
bent and seaweed for ages in innumer- 
able quantities. They remain from 
year to year on the narrow shelves of 
the cliff side, being repaired, like rooks' 
nests, for each coming season, and 
added to until they hang into space. 
"When a tourist comes to inspect this 
colony a gun is usually let off, where- 
upon so many birds arise that the mass 
darkens the whole sky for a moment. 

About Spraying. 

A very seasonable and attractive catalogue 
has just been issued by the Bean Spray Pump 
Co. of Los Gatos, giving pictures, descrip- 
tions, prices, etc., of their spraying machines. 
The "Bean" is a California production, made 
by people who know the orchard business from 
experience, and with the idea of meeting the 
special requirements of the spraying in this 
State. It is made, too, upon honor, so when 
you buy a "Bean" you know just what you 
are getting. In a note on spraying, the Beau 
Co. says : 

In the early days of spraying it was thought 
that a deluging of the tree was the necessary 
thing to do. Careful study and experience has 
shown that a flue mist spray thrown with great 
force so as to penetrate every crack and crevice of 
the hark is the only effective way. The very best, 
thoughtful and successful fruit grower will not 
study to get the cheapest outfit, but he will get 
the very best spray pump he can find, and then he 
either will keep his eye on the work, or, better, 
will take a hand in it himself. He will see that a 
continuous, stroDg pressure is kept up so that the 
insect that is secreted under the rough bark is 
penetrated and he is made to take his medicine. 
A pressure gauge should be attached to every 
pump so that the man at the pump can keep the 
pressure at a certain height all the time, and just 
before the spraying of a tree is completed he can 
run the pressure a little higher so mat, while he 
is driving to the next tree, the sprays can be 
swung over onto the next trees and kept at work 
to the saving of hours of time during the day. 

The principle of the Bean spray pump is scien- 
tific. There should be forty or fifty pounds of air 
pumped into the receptacle and then the fluid is 
pumped into the receptacle against the air until a 
pressure of WO pounds is obtained, which pressure 
should be maintained continuously while spraying. 

The catalogue will be sent free to those who 
write for it. Address Bean Spray Pump Co., 
Los Gatos, Cal. 

trie light would have been of no use to 
the world without machines for mak- 
ing the lamps and the other parts. All 
of these machines had to be invented 
and made by the electrician, and there 
are thousands of them, some no bigger 
than a toy engine, some as large, 
nearly, as a house. Many of them are 
so delicate that they are operated with 
a belt no greater than a shoestring. 
One of them is used in polishing jewels 
for use in the phonograph. Without 
being touched by anybody it holds the 
tiny jewel in every possible position, 
shifting it, turning it, absolutely feel- 
ing it, to learn whether it is smooth, 
and all the while its delicate fingers are 
at work rubbing the jewel, which is no 
bigger than the head of a large pin. 
No boy could move his fingers more 
dexterously than this machine moves 
its parts in turning the jewel around. 

Beecham's pills are for bilious- 
ness, bilious headache, dyspep- 
sia, heartburn, torpid liver, diz- 
ziness, sick headache, bad taste 
in the mouth, coated tongue, 
loss of appetite, sallow skin, etc., 
"when caused by constipation; 
and constipation is the most 
frequent cause of all of them. 

Go by the book. Pilis io<t and 
254 a box. Book free at your 
druggist's or write B. F. Allen Co., 
365 Canal Street, New York. 

Annual sales more than 6,000,000 boxes. 

Edison's Experiments. 

It is not the electric lights, nor the 
phonographs, nor any of the other 
things with which Mr. Edison's name 
is connected, that strikes the visitor to 
his workshops as the greatest part of 
his work. It is the invention of the 
innumerable machines with which these 
things are made. The idea of the elec- 

In '95 California produced over $22,000,000 
in mineral products, exported $18,499,002 gold 
and silver bullion, packed 1,280,1)00 cases 
canned fruit, distilled 1,000,000 gallons grape 
brandy, produced 49,000,000 pounds prunes, 
102, 700, 000 pounds dried fruits, exported 10,000 
carloads of oranges, produced 92,500,000 pounds 
grapes, 73,500,000 pounds beans, 47,305,000 
pounds butter. 15,300,000 pounds cheese, 
packed $5,000,000 worth of provisions, distrib- 
uted 400,000,000 pounds sugar, exported 80,- 
000,000 pounds vegetables, produced $4,000,000 
fishery products, exported wheat worth 
$9,981,394, produced wool to the extent of 
31,000,000 pounds, manufactured 13,000,000 
pounds of blasting and gun powder, imported 
26,372,756 pounds coffee, distributed $137,463,- 
29s in dividends, and had a population of 

8100 Reward SIOO. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreaded disease 
that sciencehas been able to cure in all its stages, 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure known to the medical fraternity. 
Catarrh being a constitutional disease, requires 
constitutional treatment. Hairs Catarrh Cure is 
taken internally, acting directly upon the blood 
and mucous surfaces of the system, thereby de- 
stroying the foundation of the disease, and giving 
the patient strength by building up the constitu- 
tion and assisting nature in doing its work. The 
proprietors have so much faith in its curative 
powers, that they offer One Hundred Dollars for 
any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 

Address, F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo, O. 

Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Hall's Family Pills are the best. 

San Joaquin Co. has just finished a dam in 
the bend of the Calaveras river, four miles 
above Stockton, to confine the river to its 
bank at that point and shut out a large amount 
of the water that has flowed down upon 
Stockton in past years. Stockton is now hope- 
ful that the periodical floods above the city 
will cease. 

The Mexican International railway now 
carries the traveler from New York City to 
the City of Mexico in four days and eighteen 
hours, and from New Orleans to the City of 
Mexico in sixty-nine and one-half hours, dis- 
tance 3210 miles. 

A Cough Should Not he Neglected. 
"liroim's Bronchial Troches'" are a simple 
remedy and give immediate and sure relief. 

Right of ways have been secured for the 
Vance Brothers' Railroad, which, except for a 
short stretch of water, will connect Eureka, 
Cal., by rail with Areata. A crew of 100 men 
is at work. This is an extension of the Hum- 
boldt Bay and Trinidad Logging Railroad. 

The Wooden Hen. 

This is a picture of Geo. H. Stahl's 
celebrated "wooden hen." It is 
the hatcher for the amateur, wo- 
men, children, or anybody wishing 
to make the poultry business profit- 
able and at the same time instruct 
and amuse them in their spare mo- 
ments. Size 10x15x8; weight 15 
pounds ; capacity 28 eggs ; price only 
$5 each. Write to Geo. H. Stahl, 
Quincy, 111., and he will send you 
complete description free pf charge. 






Will furnish power for one-tenth of a cent per horse power per hour. It is the cheapest 
power ever produced, as shown in the following: table, and which is based upon a test of ten 
hours' run with one of our five-horse power Gasoline Engines, using gasoline (74°). coal gas, com- 
mon domestic coal oil, crude petroleum, asphaltum base, crude petroleum, parafflne base, as follows: 

Coal Gas, ten hours' run. 1000 feet $2 00 

Gasoline (74 deg.), ten hours' run. gallons @ 14c , 1 2f> 

Coal OU, ten hours' run. IV, gallons (<« 10c 75 

Crude Petroleum, asphaltum base, 16 gallons © 3c 48 

Crude Petroleum (Stideg.), parafflne base, 13 gallons ® !ic 65 

On the crude petroleum with asphaltum base we had an over-product of 7 gallons of asphaltum; the 
market price is 3 cents per gallon=21 cents. This deducted from the first cost of the crude petroleum 
for ten hours' run leaves a net balance of 27 cents. And from the crude oil with a parafflne base we 
had an over-product of 3 gallons of good lubricating oil, which we consider equal to any we have ever 
used, but will estimate its value conservatively at 20 cents per gallon, making 60 cents; this deducted 
from the first cost of the crude oil leaves a balance of 5 cents, total cost of running ten hours. 

It will be readily seen that the operation of these Engines with crude petroleum reduces the cost 
of operation to aminimum. Crude petroleum with parafflne base at l-10c per horse power per hour; on 
crude petroleum, asphaltum base, l 4c per horse power per hour; on domestic coal oil, \y 2 c per horse 
power per hour ; and on gasoline, 2>4c per horse power per hour. 



San Leandro, Cal. 

Price, $I.OO Each 
35 Each 

Dandy No. 31 Steel I * 1 o yav Iloubletrec 
Dandy Steel Plou; Singletree 

Buy before they are all gone. 

HOOKER & CO., 16 and 18 Orumm St., San Francisco. 


Porteous Improved Scraper. 

Patented Apri 




San Francisco. 

Manufactured by «. LISSENDEN. 

The attention of the public Is called to this 
Scraper and the manv varieties of work of which it 
is capable, such as Railroad Work, Irrigation 
Ditches, Levee Building. Leveling Land, Road Mak- 
ing, etc. 

This implement will take up and carry its load to 
any desired distance. It will distribute the dirt 
evenly or deposit its load In bulk as desired. It 
will do the work of Scraper, Grader, and Carrier. 
Thousands of these Scrapers are in use in all parts 
of the country. 

BJfThiH Scraper is all Steel— the only one manu- 
factured In the Slate. 

Price, all Steel, four-horse, $40; Steel, two-horse, 
#31. Address all orders to 



24 Post Street 


This College instructs In Shorthand, Type-Writing, 
Bookkeeping, Telegraphy. Penman ship. Drawing, all 
I the English branches, and everything pertaining to 
| business, for full six months. We have It; teachers 
I and give individual instruction to all our pupils 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

i Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
instructor. The course is thoroughly practical. 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY, Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
San Fkancisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, $25; Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
| assaying, $50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 

j SAMPLE American Ike Journal. 



Famous Feather River Bottom Lands. 

Mainly in Peaches, with some Prunes and Al- 
monds. 'Trees in their sixth year, in fine condi- 

There is one large cannery at Gridley, three 
miles distant; another at Biggs, seven miles, who 
will use all the fruit raised in the adjoining or- 

Will lease for one or more years, as desired. 
Reason for renting— an estate with several minor 
heirs. For further information, address: 

Gridley Butte Co., Cal. 

(Established 18(11) 
Weekly, *1 a year. 7 Editors. 
160 -page 

Alt about Bees and Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 




■fa General Commission Merchants, 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

*9- Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 


C & ~ C V\. O Sample copy o( 


A Handsomely Illustrated DCC CIIPPI ICQ 
Magazine, and Catalog, of D L C OUllUlttJ 
FUEL. TilEA.I.ROOTCO., MedlnsuO. 


For deep or shallow wells ; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out. of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,U(X) gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A . T. AMES, Gait, Cal. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JACKSON dfc CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. 226 Market Street, 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 18, 189G. 

Wc Have one 
of the 

Largest, Best 

— AND — 

Most Complete 

Lines of 



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|{e\ crsihle .11, 1 1 
A d j list able. 

Steel Frame. Heavy Cast- 
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oil Tempered. 


The gaDgs on this harrow 
run close together and cut 
up all the ground over 
which it passes. It can be 
reversed so as to throw 
earth toward the center, 
when so desired. It can be 
set with sixteen inches of 
space between gangs lor cunn auug corn or cotton. It is the most perfect 
implement for cultivating orchards or vineyards ever put on the market. 
With few exceptions the castings in this harrow are malleable iron. 

Four Furrow Gangs, 


Three Furrow Gangs, 

Cash v.vitli Order. 



This Cultivator has been thoroughly tested in all conditions and is acknowledged so have more de- 
sirable features than any other Orchard Cultivator. 


LAND GAUGE AND SHIFTING CLEVIS on all Gangs and Extra Shares. Made wholly of Steel 
and Malleable Iron, giving great strength and little weight. 


Bicycles ! 


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HOOKER 8c CO., 16 and 18 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal 

The Best Cultivators Ever Made. 

"Sunset" and "Top Notch" Cultivators, 


" Weed-cutting alone will not do in California. The surface will be ashey, but just below there ♦ " Atmospheric moisture is best absorbed by a loose, finely-pulverized soil surface. In this 

is a hard layer which evaporates all that is brought up to it by capillary action almost as rapidly ♦ country evaporation outdoes absorptiop over and nvei again during the season of driest air. No 

as it would go from the immediate surface. A Blender toothed cultivator, a narrow chisel tOOlh. or ♦ one would think c.l ■• stirring up" soil to get anything out ol the air. unless it might be m the fog 

a duck-foot with a long, slim standard, which stirs but does not '• stir up," is needed as well as a ♦ belt of the coast. Better keep what moisture you have In the soil 80 the plant can have the mil 

weed-cutter. Some of the newer cultivators have the two combined." ♦ benefit of it." 

The above sensible expressions we copy from an editorial in the •• BUBAL I'KKSS" of Sept. 1 80S, and they have the endorsement or the successful fruit -raisers of this State. 
Turning damp soil up to the sun - * rays w ill not keep it damp, hut t he air will take t he moisture. TO A YOI I> KVA POBATIOM 

Use Shovels that Loosen the Subsoil Without Disturbing Top Soil. 



305 and 307 Market Street : : San Francisco, Cal. 

Vol. LI. No. 4. 




Office, 220 Market Street. 

At the Geysers. 

One of the groups of wonders which are too little known to the public is the 
Geysers, situated in the northeast corner of Sonoma county. They are less 

grewsomeness it is curious. On a bench that runs along the side of the canyon 
is a score of holes like the open lids of a great range. They are not two feet 
apart, yet in one of them the water is black, barely simmering, veritable ink with 
which we had inscribed our names on the hotel register, and in the next one a 
pool of green water is boiling at a furious rate, while a third of 
milky fluid is undisturbed by its neighbor of amber color that is 
sending out little jets of steam like a small volcano. As the eye 
runs along this series of natural pots, kettles, pans and covers, it 
is easy to believe that the everlasting feast that is being cooked 
will be a credit to its chef. The range, the background, the floor, 
are ornamented with the colors from eighteen distinct minerals, 
and the vapors that greet the nostrils hold a dozen different acids. 

As you penetrate into the bowels of the canyon the scenery be- 
comes more wild and the noises more ear-splitting, the footing less 
secure, and the path more uncertain. From fumaroles, cracks and 
fissures steam puts forth. The names with which man has desig- 
nated these various wonders are all drawn from the nomenclature 
of hell. The "Devil's Tea Kettle " boils on and on and wastes 
enough force to propel the Olympia; the " Devil's Gristmill" grinds 
away, throwing out steam and hot water with energy worthy of a 
better cause; " Pluto's Punch Bowl " contains a never-failing sup- 
ply of hot lemonade that lacks only sugar. Then there are the 
"Devil's Arm Chair" and the " Devil's Canopy." On the borders 
of the Epsom salt spring you can scoop up handsful of salts as 
pure and white and light as cotton balls, while there is a perfect 
drug store of sulphur, copperas, magnesia, soda, alum, potash, to 


than 100 miles from San Francisco, and are approached by good 
stage lines either from Cloverdale or Calistoga, the former being, 
however, much the nearer to the scene. Our engravings show 
some of the features of the scenery in the region of the Geysers 
and the approaches thereto. The scene on the road, which is 
given herewith, is not one of the most thrilling, for the road on 
the left in the foreground has a firm hold on the hillside. There 
are other places where a roadway is claimed upon the flanks of 
the most precipitous mountains, and grades of hair-lifting degree 
above gorges of heart-sinking depth test the nerve of the tourist 
to keep his seat. Thus through peaceful vales and amid quiet 
hillsides, one approaches mountain wildnesses and the infernal 
special features of the geyser gorge. The central engraving 
gives a superficial view of this inferno, of which Mr. Wildman, in 
a recent issue of the Overland, gives these details: 

A rocky glen through which flows a stream of hot water opened 
before us, and ere we realized the change the ground was soft and 
rotten beneath our feet and burning to the touch. 

We were in the midst of a seething, boiling, roaring furnace of 
steam. It rose four and five hundred feet above our heads and 
shut out all view of the narrow, precipitous path by which we 
came. Wherever we thrust our sticks into the molten rocks jets 
of steam burst out. 

Directly in front of us was the " Devil's Kitchen." With all its 


be had for the taking. Description only repeats itself as we work 
our way slowly and cautiously among this world wreck and up some 
hundred and sixty feet to a clayey plateau where we can gaze down 
in wonderment on the " Steamboat Geysers." which snort and blow so 
that they can be heard miles away. There is no sound that does not 
greet our ears as we rest. Tn this fifty acres there are fifty noises, 
fifty colors, fifty metals, fifty springs, and a host of unanswered 

While the reports were coming of the muster of Florida militia 
against possible invasion from Great Britain, Spain or the Boers, 
the experiment stations of the southern tier of States and Territo- 
ries are called upon to line up against invasion by pestiferous insects 
of Mexico. The council of the New Mexico station has adopted an 
emphatic declaration of the menace which southern insects are to our 
growing horticultural interests. It calls upon all the border States 
to make appropriations and establish quarantine officers at all ports 
of entry, 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 25, 1896. 


uju t, NO.UHO Martet SI.; Klevator, No. 12 Front St., San Francisco. Cal. 


Advert ixiii j rate* made known 9n appueattoH, 

Any subscriber sending: an Inquiry on any suoject to the Rl'HAL 
Phkss. with . postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Registered at S. P. Postoffice as secoud-class mail matter. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, January 25, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Region of Mountains and Valleys in the 
Geyser Region; On the Way to the Geysers in Northern Sonoma 
County; Devil's Kitchen. 49. 

EDITORIAL. —At the Geysers, 49. The Week; From an Independ- 
ent Standpoint. 51). 

HOHTH 11 .11 ' K K— Bananas and Dates, 53. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Prices of Fruits in the London Market, 53. 
THK DAIRY — A Discussion on Dairy Feeding; Cocoanut Meal as 

Dairy Food. 53. 
THK IRRIGATOR.- Tin- Farm Reservoir, 54. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— The Poultry Business in California. 54. 
TRACK AND FARM.— The Year at the Horse Market; To Make 

the Mane Grow; Colic in Horses, 55. 
THE BOW E CIRCLE.-At the Door; An AU-the- Year-Round Story, 

Popular Science; Gems of Thought 5t>. Fashion Notes. 57. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Hints to Housekeepers; Domestic Hints, 


MARKET RKPORT— The Produce Market: Prices of Wool from 
18X9 to 1895, 61). The Fruit Market, 61. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Observations: Work of the Ra- 
tional Lecturer; From Stockton, 62. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Gleanings; Pith of the Week's News: To 
Kill Bermuda and Other Running Pests: The Proposed Free Mar- 
ket : Resistant Vine Cult ugs, 51. Oakland Poultry Show. .v.'. 
The Trans Siberian Railway: Telephone Weather Bulletins: A 
Twelve Mule Team: California Wool Crop for '95; Production of 
Oil in '95; El Complete Coffee and Commercial Co., 58. A Chance 
for Young Engineers. 63. Crimson Clover and Cow Peas, 50. 


{Xiir l/iix in/sue.) J'aqe. 

Agricultural Implements— Hooker & Co .94 

Agricultural Implements— H. C. Shaw Plow Works 61 

Palms— Pike & Ellsworth. Jessamine. Fla SB 

Seeds. Plants, etc. — Sunset Seed and Plant Co 61 

Tomato Seed— H. W. Buckbee. Rockford. Ill 59 

Frail Trees, etc.— Aloha Nurseries, Penryu. Cal 59 

Smith's Cash Store 57 

Seeds— F. Barteldes & Co.. Lawrence. Kansas 59 

Woven Wire Fence— Kitselman Bros.. Btdgvllle, Indiana 61 

Fruit Ranch for Sale— C. H. Steinmetz. \ acat ille. Cal 63 

Perry Davis' Paiu Killer 63 

Ranches for Rent— W. W. Potter 61 

Profit in Eggs— H. K. Starkweather 61 

Type Writers— H. K Starkweather 62 

Sprayers— H. B. Rusler, Johnstown, Ohio 61 

Trees, etc.— Oaklawn Nursery. Santa Rosa. Cal 59 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills 62 

The Week. 

weather ^he neav y rainfall during the 
past week was general over the 
Report. entire State, but varied greatly in 
its inteusity. Speaking generally, it was heaviest 
in the northern part of the State, diminishing in vol- 
ume the further south it reached. At Delta, Shasta 
county, a rainfall of 'li> inches for the storm is re- 
corded, while down at San Diego only 3.44 is report- 
ed. The following table shows the rainfall during 
the storm at various points: 

Eureka 3.44 

Red Bluff 3.4:2 

Sacramento (1.42 

Fresno 1.80 

San Luis Obispo 5.86 

Los Angeles 2.49 

San Diego 05 

At Sacramento they appear to have had a perfect 
deluge and the river is running high all along its 
course, though as yet we do not hear of much damage 
being done. In the upper end of the San Joaquin 
valley, round about Bakersfield, only an inch of rain 
fell. ' 

In all the agricultural portions of the State enough 
rain has now fallen to insure the crops, providing 
late rains are adequate, and the farmers are corre- 
spondingly happy. 

The following, data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January 22. 189(1, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 



Total Rainfall for the 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 

Average Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 

Maximum Temperature 

Minimum Temperature 
for the Week 


3 80t 

19 34? 


20 12 



Red Bluff 

2 154 

10 18 

19 87 

13 92 




5 ft) 



10 28 


San Francisco 

4 25 







1 85 

3 14 

9 14 

4 84 



5 58 

9 86 



1 91 

4 18 





San Diego 


2 22 


3 73 









„ , . The matter of establishing a free 

Free Market = 

market in San Francisco is gain- 
in Sail I r un i-. ... . . , , , . , * m, 

ing considerable headway. the 
Merchants' Association is disposed to assume the 
fatherhood of the enterprise, and the maternal atti- 
tude is assumed by E. L. Colnon, president of the 
Harbor Commissioners. At a recent meeting of the 
finance committee of the Merchants' Association a 
unanimous opinion was expressed that a free public 
market was a necessity. The question of location 
was then brought up, but no definite conclusions 
were reached. The committee decided to instruct 
the secretary to prepare a report of its views to be 
presented and acted upon at the next meeting of 
the board of directors. Secretary Freud expresses 
the opinion that the project will be carried through 
successfully. " It is the object of the committee," 
he said, "to give the farmers of Alameda, Contra 
Costa, San Mateo and Marin counties a chance to 
market their products in San Francisco several 
times a week, if they desire, without tax on the 
trade.'' This enterprise is set down for discussion 
at the next meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society, which will be held in the Mills building on 
Friday afternoon, January 31. 

No Sales 
to Consumers. 

In view of the preparation for an 
open trade between producers 
and consumers, it is interesting to 
note that the produce retailers of the city are push- 
ing the commission merchants into turning .away 
from their stores the throng of people who buy for 
their own use at wholesale, or at least at brokers' 
rates. This week an alleged agreement on the part 
of the commission merchants to sell only to the trade 
is on printed cards in all the salesrooms of the Com- 
mission Merchants' Protective Association. The 
wholesalers and retailers entered into a compact on 
the lirst of this year whereby the latter would pay 
their bills incurred at the commission houses every 
Monday, and for this the former agreed not to sell 
a pound of fruit to other than the retailer. By this 
the retailer will boycott the commission house if it 
sells to a family, and the commission man will sell to 
everybody aud in lots to suit if the retail dealer does 
not settle his bills on Monday morning. We doubt 
whether this plan will hold long. It will be hard for 
the retailers to do the Monday morning act, and. as 
one of the commission merchants said to an inter- 
viewer, " the agreement is working smoothly, but I 
don't know how long it will last. In the summer 
time, when we get loaded down with small fruit, and 
when we have to get rid of it quickly and by every 
means, the thing will come hardest upon us. Even 
now I don't find it convenient to refuse" to sell at 
retail to old customers." 

Our Prunes 

in Germany. 

A Californian now abroad writes 
to a friend that California prunes 
are served at the best Berlin res- 
taurants as a grade superior to the French prunes 
and he frequently orders them as a reminder of 
home. It is significant that the Europeans recog- 
nize the superiority of the California sun-dried prune 
for cooking as compared with the ovened French 
prune. If this recognition becomes as marked 
abroad as it now is in the States east of the Kocky 
mountains, it will greatly extend the demand for our 

If the rain does not wash them 


into the rivers, the members of 
the State Oood Roads Bureau will 
be abroad among the counties during the next six 
weeks and will visit nearly all valley locations at 
least. Mr. Manson will go up the coast to Del 
Norte, cross the range and come down the Sacra- 
mento valley to the capital and thence go over into 
Mono and Inyo. Messrs. Maude and Irvine go down 
the coast to San Diego, thence through the interior 
valleys of southern California, and finally up the San 
Joaquin to Stockton. All this travel will end by the 
1st of March and it is then proposed to have a grand 
round-up of the good roads business at some central 

Crimson Clover and Cow Peas. 


* Indicates no record. 
? lucomplete. 

Tii the KtiiTim : Is crimson clover a success in this State i 
When is the proper time to sow it; What success with Won- 
derful Pea; The best time to plant, on coast or interior; 
I Mease answer through the Bihal. 

A. 1'. H. ANll Otiieks. 

The winter growth of crimson clover, according to 
our observation and reports made to us, is not satis- 
factory; consequently, it does not serve for green- 
manuring here as it does in the East, where it can 
be plowed under in midsummer. It makes a splendid 
growth in most parts of California in May and June, 
but it is then too late for plowing in. It can be sown 
at any time during the rainy season, but it will not 
make much growth until warm weather comes. The 
Wonderful cow pea is usually reported satisfactory 
in the coast region, but not in the interior. It can- 
not stand dry heat. On the coast February sowing 
will be about right. 

From an Independent Standpoint. 

It appears that England's hurried armament of ships, de- 
scribed last week, was merely a spectacular, not to say 
theatrical, performance, designed merely to impress the 
nations of the earth. Now that the ships 'are ready, the Gov- 
ernment has no place in particular to seud them. One of the 
rumors of the week was that a fleet of eight ironclads was to 
be sent to Venezuela to take possession of the territory there 
in dispute, hut the story was promptly denied by the English 
authorities. From present appearances it seems that the 
British Admiralty has paralleled the historic feat of the King 
of France, who heroically marched his army up hill and then 
marched it down again. 

(Fhbrb has been a good deal of Monroe Doctrine talk in the 
United States Senate this past week, and about the only 
thing clearly developed by it is a wide diversity of opinion as 
to what the Monroe Doctrine really is. The Senate Commit- 
tee on Foreign Relations interprets it as denying to any 
European i>ower the privilege of adding in any way to its 
American possessions, and has reported a resolution to this 
effect. This view will be strongly supported and as strongly 
opposed, and with respect to it there is clearly a big oratorical 
battle ahead. It would, perhaps, be just as well not to make 
the "Doctrine" too definite, since new times and new condi- 
tions may require new applications of it. 

The name of Senator Foraker of Ohio is the latest to be 
brought, forward in connection with the Republican Presi- 
dential nomination. It is probably nothing more than 
die gossip since Foraker is an active and public supporter 
of McKinley. It is not forgotten, however, that Garfield 
went to the Convention which nominated him, iu the char- 
acter of an active and public supporter of Sherman ; and it may 
be that Foraker plan was to play the same role. For some 
reason which nobody is quite able to explain, the McKinley 
boom appears to lose as the time goes on. It seems to be 
feared that his nomination would make a defensive campaign 
on the basis of the McKinley tariff law; and defensive war- 
fare is not the genius of the Republican organization. 

Si'Eakf.h Keeh, so the dispatches say, has determined that 
this is to be an economical congressional session and therefore 
there arc to be no appropriations to speak of for California 
rivers and no action with reference to the Nicaraguan canal. 
What anybody else thinks about it does not appear to count 
-all of which illustrates the value of the Keed rules from Mr. 
lieed's point of view. Their lirst effect, as witnessed four 
years ago. was to efface the minority. Their present effect, 
as amended to suit the up-to-date ideas of the Speaker, is to 
also efface the majority. This leaves the whole power of the 
House of Representatives in the hands of the Speaker. There 
are some obvious advantages in this plan— at least from the 
Speaker's point of view — but we suspect that it will hardly 
be satisfactory to the American people. was defi- 
nitely decided in this country something over a century ago 
that this should be a representative (iovernment and not a 
one-man affair. 

Those who are best informed have small hope that anything 
will he done by Congress this season in the way of increasing 
public revenues. The only feasible plan is an increase of the 
tariff duties, and this seems hopeless in view of the attitude 
of the silver league in the Senate. The plan of this league is 
to prevent any tariff legislation until the " claims of silver 
are disposed of "—that is, uutil free coinage is enacted. This 
means no action for the present, since it is evident that the 
tariff men will not yield to the pressure. The organization of 
" leagues " or " sections," devoted to a social principle and 
bound to make everything else yield to it, is an imitation of a 
bad Knsrlish parliamentary custom. It is a distinct violation 
of the American principle of government, exceedingly mis- 
chievous in its tendencies, and should be repudiated 
by the American people. These are times when the tempta- 
tion to parliamentary sharp practice is very strong; but in 
the long run it is a safe rule— indeed, the only safe rule— to 
depend upon the judgment of majorities. 

Senatok McBkide of Oregon, respecting whose financial 
views there has been a good deal of speculation, has cleared 
up all doubts by a statement which proposes an interestingcom- 
binatiou between the interests of bimetallism and protection. 
"He told the silver men," says a Washington correspondent, 
"that he would not vote for extreme measures. McBride 
says he is a bimetallist — an international bimetallist — but 
that he would be willing to have the international agreement 
adopted without including either (Ireat Britain or Germany. 
He would form a bimetallic agreement with the Latin coun- 
tries and with the South American republics. He would then 
change the tariff rates, granting members of the bimetallic 
agreement twenty per cent off on all customs duties. This 
would soon bring other countries to terms, and he thought 
that (ireat Britain and German}', rather than lose the South 
American trade, would join the agreement. He said that if 
they did not, the trade would be taken away, for the twenty 
per cent discrimination would be more than they could stand." 
The idea of using our tariff laws as a means Of coercing En- 
gland is not new : but we do not remember to have seen it so 
definitely applied as in Senator MeBride's statement. 

Campos, the Spanish Governor-General of Cuba, has been 
removed and has departed for Spain. His successor. Gen. 
Weyler, has not yet arrived in Cuba. In the meantime there 
is daily fighting in the vicinity of Havana, in which the 
patriots are holding their own. For what reason it is not ex- 
plained they have made no general assault upon Havana and 
the terror which recently prevailed in that city has subsided. 
However, a vast squadron of light vessels waits in the harbor 
to carry away the fugitives in the event of a decisive iusur- 
gent victory. It is intimated from Washington that our 
Government is about to grant to the insurgents the long- 
delayed recognition as belligerents. That such recognition 
would be approved by the people of the United States is be- 
yond question. There has been a story current in the daily 
papers during the week to the effect that England was consid- 
ering the purchase of Cuba from Spain, but it is denied by the 
London correspondents and is no doubt without foundation. 
England would be glad to round out her West Indian 
dominion by acquiring Cuba, but she knows full well 
that the United States would never consent to it. Cuba in 
strong hands would, in a military sense, be a serious menace 
to us. It is as clear as any future event can be that the 
destiny of Cuba is to be involved in that of the United 

On the Democratic side the newest name to be associated 
with the Presidential nomination is that of Secretary Olney. 
who, it is said, will be the residuary legatee of the Cleveland 
regime. Mr. Olney has grown greatly in the general esteem 
since he took Mr. Gresham's place, and especially since the 
rise of the Venezuelan question. He is generally credited 
with having reversed the foreign policy of the Administra- 
tion aud of having brought Mr. Cleveland back to an Ameri- 
can as distinct from a New York view of public affairs. The 
reassertion of the Monroe Doctrine, it is believed, would 
never have been made if the Secretarv of State had been a 

January 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

less positive, resolute or patriotic man. Prior to his connec- 
tion with the Cleveland administration, Mr. Olney was 
known only as a very capable and successful corporation 
lawyer of Boston. In connection with the present gossip con- 
cerning him, it is notable that he now crimes in for daily com- 
mendation at the hands of the Democratic New York Swn, 
which for ten years has been the persistent critic of Mr. 
Cleveland and all his political associates. Mr. Olney's nom- 
ination would heal a good many breaches in the Democratic 
organization; but the rank and file of the party would un- 
questionably prefer a Western man and one of less definite 
record with respect to financial questions. Another objection 
to a candidate connected with a present administration is 
that he is, in the public mind, held responsible for all its mis- 

The matrimonial engagement between ex-President Harri- 
son and Mrs. Dimmick, niece of his late wife, has developed 
something very like a scandal in the Harrison household. 
Both of Mr. Harrison's children — Russell Harrison and Mrs. 
McKee — are bitterly opposed to the match on the ground 
that it is an affront to the memory of their 
mother, who, it will be remembered, died in the White 
House about three years ago. The story is that Mrs. Dim- 
mick, while a guest at the Harrison home, so established her 
influence with the President that Mrs. Harrison found it im- 
possible to terminate her visit. She became the confidential 
adviser of the President and literally usurped the preroga- 
tive of the wife in all matters of domestic and social concern 
connected with the period of his administration. There is no 
suggestion that the intimacy of Mr. Harrison and his wife's 
niece went beyond the limits of a domestic friendship; but 
this was of such warmth as to give offense both to Mrs. Har- 
rison and her children. Since the death of the former they 
have maintained only formal and distant relations with one 
who they feel did her a great injustice and filled her last 
years with bitterness. They now resent, very naturally, the 
marriage of their father with this woman. This is the story 
as it is given to the public by a family friend. Just how much 
of truth there is in it, it is impossible to tell; but the atti- 
tude of the Harrison family may be taken as decidedly sig- 
nificant. Mrs. Dimmick's maiden name was Caroline Lord and 
her mother was Mrs. Harrison's sister. She is the widow of a 
naval officer. 

Pith of the Week's News. 

By a telegraphic letter over the signature of Mr. George 
W. Smalley, in the London Times, the English public is 
gravely assured that, in the matter of South Africa, "Ameri- 
can sympathy is firmly with the British." This is a fair 
sample of the kind of information which reaches England 
from America; and it shows that the British people have a 
reasonable excuse for their habitual misapprehension of 
things American. They accept naturally the interpretation 
of events west of the Atlantic furnished by those Americans 
best known to them, wholly unaware that they are dealing 
with a class who are in fact more English than American in 
sentiment. Mr. Chauncey Depew who spends in Europeevery 
day he can snatch from business, Mr. J. V. Van Alen who 
" makes up " to imitate the Prince of Wales and who keeps 
two English servants to look after his personal wardrobe, Mr. 
George W. Smalley who has lived so long in Europe that he is 
a stranger to the ways and the ideas of his own country — 
these and others like them have small real knowledge of 
American feeline: and they have no authority whatever to 
speak for it. Of course, Europeans cannot be expected to 
know that New York is in reality more foreign than Ameri- 
can — that the importers rule its business, that the Irish 
" run " its politics, that the French make its fashions and 
that the English rule its society. It is not reasonable to ex- 
pect foreigners to know that Now York life, as viewed from 
abroad, is in no sense reflective of American sentiments, 
American ideals or American manners. This is the reason 
why Europe is so often confounded by the apparent incon- 
sistency between American opinion and formal American 
political action. The so-called American opinion upon which 
their notions are based is not American opinion at all — it is 
simply the chatter of a lot of New York Anglomaniacs. 


J. 'A. Anderson the well known fruit packer and shipper of 
San .lose has failed. 

The Wheatland farmers are going into experimental beet 
raising in a systematic way. 

Five thousand dollars' worth of cattle and hogs were 
shipped from Sanger in one day last week. 

Mr. E. W. Davis of Santa Rosa will give the opening ad- 
dress at the coming Cloverdale Citrus Fair. 

The Tree and Vine of the 17th inst. reports that cutworms 
are already getting in their work in some Santa Clara or- 

A free market on the San Francisco water front is assured. 
The details are yet to be determined but there is no question 
that in one form or another the scheme will be carried through. 
All the harbor commissioners have delared in its favor. 

The thefts of teller Wittland of the Grangers' Bank aggre- 
gate $14,000. The bank is insured to the extent of $10,000, so 
its loss will he comparatively small. It, is now estimated that 
the stockholders of the defunct bank will get back about sixty 
per cent of their investments. 

A letter from Biggs, ISth inst., says: "The Feather river 
is higher than it has been since 180:2, and many miles of or- 
chards on both sides are under water. Mails and trains are 
delayed, telephone and telegraph wires are down and no San 
Francisco papers have been received since Thursday." 

Several hundred tons of potatoes were sold at the Clay 
street wharf, San Francisco, last Saturday at 25 cents per 
sack. They belonged to parties who failed to remove them 
within the time required by wharfage rules and weie sold to 
pay charges. This is another argument for a free market on 
the water front. 

Gridlev Herald: At a recent assignee's sale of fruitdried 
in the Hefner orchard by Chinese lessees, the whole amount 
to the extent of some sixty tons was bid in by the Pattee, 
Leet Co., of Sacramento. The fruit was not in the best con- 
dition, and for some time past C. s. Randall of St. Paul, ami 
Harry Eastman of Fresno, who represents the company, have 
been in Gridley superintending the redrying, sulphuring and 
packing of the fruit. In this method some twenty-five people 
have been given employment for several weeks past and the 
fruit has been put in a condition that will increase its market 
value at least fifty per cent. 

The Bakersfield CaUforntan quotes official figures as to the 
cost of irrigation in this State. The quotations mainly are 
for alfalfa or annual crops, not for trees. Under the Sweet- 
water system $3.50 an acre for fruit and $5 for alfalfa has 
been charged, but these have lately been raised to $7 all 
around. At Hollister $3 for first irrigation, $1 for each sub- 
sequent irrigation is the regular thing. At Perris the total 
expense is from $9.27 to $14.02 per acre per year. At Auburn 
it averages about $1.87% per acre. At Reno, Nevada, the 
cost under private corporations is $2.50 an acre; where farm- 
ers own the ditch the cost is $1.50 to $2. At Oakdale a water 
right costs $10 per acre with $1.50 annually for service. At 
Ventura the charge ranges from $1.25 to $2.50. At Crafton, 
San Bernardino county, it costs $20 to $25 per acre. 

Mr. Allison has been re-elected U. S. Senator from Iowa. 

Secretary Carlisle has referred the sugar bounty cases to 
the court of claims. 

Argentina has joined Brazil in protesting against the Brit- 
ish occupation of Trinidad. 

Tom Ewing of Ohio, famous in many wavs, died in New 
York on Tuesday. He was a cousin of the Shermans ; also of 
Mr. Blaine. 

The State Republican Committee of Arkansas has by unan- 
imous vote declared its preference for McKinlcy as a Presi- 
dential candidate. 

It is reported that Justice Field will soon retire from the 
U. S. Supreme Bench, and that Judge Koss of Los Angeles 
will be named in his stoad. 

There are intimations that the young Duke of Marl borough 
has quietly snubbed his American mamma-in-law. If he has 
done so, there will be few to mourn. 

It is intimated that the two railroads which run north from 
San Francisco bay— the one broad and the other narrow- 
gauge— will soon be brought under one management. 

The Boer Government claims to have absolute proof that 
the Jameson raid was part of a preconcerted plan on the part 
of the British authorities to subvert their Republic and turn 
over their territories to the British dominion. 

There has been organized at San Jose a " Native Sons' 
Political Club," which proposes to take a hand in the coming 
elections. As there are 1500 members of the N. S. G. W. in 
Santa Clara county, the new movement may make quite a 
figure in public affairs. 

A. Page Brown, architect of the projected union depot at 
the foot of Market street, in San Francisco, died on Tuesday 
as the result of an accident. In his efforts to revive the Mis- 
sion type of building Mr. Brown did a great deal to advance a 
distinctly Californian school of architecture. 

The River Convention held in this city on the 15th was 
largely attended, and adopted resolutions setting forth the 
necessity of making navigable the principal streams of the 
State. Wm. Johnston, H. J. Corcoran, Major W. A. Coulter, 
J. M. Gleaves and Edward McGettinger were delegated to go 
to Washington to urge the claims of California. 

The Democratic National Committee is to be commended 
for naming a late date— July 7th— for their national conven- 
tion and thus postponing the beginning of campaign opera- 
tions. The place selected is Chicago, which is far and away 
the most convenient and suitable place for such gatherings. 
The Republican convention, it will be remembered, meets on 
June 17th. 

Both of the Utah Senators, it is alleged, belong by direct 
or political alliance to the Mormon Church. Cannon is the son 
of George Q. Cannon, so long associated with the Mormon po- 
litical policy, and Brown is affiliated with the Church by all 
the ties which connect a lawyer with his chief client. The 
Mormon Church does not appear to have gone out of Utah 
politics nor to have lost habit of success. 

In spite of the direct prohibition of the Sultan the Red 
Cross Society has not abandoned its plan of carrying relief to 
the suffering Christian peasants of Armenia. Miss Barton, 
the head of the Red Cross, announces that she will go to Ar- 
menia and distribute relief in spite of the Sultau's orders 
unless prevented by military force. It is not believed that 
there will beany interference with a work of mercy and char- 
ity conducted before the eyes of the world in this resolute 

The Venezuelanders are proposing to boycott England com- 
mercially and to transfer their trade to the United States. 
It is doubtful if it will amount to anything more than talk. 
In these days trade goes into the channels ot greatest profit 
and to long as England is a cheaper market than the United 
States the Venezuelanders will continue to resort to 
it. The only possible way to fix it would be by an arbitrary 
system of discrimination against England by means of tariff 
charges; and this would not long be allowed to interfere with 
the manifest business interests of the country. 

One of the notable art works of the World's Fair was a large 
painting of the Golden Gate which Mr J. D. Phelan bought 
for $3000, intending to present it to the Native Sons organiza- 
tion whenever they should have a hall in this city ready to 
receive it. Since the fair it has been stored in Mr. Phelan's 
barn, and when an examination was made of it last week, it 
was found to be broken into strips four inches wide and, of 
course, ruined. The fault was with the packers at Chicago 
who, instead of rolling it on a round core, rolled in on a square 
scantling. Efforts will be made to restore the picture, but it 
is doubted if anything can be done with it. 

It costs the people of California $300,000 per year to take 
care of i ts 2200 convicts. It is suggested as a measure of 
economy that the San Quentin prison be done away with and 
that all convicts be brought under one administration at Fol- 
som. Prison Commissioner De Pue makes the following rec- 
ommendations, the doing of which, he says, will require a 
general revision of our penal laws : "Segregation of prisoners 
into at least twe classes; a rigid discipline for men sentenced 
to the State's Prison more than once; employment and educa- 
tion while confined that will assist first-timers to earn an 
honest living when d scharged ; appointment of an agent to 
assist discharged convicts ; the repeal of the law restricting 
the sale of bags." 

To Kill Bermuda and Other Running Pests 

To the Editor: — As a further answer to the in- 
quiry of Thomas B. Hutchins in the Rural Pb ESS of 
January 11th, in relation to killing Bermuda grass, 
I would say that the first step in the process is to 
get a good plow, with a sharp steel point twelve or 
fourteen inches wide, and plow the ground shallow, 
say three or four inches deep, or just deep enough to 
get under the mass of runners. Turn flat over and 
let lie a few days to dry out slightly; then give a 
thorough harrowing, which will drag many of the 
roots on the surface. As soon as dry enough to 
burn, gather in winrows with a horse rake and burn. 
When the ground has lain long enough to get mel- 
low, plow again and repeat the operation of burn- 
ing, when it will be an easy process to keep l-he weed 
cutter or cultivator running for the ensuing sum- 
mer. Fall or winter is the best time to begin on 
this grass, as during the cold weather it makes but 
little growth, and you can thus get the start of it 
and, if taken before active growth in the spring, it 
is much more easily subdued. This applies to salt 
grass, devil grass and all their relatives. 

Riverside, Jan. 14, 1896. James Boyd. 

The Proposed Free Market. 

Mr. Edward P. Adams, of Wrights, representing 
the Patrons of Husbandry, has addressed the follow- 
ing letter to the Harbor Commissioners with refer- 
ence to the project for a free fruit and vegetable 
market on the San Francisco harbor front. The let- 
ter sets forth very clearly the objects which pro- 
ducers wish to see accomplished: 

In the matter of the proposed public market on the water 
front I beg leave to submit the following considerations: I 
find the ideas afloat in the -public mind upon the subject rather 
vague and diverse. Those who have said most appear to have 
in mind one or more places controlled by public authority, 
where the producer of fruit or vegetables might drive with 
his own cart and deal face to face with the actual consurnerof 
his product, just as the peddler now deals or those who sell in 
the Italian market. This is the " free market" as understood 
in Eastern cities. 

It would unquestionably be an accommodation both to the 
people of the city and to the market gardeners and fruit men 
within driving distance of the city of San Francisco. With 
this phase of the subject, however interesting, those whom I 
represent have no special concern, nor do I understand that 
there is room upon the State property under your control to 
accommodate and handle more produce than comes over the 
sea wall by regular public conveyance. 

Those I specially represent are producers living at too great 
a distance from the city to deliver produce by private convey- 
ance, and who will seldom desire to personally conduct its 
sale. What this class desires is that the property of the State 
and the authority of your commission may be made use of to 
provide a place where the produce brought to this city in i.v be 
disposed of with the least possible expense and under such 
regulations that the sales be open, public, free to all in any 
quantity and strictly for the benefit of producers with no in- 
tervening middlemen operating upon their own account. I 
understand this also to be the desire of your honorable Com- 
mission and I believe it to be in the public interest. 

Assuming, therefore, as has been intimated to me, that 
Section 4 of the seawall is available for this purpose, I respect- 
fully suggest for your consideration the following draft of a 
regulation, which, if adopted by your honorable commission, 
might bring about the desired result. In submitting this I 
beg to say that because of lack of time and opportunity for 
sufficient consultation, 1 do not commit those whom I repre- 
sent, or even myself to its final indorsement. I only submit 
it as the best plan 1 am able at present to devise, and I be- 
lieve it to be useful as a definite basis to work from. 

The plan is this: "Fruit and vegetables coming to Section 
4 of the seawall, shipped by producers either to themselves or 
to a consignee, and for sale for account of its producers only, 

may remain thereon for days without charge, except as 

hereinafter provided. 

"Organizations of producers or ither persons desiring to 
receive and sell products upon Section 4 for account of pro- 
ducers, may receive a permit to do so and be assigned space 
for the necessary clerks and sales books, upon signing a writ- 
ten application which shall state : First — The amount of space 
desired. Second — That they desire to sell for account of pro- 
ducer only. Third— That their original sales books shall show 
the name of the consignor, price received, and purchaser for 
each lot sold, and shall be a public record, open to the inspec- 
tor during all business hours and to the public under such 
reasonable regulations as may be prescribed by the Commis- 
sion so as not to obstruct business. Fourth — That any viola- 
tion of the above or of the general regulations of the Commis- 
sion, shall be ground for the revocation of the permit re- 

" Produce coming to Section 4 shall pay the regular tolls 
and charges prescribed by the Commission, and in addition 
a charge to be so regulated from time to time as to 

produce a revenue of per annum, which shall be paid to 

some incorporated society of producers to pay the salary, post- 
age and printing of an inspector, to be appointed by such 
society to act in behalf of the producers, and for whose con- 
duet such society shall be responsible 

" It, shall be the duty of such inspector to act impartially 
in the interest of the producers and the public in enforcing 
the regulations of the market, discovering and enforcing com- 
binations or practices, if any, against the interest of the pro- 
ducers and public, and generally do all in his power to insure 
fair, open sales, whether by auction or in private. He shall 
daily compile and publish a list of receipts and current prices, 
shall note the conditions of produce arriving and notify by 
mail owners whose product arrives in bad order by reason of 
poor packing, and generally shall endeavor to give shippers 
and the public such information as shall tend to cause the 
business of the market to be conducted in an open and honor- 
able manner and to the profit of all concerned." 

In conclusion, I will say that while my unfamiliarity with 
the business of the Commission has doubtless prevented me 
from making the form of the above draft in all respects suit- 
able, I think the outline is definite and the intent obvious. I 
may also say that in my opinion the California Fruit Exchange 
is the proper body to be intrusted with the duty of conserving 
the interests of the growers. It is incorporated and has 
eleven directors, all able men, possessing the confidence of 
their communities and representing all parts of the State. As 
to that, however, I am indifferent. 

1 will also state that I think the growers require the serv- 
ices of an inspector of a caliber who could command a salary of 
about $:3.">o per month. The postage and printing would prob- 
ably amount to -51000 per annum, and the special charge made 
should be calculated to raise that amount, any excess over 
actual expenses to revert to the State. 

I also respectfully suggest that as the public benefit to be 
derived will in a great measure depend upon the publicity 
attending all proceedings, and the care taken to get the ma- 
ture judgment of those most interested and best informed as 
to the exact methods to he followed before finally deciding, 
that it will be to the public interest that a public conference 
be called, to which organized bodies of producers and mer- 
chants, representatives of the transportation interests, and 
individuals who are known to have given thought to the sub- 
ject, be specifically invited in addition to the general public. 
In my judgment such a Conference might be very appropri- 
ately called by your honorable Commission for the avowed 
purpose of advising yourselves more perfectly. 

Resistant Vine Cuttings. 

To the Editor:— I wish to get VUta rtparta cuttings for 
rooting. Can you inform me where I can obtain them and 
what will be the price per thousand? Charles Cobb. 


As might be expected, there is a great rush for 
resistants this winter. Nurserymen who have kept 
the vines until they became discouraged by lack of 
demand, and puller! them out, are now snowed under 
with orders which they cannot fill. Whoever has 
wood of the approved resistant varieties should ad- 
vertise it at once. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 25, 1896. 

Oakland Poultry Show. 

Report of the First Lnnaal Exhibition of the Pacific Poultry 
and Pigeon Association. 

The first exhibition of the Pacific Poultry and 
Pigeon Association opened on the evening of the Kith 
—last Thursday— in the Tabernacle at Oakland and 
continued until Wednesday of this week. It was in- 
augurated with music and speech making, and, in 
spite of a heavy downpour of rain, there was a good 
attendance. The show, from the fancier's point of 
view, was an entire success; indeed, this first exhi- 
bition was a surprise in more ways than one, princi- 
pally, however, on account of the large number of 
entries in the different sections, about 1400 in all hav- 
ing been made. The quality, too, of the various 
kinds was a matter of much comment among all who 
witnessed the exhibition. Even the judge, an old 
and experienced fancier, expressed himself as agree- 
ably astonished at the high grades of poultry exhib- 
ited, and stated his belief that California was des- 
tined to become the greatest poultry State in the 
Union at no distant date. 

Mr. I. K. Felch, the originator of the Light 
Brahma fowls and known throughout America wher- 
ever poultry is raised, was the judge selected by the 
Association. Although this is his first visit to the 
coast, Mr. Felch, who has been in the business for 
over forty years, has acted in the capacity of judge 
in many Eastern cities, and the Association did a 
wise thing in securing his services. He was asked 
by the Rural Press to give, for the benefit of its 
readers, his candid opinion as to the merits of the 
show, comparing it with others he had judged. His 
remarks, we are sure, will be taken in good part, 
and, though brief, will convey some useful hints to 
fanciers in the poultry line. He said: "This exhi- 
bition is a grand one and was a genuine surprise to 
to me. None better was ever held on the Pacific 
coast, and outside of Boston and Madison Square, 
New York, the exhibit is equal to any I have judged. 
The Spanish and Mediterranean varieties are as fine 
as I ever saw. The American and Asiatic varieties 
arc weak compared with the former, and while the 
winning birds are prime, the classes are too small 
considering the total number of entries in the show." 

Mr. Felch was unstinted in his praise of the show 
as a whole, but when mentioning the American vari- 
eties he asked the Rural Press to touch up the 
fanciers a little and tell them they ought to be 
ashamed of themselves for not being more patriotic. 
A word to the wise is sufficient, and we do not 
doubt that another exhibition will see this defect 
remedied and a larger showing made in the home 

This and similar exhibitions ought to stir up our 
farmers to enquire more particularly into the poul- 
try business. It is an opinion, frequently expressed, 
that chickens are a nuisance and do not pay, but it 
is a fact that over $3,000,000 annually is sent East to 
pay for poultry and eggs, which shows that some 
farmers find it a paying business. 

In looking over the exhibit we found some birds of 
a phenomenally high grade. One White Leghorn 
pullet, belonging to Frank Ross of Santa Rosa, took 
the prize in its section with 97 points. This speaks 
volumes for the quality of the bird, as Mr. Felch 
stated that in all his experience he had only seen 
two others with a score as high. In the Minorcas 
one cockerel from the yards of the Acme Poultry Co. 
reached 9fil. There were several pullets 95}. Chas. 
D. Pierce carried away the silver cup offered by the 
American Buff Leghorn Club. The ladies came out 
in strong force with Asiatic varieties, most of the 
finest specimens being shown by lady fanciers. The 
Langshans, though not so well represented, are 
equal in quality to the finest. F. M. Reed of Ander- 
son exhibited three Buff Plymouth Rocks, the only 
birds in their class. These fowls show all the points 
of the Plymouth Rock except their color, which is a 
beautiful light buff. 

Among the pigeons some curiosities were observed. 
One bird, belonging to A. Borman, is twenty-three 
years old, and was bred up to three years ago. 
There were two White Throat High Flyers, said to 
be the only pair in the United States. The Runts 
belonging to Mr. Whitman were, in size, something 
enormous, being more nearly the size of chickens 
than pigeons. The pigeons, as a whole, were excep- 
tionally fine. 

l.lst "■ Competitor* and Number of Birds They Entered. 


Uni n il Plymouth Ruck*.— W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 2 
ckls, 3 hens, 4 pullets. Osgood & Son, Oakland, 1 cock, 8 ckls, 
1 hen, 4 pullets. L G. Dow, Oakland, 1 ckl, 1 hen. F. W. 
Breed, Oakland, 3 ckls, 5 pullets, 1 hen, 1 breeding pen. Flor- 
ence Forbes, Napa. 1 ckl, 1 hen, 2 pullets. Sonoma Valley 
Poulty Yards, Sonoma, 1 ckl, 1 hen. E. P. Lowell, Sacra- 
mento, 1 cockerel. Chas. Flint, Oakland, 2 pullets. Geocus 
Connell, Alameda, 2 pullets. 

While Plymouth Rocks.— A. N. Bayley, Oakland, 1 hen. F. 
G. Wilson, San Francisco, 1 pullet. A. N. Bayley, Oakland, 1 
breeding pen. 

Buff Plymouth Rocks. — F. M. Keed, Anderson, 1 cock, 1 hen, 
1 pullet. 

Silver Wyandottts. — George F. Emery, Oakland, 1 cock, 1 
ckl, 1 hen, 4 pullets. H. Anderson, Rio Vista, 1 pullet. Cum- 
bers & Son, Alameda, 1 breeding pen. 

White Wyandotte*. — Florence Forbes, Napa, 1 ckl, 4 pullets. 
B. E. Handy, Ukiah, 1 ckl, 1 hen, 4 pullets. 

Buff Wyandotte*.— W. L. Boldt, Oakland, 1 cock, 1 ckl, 1 
hen, 1 pullet. 

Ttlaek Java*. — Garfield Ingram, Alameda, 1 cock, 1 hen. 

Light lirahma*. — John C. Stodman, Los Angeles, 1 cock, 1 
ckl, 1 hen, 1 pullet, 1 breeding pen. Sonoma Valley Poultry 
Yards, 2 cocks, 1 ckl, 8 hens, 8 pullets. John B. Obresse, Mer- 
ced, 1 ckl, 8 hens, 1 pullet. T. W. Leydecker, Alameda, 1 ckl, 

1 hen, 6 pullets. G. Ingrain, Alameda, 1 ckl, 5 pullets. Flor- 
ence Forbes, Napa, 3 pullets. Elias Rund, San Francisco. 1 
breeding pen. 

Dark Brahmat. — Q. Ingram, Alameda, 3 hens. Miss M. Pal- 
mer, Fast Oakland, 8 hens. A. N. Bayley, Oakland, f breed- 
ing pen. 

Huff i 'oeh in*. — A. N. Bayley, Oakland, 1 cock, 2 hens. E. G. 
Merwin. Oakland, 1 cock. C. H. Kemp, Alameda, I cock. G. 
S. Williamson, San Francisco, 2 cocks. H. F. Whitman, Ala- 
meda. 2 ckls, 5 pullets. Cumbers & Son, Alameda, 2 hens. 
Clarence Siegfried, Alameda, 1 hen. Sonoma Valley Poultry 
Yards, 1 hen, 1 ckl, 1 pullet. G. I). Cramers, Oakland, 2 hens. 
J. F. Hill, Merced, 2 hens, 1 ckl, 2 pullets. 

Partridge Ooehint. — W. A. Pingree, Alameda, 1 cock. P. W. 
Mctralf, Berkeley, 2 cocks. (!. S. Williamson, San Francisco, 

2 cocks. J. E. Kellogg, Sacramento, 1 ckl. A. N. Bayley, 
Oakland, breeding pen. Chas. A. Wright, Alameda, breed- 
ing pen. 

White Cochins. — A. X. Bayley, Oakland, breeding pen, full- 
feathered White Cochins. Cumbers & Son, Alameda, 1 cock, 
2 hens. 

ltlm l. Langshans. — F. P. Lovell, Sacramento, 4 cocks, 4 pul- 
lets. W. J. Doyle, Ogden, breeding pen. 

While Langshans.— F. P. Lovell, Sacramento, 1 cock, 2 

Brown Leghorns. — E. Ellis, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 2 ckls., 2 pul- 
lets, 2 hens, breeding pen. Acme Poultry Yards, Santa 
Rosa, 1 cock, 2 ckls., H hens. 3 pullets. S. A. Wells, Fruitvale, 
2 cocks, 4 ckls. E. Long, Fruitvale, 4 ckls., 2 hens, 4 pullets. 
L. W. Matthews, 2 cocks, f> hens, 5 pullets, 2 breeding pens. 
W. G. Benton, San Francisco, 1 hen. Oscar Weltzein, Fruit- 
vale, breeding pen. D. Z. Miller & Sons, Dimond canyon, 
breeding pen. 

White Leghorns. — H. G. Matthias, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 3 ckls. 
E. Ellis, Santa Rosa, 2 cocks, 3 ckls., 4 hens, 4 pullets, breed- 
ing pen. Frank Ross, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 5 ckls., 4 hens, 12 
pullets. Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 4 
pullets. L. Kunde, Fulton, I cock, 3 ckls., 4 hens, 6 pullets. 
Sonoma Valley Poultry Yards, 1 cock, ti pullets. A. N. Bay- 
ley, Oakland, 2 cocks, 4 hens. W. E. Armstrong, Petaluma, 
1 ckl., 2 pullets. Cumbers & Son, Alameda, 2 ckls., 1 pullet, 
breeding pen. Chas. H. Robbins, Stockton, 2 ckls., 4 pullets, 
W. P. Cresswell, Livermore, 1 ckl. Fav Johnson, Alameda. 

1 ckl., 1 pullet. S. A. Wells, Fruitvale, 1 ckl. Dr. F. W. 
Browning, Haywards, 3 hens. Clarence Seigfried, Alameda, 

2 hens, 2 pullets. E. Long, Fruitvale, breeding pen. 

Buff Leghorns. — Chas. D. Pierce, Oakland, 1 cock, 2 ckls., 14 
hens, 31 pullets, breeding pen. E. Ellis, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 

2 ckls., breeding peu. F. M. Reed, Anderson, 1 cock, 1 hen. 
W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 11 ckls., 10 hens, 24 pullets, 
breeding pen. Dr. F. W. Browning, Haywards, 1 pullet. W. 
N. Pingree, Alameda, 1 ckl. T. H. Thompson, Alameda, 2 
ckls., 3 hens, 1 pullet. A. E. Armstrong, Petaluma, 6 ckls., 
1 pullet. Percy Herse, Alameda, 1 ckl. H. G. Benton, San 
Francisco, 1 hen. 

Black Leghorns. — Aome Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa. 1 cock, 

3 ckls., 2 hens, 10 pullets. T. H. Thompson, Alameda, 2 cocks, 

1 ckl., 2 hens, 2 pullets, breeding pen. 

Black Minorca*. — E. Ellis. Santa Rosa. 1 cock. 2 ckls.. 4 hens, 

4 pullets. Geo. A. Lasher. Petaluma. 1 cock, 2 hens, 1 pullet. 
Frank Powell, Santa Rosa, 2 cocks, 4 ckls., 4 hens, 2 pullets. 
Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa, 2 cocks, 10 ckls., 12 hens, 
26 pullets. Frank Seed, Alameda, 1 cock, 4 ckls., 2 hens, 8 
pullets. Lemon Grove Poultry Co., 1 hen, 1 ckl. H. G. 
Matthias, Santa Rosa, 2 ckls., 4 pullets. J. E. Kellogg, 
Sacramento, 1 ckl., 4 pullets. Chas. S. Wright, Alameda, 1 
ckl. C. H. Robbins, Stockton, 1 ckl., 2 pullets. H. W. 
Walter, San Francisco, 1 ckl., 3 hens, 1 pullet. J. A. Boyter, 
Alameda, 1 ckl., 3 pullets. W. G. Benton, San Francisco, 1 
hen. George C. MeConnell, Alameda, 2 pullets. E. Long, 
Fruitvale, breeding pen. 

White Minorca*.— Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa, 1 cock, 

2 ckls., 1 hen, 10 pullets. H. G. Matthias, Santa Rosa. 2 hens, 
2 pullets, 2 ckls. Mrs. J. E. Kellogg, Sacramento. 2 ckls., 1 
hen, 1 pullet. Sonoma Valley Poultry Yards, 2 ckls., 2 hens. 

Black Spanish.— Chas. A. Wright, Alameda. 1 cock, 6 hens. 
William Dixon, San Francisco, 1 cock, 1 hen. Fay Johnson, 
Alameda. 2 cocks, 2 hens. J. Noonan, San Francisco, 2 cocks, 
4 hens. R. A. Rowan, Pasadena, 1 cock, 2 ckls., 2 hens, 2 pul- 
lets. W. P. Cresswell, Livermore, 1 pullet. 

niaeh Andalmian*.—'W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 4 
hens, 4 pullets. Acme Poultry Yards, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 1 hen, 14 
pullets. Chas. Flint, Oakland, 1 ckl., 2 pullets. 

Polish, — Win. Trudgen, Sonoma, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 1 hen. 1 pul- 
let. Chas. D. Pierce, Oakland, 2 cocks, 11 hens. W. O. 
Moore, Merced, 2 cocks, 1 ckl.. 4 hens. 

Golden Polish.— W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 ckl., 2 pullets. 

Golden Bearded Polish.— Cumbers & Son. Alameda, 3 hens. 

Bearded Silrcr Polish.— Wm. Trudgen, Sonoma, 1 cock, 2 
hens. W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 3 hens. 

Buff Laced Polish.— W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 2 hens. 

S. S. Hamlmrgs. — W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 2 
hens, 2 pullets. Cumbers & Son, Alameda, 2 cocks, 1 hen, 2 
pullets. Clarence Seigfried. Alameda, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 5 pullets. 
Jas. J. Cummings, Alameda, 1 ckl., 2 pullets. W. G. Benton, 
San Francisco, 1 hen. Jesse J. Rogers, Alameda, 2 hens. 

<;,,lden Penciled Hamburg*.— C. Seigfried, Alameda, 1 ckl., 1 

Black Hamhurg*.— W. O. Moore. Merced, I cock, 2 hens, 2 
pullets. Sonoma Valley Poultry Yards, 1 ckl., 2 pullets. 

Houdana. — E. H. Kemp, Alameda, 1 cock. J. B. Olcese, 
Merced, 1 cock, 2 ckls., 1 hen, 1 pullet. W. J. Jellings, Ala- 
meda, 1 cock, 1 hen. May & Welding, Oakland, 1 cock, 5 
hens. A. N. Bayley, Oakland, 1 cock, 2 hens. 

Black-Breasted lied Game. — S. Jones, Oakland, 1 ckl., 1 pullet. 

Golden D. Game. — George H. Croley, S. F., 1 cock, 1 hen. 

Brown Red«. — W. O. Moore, Merced, 1 cock, 1 hen. 

Cornish Indian.— C. C. Stratton, San Rafael, 1 cock, 2 hens. 
Osgood & Son, Oakland, 1 ckl. 

.s. /). a. Bantam*.— J. B. Olcese, Merced, 2 cocks, 1 hen, 2 
ckls., 2 pullets. J. F. Mecklem, Alameda, 5 ckls., 3 hens, 3 

Scaln ight Bantam*. — C. D. Pierce, Oakland, 1 cock, 2 hens, 1 
ckl., 3 pullets. 

Gnliten Seahrighl Bantam*.— C. Seigfried, Alameda, 1 cock, 2 
hens, 1 pullet. 

Ruff Cochin Bantams.— J. B. Olcese. Merced, 2 ckls., 1 hen, 
breeding pen. G. Ingram, Alameda, 1 cock, 1 hen. 

Black-Breasted Red Game Bantams. — J. F. Mecklem, Ala- 
meda, 1 cock, 1 hen, 7 pullets. Alice E. Wright Lorin, 1 cock, 
1 hen. T. W. Leydecker, Alameda, 1 ckl., 1 pullet. 

White Cochin Bantams. — J, B. Olcese, Merced, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 
1 hen, 2 pullets. 

W. C. Polish Banlams.-A. B. Olcese, Merced, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 
2 hens, I pullet. 

H'hffc Jai>. Bantams.— Percy Heise, Alameda, 1 cock, 1 ckl., 
1 hen. 

Miscellaneous.-- W. A. Thompson, Oakland, 2 cooks, 2 hens. 
F. W. Luther, San Jose, 1 cock, 2 ckls., 1 hen. .1. I). Teadan, 
Alameda, 2 cocks, 2 hens, 2 pullets, 1 ckl. 

White Indian.— G. A. Lasher, Petaluma, 1 OOOk, 1 ckl., 2 
hens, 2 pullets. 

Red Pile Leghorns.— Sonoma Poultry Yards, 1 ckl., 1 pullet. 

Turkey*.— George A. Crolev, Alameda, 1 adult cock, 1 adult 

Prkin Ducks.— Florence Forbes, Napa. 2 drakes, 2 ducks. E. 
Long, Fruitvale, 2 drakes, 2 ducks. 

Rouen Ducks.— W. O. Moore, Merced, s drakes, s ducks. 

lieese. —George T. Croley, San Francisco, 2 cocks. 1 ckl , 5 
hens, 2 pullets. W. P. Cresswell, Livermore, 1 ckl., 1 pullet. 

Roaster*. — Geo. C. MeConnell, Alameda, breeding [icn, cross- 
bred. Florence Forbes, Napa, breeding pen, cross-bred. Breed- 
ing pen, Rankin market stock. 

Broilers. — Geo. A. Lasher, Petaluma, 19 broilers. Florence 
Forbes, Napa, 12 broilers. O. Weltzen, Fruitvale. 12 broilers. 

' (Ij.oiik.— Osgood & Son, Oakland ; Florence Forbes. Napa; 
Mrs. Anna Koones, Oakland. 

Dressed Poultry.— W. L. Boldt, Oakland, 2 ckl*., 2 pullets. 
F. Forbes, Napa, ckls., pullets. 

Guineas.— Mrs. J. E. Kellogg, Sacramento, 2 whites. 

Kggs. — May <fc Welding, Oakland; A. E. Armstrong, I'eta- 
luma; G. C. MeConnell, Alameda; W. L. Boldt, Oakland; 
Florence Forbes, Napa; Sonoma Poultry Yards; E. Long, 
Fruitvale; S. M. L. ; B. M. & B. L. 

The following is a list of the awards made by the 


Brown Leghorns.— Cocks— First, E. Kllis. Santa Rosa; second, 
Acme Poultry Yards. Santa Rosa; third. L. VV. Matthias S icra- 
mento. Cockerels — First. K. Ellis. Santa Rosa; second, S. A Wells. 
Fruitvale; third, E. Ellis, Santa Rosa Hens -First, Acinj Poul- 
try Tarda, Bute Rosa; second, E. Kong, Fruitvale: third. I,. \V. 
Matthias, Sacramento. Pullets— First, second, third, L. W. Mat- 
thias. Sacramento. 

Huff Plymouth /fr/<tfx._ Pullets— First, F. M. Reed, Anderson. 

While Wyandot te*.— Cockerels — First, Florence Forbes, Napa; 
second, H. K. Nandv, Ukiah. Hens— First and second. II K. Nandy, 
Ukiah. Pullets— First and third, Florence Forbes, Napa; second. 
B. K. Nandy, Ukiah. 

Wlut, Minorca*.— Cocks— First, Acme Poultrv Yards, Santa Rosa; 
Cockerels— First, Acme Poultrv Yards, Santa Rosa: second. Sonoma 
Poultry Yards, Sonoma. Hens— First, Mrs. J K. Kellogg, Sacra- 
mento; second and third, Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa. 

Black Sfutnish.— Cocks— First and second, J. Noonan, San Fran- 
cisco; third, Fay Johnson, Alameda. Cockerels— First and second, 
R. A. Rowan. Pasadena. Hens— First and second, J. Noonan, San 
Francisco; third, R A. Rowan, Pasadena. Pullets— First and 
third. R. A. Rowan, Pasadena; second, Fay Johnson, Alameda. 

Partridge Cochin*.— Cocks— First, W. A. Pingree, Alameda; sec- 
ond, P. W. Metcalf, Berkeley. Cockerels— First, Mrs. .1. E. Kellogg, 

While Cochin*.— First, Cumbers & Sou. Alameda. 

Dark Brahmat.— Cocks— First, Miss Palmer, East Oakland. 

Huff Wyandotte.— Cockerels— First, W. L. Boldt, Oakland. 

Light Brahma*.— Cocks— First, Sonoma Poultry Yards, Sonoma. 
Cockerels — First, J. B. Olcese. Merced: second, Florence Forbes, 
Napa. Hens— First and second. Acme Poultry Yards. Santa Rosa; 
third. J. B. Olcese. Merced. Pullets— First and second. Florence 
Forbes, Napa; third, J. B. Olcese, Merced. 

silr,r Wyandotte*.— Pullets— First and second, George Emery, 

Huff cochin*.— Cocks— First. E. G. Marvin, Oakland. Cockerels — 
First and second, H. F. Whitman. Alameda; third, Sonoma Valley 
Poultry Yards, Sonoma. Hens— First and second. Curtis & Son. 
Alameda. Pullets— First, second and third, H. F. Whitman, Ala 

Illii, Andatusian.— Cocks— First. W. O. Moore. Merced; second. 
Acme Poultry Yards. Santa Rosa. Cockerels— First, W. (). Moore, 
Merced; second. Acme Poultry Yards. Santa Rosa Hens— First, sec- 
ond and third, W. O. Moore, Merced. Pullets— First, second and 
third, Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa. 

Mink Minorca*.— Cocks— First, Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa; 
second, Frank Powell, Santa Rosa; third. George H. Leslie, Peta- 
luma. Cockerels— First and second. Acme Poultry Yards, Santa 
Rosa; third, Frank Powell, Santa Rosa. Hens— First and third, 
Frank Powell, Santa Rosa; second, Acme Poultry Yards, Santa 
Rosa. Pullets— First, Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa; second. 
H. G. Matthews, Santa Rosa: third. Frank Powell, Santa Rosa. 

Hun;, I Plymouth Rock*.— Cocks— First, W. O. Moore, Merced. 
Cockerels— First, F. W. Breed, Oakland ; second, Florence Forbes, 
Napa: third. Osgood & Sons, Oakland. Hens— First. Florence 
Forbes, Napa; second and third, Sonoma Poultry Yards, Sonoma. 
Pullets— First and third, Florence Forbes. Napa; second, F. W. 
Breed, Oakland. 


Pouters. — Black cocks, first prize, ,1. .1. Tompkinson; second prizo, 
A. N. Bayley. Black hens, first, G. T. Marsh: second, A. N Bayley. 
Red cocks and hens, J. J. Tompkinson. Yellow cocks and hens. A. N. 
Bayley. Blue cocks, first, G. T. Marsh; second, G. H. Croley. Blue 
hens, G. T. Marsh. White cocks, first, G. T. Marsh: second, J. J. 
Tompkinson. White hens, first, W. P. Archibald; second, J. J. 
Tompkinson. Dun cocks, G. H. Croley. 

Fantail*.— White S. H. cocks, first prize. Otto BrewtttJ second 
prize, G. T. Marsh. Hens, first. G. T. Marsh: second, W. P Archi- 
bald. White crested cocks, first, G. T. Marsh; second. Otto Brcwitt. 
Hens, first. Otto Brewitt: second. G. T. Marsh. White crested and 
booted cock and hen, first, Ci. T. Marsh. White lace cock and hen, 
first, Otto Brewitt. Black hen, first, H. ,1. Marsh. Blue cock and 
hen, G. T. Marsh. Yellow cock and hen, first and second, A. N. 

Hunt*. —Blues, silvers and blue checkers, all prizes to H. F. Whit- 

Jacobin* (pair*).— Blacks. A. N. Bayley. Blues, H. J. Marsh. 
Reds, G. T. Marsh. Yellows, first, A. N. Bayley; second, G. T. 
Marsh. Splashed, first, G. T. Marsh : second, A. N. Bayley. White, 
G. T. Marsh. 

Tu rials. — Yellow, Mrs Boskum. Blue, second, J. J. Tompkinson 
English Out*.— Black. G n. Cramer. Silvers, first. W. P. Archi- 
bald; second, J. J. Tompkinson. Blue, first. J. .1. Tompkinson; sec- 
ond, A. Borman. 

African OvAs. — Blue, J. J. Tompkinson. White, W. P. Archibald 
Trumpeter*.— Mottled, A. N. Bayley. 

/•'lying Tumbler*.— Yellow. second, George Harrison. Red splashed, 
first, A. Borman, second, P. Ward. Almond, second, A Borman. 
Black saddles, second, .1. .1. Tompkinson. Red, first, .) .1. Tompkin- 
son. Black, first, J. J. Tompkinson. 

Parlor Tumbler*. — Red. first. ,1. J. Tompkinson; second. J. W. Say 
era. Blacks, first, A. N. Bayley; second, . I. ,1. Tompkinsou. Mot- 
tled. W. P. Archibald. 

Archangels. — Second, Mrs. Bascom. 

White Throats.— First, Mrs. Bascom. 

Bishop*.— Second, Mrs. Bascom. 

Nuns.— Black, first and second, A. Borman. 

Homers.— Record birds, first and second, T. W. Leydec ker. Blue, 
first, E. G. Koenig; second, H. E. Curzon. Blue checkers, first, H. 
E. Curzon; second, T. W. Leydecker. Red, first, H. E. t'urzon: sec. 
ond, E. G. Kocnig. Black, first, T. W. Leydecker: second, P. Ward. 
Yellow, first and second, T. W. Leydecker. Black, first, H E. Cur. 
zon; second, J. M. Richards. Silver, first and second, H. E. Curzon 

short-faced Antwerp*. — Second, P. Ward. 

Note. — In the above list of awards in the Poultry 
Department there are some omissions caused by the 
delay of the Association in completing their lists. 
These will be supplied in our next issue. 

January 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Bananas and Dates. 

To the Editor: — Let me venture one reply to Mr. 
Walter Nordhoff's interesting questions, in your 
issue of January 11th, namely, No. 2: I am fruiting 
two strains of bananas, the quality of which is excel- 
lent; some persons saying they prefer the flavor of 
the imported fruit. The larger fruited is called (per- 
haps for convenience) "The Baldwin Banana," as it 
is said to have been introduced by "Lucky Bald- 
win." The other, a more beautiful plant, same size, 
with the edges of the leaf-stems tinted wine color, 
smaller fruit, but with a very thin and delicate skin, 
is a variety known as Hart's Choice. 

With me the question of banana growing is not so 
much one of quality as quantity. Perhaps with 
more care in suckering and fertilizing the soil I 
might get a 100-finger bunch, whereas it ranges 
from 50 to 90, usually about 60. Yet at this rate I 
delight to grow a few bunches of the plants, not 
only for the fruit but for effect of foliage and bloom, 
especially when the leaves can have a slight protec- 
tion from the occasional gust of wind that is so 
prone to whip them to tatters. 

Speaking of the banana I might have remarked 
the existence in my neighborhood of a banana plant 
whose fruit the past season was well filled with 
perfect seeds, the only one I have known except the 
ornamental Abysinnian banana. 

I am not sure but my perplexity on No. 3 is worse 
than Mr. Nordhoff's, because I observe this: I find 
two date palms fruiting near by, both without seed, 
yet, so far as my present knowledge goes, the 
quality is fair, possibly very good. But would not 
these plants be far more satisfactory if blessed by 
the presence and help of staminate plants ? My 
theory has always been that we should grow within 
reasonable proximity enough seedling plants from 
selected seeds so as to provide plants of both sexes, 
hence the requisite facilities for pollination and per- 
fect fruitage. [You are right. — Ed.] 

On questions 1 and 4 my thought is that Mr. 
Nordhoff must answer his own questions by the ex- 
ploiting of new varieties; that must be done by the 
pioneer grower in a thousand different localities in 
this bewilderingly diversified State. 

While I write, may I, too, ask your readers a 
question ? Alongside other varieties of strawber- 
ries, what are the comparitive merits of the Long- 
worth ? Who will name a better, and why ? 

Whittier, Cal. J. H. Cammack. 


Prices of Fruits in the London Market. 

To the Editor: — I undertook at the Sacramento 
Fruit-Growers' Convention of California horticultur- 
ists to obtain and publish some account of London 
prices current for fruits, etc. I have now before 
me sundry trade circulars from which I will quote, 
with your kind permission, a few figures. 

California produce does not find the frequent men- 
tion in these circulars that it deserves and would 
obtain if the Nicaragua canal was constructed, so 
that our farmers could get free access to European 
markets. Hanson, Son & Barter of London and 
Liverpool speak thus of raisins, which are so over- 
plentiful in Fresno: 

We will assume that all our friends have bought their 
Valeneias ; those who have not, and want fine fruit, are hope- 
lessly out in the cold. Any who want decent fruit cheap can 
buy it fit for present use, but of no use for keeping purposes, 
in %-boxes at 21s per cwt. ; also good, bold, sound Valeneias in 
%-boxes at '20(y<27s ; tine, bold, sound Valeneias in ' 4 -boxes at 
'27 (<i 2Ss ; and a few ' + -boxes, sound and colory, and cheap as 
things go now, at 37s. Everyone knows that Muscatels have 
been forced for sale lately, and apropos of this position we 
offer : Boxes sound, small Malaga clusters at 30s ; boxes good, 
bold Malaga clusters at 34s. Between this grade and finest 
fruit there is a good range, aud we offer specially in medium 
quality: Boxes fine, 4-crown Malaga clusters at 55s. The 
drop has hardly affected tip-top qualities, which are in very 
limited supply, and many will want just one or two boxes of 
this class. We may say at once that we have three or four 
small lots of exceptionally choice fruit such as is hardly seen 
in ordinary years. The number of crowns goes for nothing, 
but from 100 s to 110s we have a few very small lots that are 
guaranteed to please, while in good Dehesa fruit, now a good 
deal out of fashion, we have a good parcel showy and cheap at 
40s (in boxes; and, if unsold, some really choice Malaga clus- 
ters in trays, with ribbons, at 65c. 

It will be seen from this that the highest-grade 
raisins are wanted, and are actually jobbing at 23 
cents per lb. 

The same circular says: California plums have 
had a quick run; there are just a few left at 56s (12 
cents per lb.), but the "Francaise" lot is all gone. 

California figs are not quoted at all, but other 
sorts range from 6A to 20 cents per lb. 

No California almonds are quoted, but extra bold 
and choice California apricots in 25-lb. boxes at 87s 
6d perewt. (112 lbs., nearly 19 cents per lb.) Canned 
San Jose apricots in 2 A -lb. tins at 13s per doz. 

No California prunes are quoted, but I note that 
the grading seems closer and runs in fives instead of 
tens when below one hundreds; eightys and eighty- 
fives French are quoted at 36s per cwt., or about 
7* cents per lb. 

Oranges range from 7s 6d for a case of 420 ordi- 

nary; Valeneias to 27s for extra large cases of finest 
Denias. Sold " as landed," with all faults. 

Nova Scotia apples in barrels about 120 to 130 lbs. 
net: King of Tompkins at 22s 6d to 19s 6d. No 
Yellow Newtown Pippins quoted. 

Meats and Dairy Produce. — I send circular issued 
by the Colonial Consignment and Distribution Co. of 
London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester and 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. This circular is so replete with 
information of value to intelligent farmers that I 
send you the whole, to make extracts as copious as 
you think fit; and, though markets for meats were 
unusually unfavorable, I think, when one notes 
that Australia and New Zealand can both manage to 
market meats and dairy produce in London, there 
is hope, when the Nicaragua canal gets boosted 
through Congress and the American nation awakens 
to its duties and rights in the matter, that California 
may get something more like a living price for a 
part of her products. Edward Berwick. 

Pacific Grove, Jan. 6, 1896. 

We shall be pleased to show the circular to which 
Mr. Berwick alludes, to any one who is interested. 
At present we are not in range of the English mar- 
kets with animal products, unless Europe should get 
upset and present supplies and prices become obso- 
lete. The Isthmus canal would put a new face on 
matters in this respect. — Ed. 


A Discussion on Dairy Feeding. 

The meeting of the dairymen of Petaluma on Jan. 
15, under the joint auspices of Sonoma Pomona 
Grange and the California Dairy Association, was 
well attended considering the pouring rain, which 
gave so many dairymen so much joy that they could 
not think of anything else. Mr. S. E. Watson of the 
Dairy Association was called to the chair. Prof. E. 
J. Wickson of the State University spoke of the inter- 
est the University took in efforts for dairy progress 
and enlightenment, and Mr. M. E. Jaffa of the Uni- 
versity delivered an excellent lecture on " Scientific 
Feeding and the Compounding of Rations," using the 
data from about forty analyses of California hays 
ana feedstuff's, recently made at the agricultural 
laboratory at Berkeley. These matters were heard 
with much interest and quite freely discussed by 
those present. 

A paper written by Joseph Mailliard, president of 
the Dairy Association, was also read, from which 
we take the following pertinent points: 

Dairy Purpose. — The great principle of dairying 
for butter is this: For every ton of food used, produce 
the largest amount of butter at the least cost. The 
nearer a dairyman attains to this idea, the greater 
financial success he will achieve. This statement is 
as old as the hills, and yet but few seem to appre- 
ciate the importance of it. It seems to me that the 
first idea a dairyman should have is this: He has 
on his ranch a certain amount of food which he in- 
tends to convert into butter at the least cost, and he 
intends to buy some other kinds of food to be used 
for the same purpose. He must use some sort of 
machine, naturally, to turn all these tons of grass, 
hay, bran, etc., into butter. What shall it be ? A 
cow, of course, for the machine; and as many of 
these machines as his amount of feed will warrant. 

Imperative Need of Good Cows. — There are a great 
many makes of steam engines, pumps, bicycles, etc., 
and there are also a great many makes of cows. 
This is a most important point that a vast propor- 
tion of dairymen of this State overlook. They get 
the idea that " a cow is a cow," whereas there are 
thousands of cows which do not pay for their keep, 
to say nothing of the labor required to attend them. 
The individuals of different breeds vary, of course, 
but blood will tell in a very marked degree when the 
returns for butter come in. Any one, by a system 
of careful selection — that is, breeding only first-class 
bulls, and constantly selecting the best calves from 
the best cows — can, in the course of years, build up 
a herd of splendid producers from a very scrubby 
commencement; but it takes a long time to do so, 
and a still longer one to make the type of large pro- 
ducers a permanent one. This building-up process 
was gone through with years ago in founding all the 
great breeds of fine cattle that we have at the pres- 
ent day. 

It is evident, then, that it will pay every dairy- 
man to work into some first-class breed as soon as 
he possibly can, as the worst part of the selecting 
process has already been done. This is soon accom- 
plished by buying fine bulls — bulls whose parents 
and grandparents have a splendid record. Pay a 
big price, if necessary, but buy them at all costs, 
and then raise only the best calves from the best 
cows. But first find out your best cows; and right 
here comes in another important point, viz., the 
best cow is not necessarily the one which gives the 
most milk or makes the most butter, but the cow 
that makes the most l/utter from, every pound of food 
that she eats. A cow that will make a pound of but- 
ter a day on, say, twenty-five pounds of food will 
certainly pay better than another cow that will 

make a pound and a half on fifty pounds of food, 
other things being equal. 

The Question of Breeds.— The dairyman must make 
up his own mind on what breed he wants, according 
to the conditions under which he dairys. My own 
experience has proved conclusively to my own satis- 
faction that the Jersey is the dairymen's best friend; 
and the tests of the different breeds at the World's 
Fair, in which the little Jerseys simply distanced all 
other breeds, not only in butter but in milk and 
cheese aud in cost of production, simply clinched the 
proof, as it were, with me. 

However, this is not a discussion of breeds. Suf- 
fice it to say that no dairyman should have a band of 
cows which will not, under the most disadvantageous 
circumstances, as regards the quality of food on his 
ranch, distance cows must travel, steepness of pas- 
tures, etc., average at least 250 pounds of butter 
per year each. This is a low figure, but it is ex- 
tremely doubtful if one dairyman in ten is reaching 
it now, while a few years ago, in this section at any 
rate, not one in twenty made 200 pounds per cow. 

Feeding. — Practical experience with different foods 
should teach a man how to feed his stock fairly eco- 
nomically, but in a great many cases it does not 
seem to do so. For instance, I know of one man, 
who has been dairying for a number of years, who 
at one time was feeding hay, with a slop of about 
three or four pounds of oilcake and nothing else, on 
top of it twice a day, because oilcake was cheap. 
Why his cows did not die at the start is a great 
mystery. They did not die, but the man said: " It 
did not pay to feed." Theoretically, this figures out 
a fairly well-balanced ration, and yet experience — 
mixed with a fair proportion of common sense — 
ought to tell a man that oilcake alone is entirely too 
concentrated a food, even when fed with hay. 

What one feeds must depend largely upon the cost 
of the different foodstuffs, and this is a point where 
some careful work is needed to fit theory into prac- 
tice. This is the time of year to feed the heaviest, 
as it takes more food to keep the animal in good 
condition during cold and wet weather than it does 
when there is less exposure, so we must figure on a 
little more for the cow's maintenance or keep, over 
and above what she uses for manufacturing her milk. 

First and foremost among the foodstuffs we must 
have bran, and it must compose tne greater part of 
the ration. I have tried to replace it with other 
foodstuffs, but it is no use. To do well a cow must 
have bran and plenty of it. 

Among the other articles at our command at 
present, " mixed feed" and cocoa-cake are the most 
economical at ruling prices. The " mixed feed " is a 
mixture of the bran and middlings turned out in the 
manufacture of pearl barley, hominy, rolled oats, 
germea, etc., and is an admirable food. Cows do 
better on a variety of foods than on only one or two 
kinds, and this " mixed feed" gives excellent results 
for that reason. 

Mr. Mailliard' s Ration. — The following is the daily 
ration I use for cows that average about 750 to 800 
pounds in weight. I have increased and decreased 
this ration experimentally and found that the cows 
gave less butter when the ration was decreased, but 
did not give enough butter extra to pay for any in- 

Protein . 



Oat Hay 

15 lbs. 


6 50 



7 lbs. 




Mixed Peed 

. 4 lbs. 


2 30 


Cocoa-cake . 

. 1 lb. 




Totals . . . 

.27 lbs. 

a. 66 



This ration is rather high in protein and fat; but, 
as I said before, animals need a little more nour- 
ishment in winter, and, in my own case, they pay 
better on this ration than on a smaller one. They 
get, of course, some picking, as they are only in the 
barn during feeding times, but the grass is so short 
that their outside feed amounts to very little. 

To those who cannot get the " mixed feed" above 
mentioned, I would suggest the substitution of, say, 
equal parts of wheat-middlings and cornmeal. 

In the table given above, the figures for this 
" mixed feed " may be incorrect, as I have no analy- 
sis of it at hand and have only estimated the different 
parts from my own idea of its value relative to other 

When the cows have comparatively level fields to 
yraze in, they would do as well on a smaller ration, 
as they use up a good deal of food energy in climbing 
hills, and this has to be made up to keep their out- 
put of butter up to the mark. 

Handling Dairy Stock. — When you have selected 
your cows and fed them properly, be kind to them. 
Gentleness pays — that is, firm gentleness — every- 
where, and it pays especially in a dairy. Any em- 
ploye who ill-treats a cow, kicks it, beats it, yells at 
it, or in any way disturbs it, is simply taking money 
out of your pocket, besides teaching the cow to be 
"mean." Kindness will pay, and pay well. 

Cocoanut Meal as Dairy Food. 

There is a considerable product of cocoanut meal 
in California, the nuts coming from the South Sea 
Islands and the oil being largely shipped to the East. 
This leaves here a by-product of considerable value 
to our dairymen, but, as with other concentrated 


The Pacific Rural Press 

January 25, 180(1. 

foods, its use requires wisdom. Mr. M. E. Jaffa, 
chemist in charge of the Agricultural Laboratory at 
the State University, has prepared the following 
statement on this subject: 

The Ration Idea. — When the investigators in the 
subject of cattle feeding began to discuss the mak- 
ing up of rations they found that, to obtain sufficient 
nutriment for each day, they had to use other mate- 
rials than the hays, grasses, etc.; hence the intro- 
duction of the so-called concentrated foods, those 
which contain more nourishment in a smaller bulk. 
The stomach of the cow can contain only a certain 
amount of food, and if it is filled with the ordinary 
coarse fodders and hays, the animal will not be able 
to derive sufficient nutriment therefrom to keep it 
in a healthy condition, and the milk will decrease in 
quantity and deteriorate in quality. This is not a 
matter of theory, but is based on experience of the 
best dairymen all over the country. It must not be 
supposed, on the other hand, that because some con- 
centrated food is good that more would be better; 
such a course of action would result in the making of 
a greater mistake than if no such foods were used at 
all. A certain bulk (about 2"> pounds of dry matter) 
is absolutely necessary for a ration in order that the 
digestive apparatus should work in a satisfactory 
manner. If only concentrated foods were given to 
the animal, it would soon become sick and therefore 
be of no use for the time being to the feeder. It is 
the proper proportion of the two kinds of food that 
yields the best, in fact one might say, normal results; 
for a tirst-class cow is certainly only in her normal 
condition when she is healthy and satisfied; giving a 
fine quality of milk with corresponding quality. 
There are quite a number of concentrated feedstuff's 
in the market, such as cocoanut meal, linseed-oil- 
cake meal, rice bran, wheat bran, cottonseed meal 
and many others. A word or two with reference to 
the first-named, cocoanut meal: 

Analysis <>f Cocoanut Meal. — This food, as shown by 
the analysis of a sample at the laboratory in Berke- 
ley, is a very rich one in protein, or fiesh-forming 
ingredients, and also in fat and carbohydrates, 
which are in the main the sources of warmth and 
energy for the body. It has what is termed a close 
or nitrogenous nutritive ratio, that is, one in which 
the amount of digestible protein is large compared 
to that of the remaining digestible nutrients. The 
analytical results obtained are as follows: 

Perbetntage Composition — Moisture, 14.6S ; crude protein, 19. 16 : 
crude fat, 10. '>:{; crude tiber, S.55: pure ash, 4.27; nitrogen 
free extract, 42. SI ; total, 100, 

Amount tfvtrlfnt* IHuentiltle in inn Pound* — Crude protein, 
15. 71 ; crude fat, 9.58; crude fiber, 1.71; nitrogen, free ex- 
tract, 32.10; total, 50.10. 

Nutritive ratio. 1,38 ; potential energy or fuel value (calor- 
ies), per pound, 1990. 

With regard to the "amount nutrients digestible" 
the figures are not absolute and therefore must be 
taken with proper allowance. Hut, as is the case 
with all other foods, ordinary or concentrated, they 
give a close approximation to the actual amounts of 
the different nutrients digested or absorbed by the 

Ail rii< to Feeder*. — Those feeders who may contem- 
plate using cocoanut meal as an ingredient in rations 
must remember that they will have to proceed with 
extreme caution and gradually increase (from a very 
small amount) the proportion of the meal in the ra- 
tion. No animal can remain normal if the food is 
suddenly changed or altered; the body would suffer 
and disastrous results would in all probability be 
brought about as regards the milk. Hence the feeder 
might discard the new food entirely, thinking it of 
no value, whereas the fault was with himself in mak- 
ing the suddeu change. A cow which has been ac- 
customed to wheat bran as a concentrated food can 
not suddenly be given oilcake meal in place of it and 
remain as she was before the introduction of the new 
food. If the change made was due to the fact of the 
meal being cheaper, it might be another case of 
proving that "cheap things are sometimes dear." 

It is not advisable, as a rule, even after the ani- 
mals have become accustomed to the oilcake meals, 
to have these form the entire concentrated element 
of the ration, but only a minor part of it. Bran, 
middlings, etc., should be used with the oilcake 


The Farm Reservoir. 

We have often alluded to the private reservoir as 
a ruling factor in irrigation, where water accumu- 
lation is necessary for satisfactory irrigation. This 
is essential when the water is drawn from wells or 
from other low source by means of small pumping 
appliances, or where the source is an ordinary arte- 
sian well. To get a good head of water is the secret 
of success in the small irrigation scheme. To pump 
and pour out water as pumped is of course an utter 
failure, unless you have a pumping plant of great 
capacity and a source of supply which is not seri- 
ously reduced by your draft upon it. Many a man 
wastes more time on the fence than would be re- 
quired to prepare a good reservoir and give him 
several acres of irrigated land where he now has 
nothing but a mudhole around his pump. How these 

small private reservoirs can be easily constructed 
can be seen by the description which Theodore 
Sternberg gives to an Eastern journal: 

Mat. rial a ml Shape. — A dirt bank and bottom is 
the best and least expensive of all substances from 
which to construct the pond. Surface soil is the 
best, and by all means I would urge using surface 
dirt only. Clay may do well for bottoms, but for 
banks it is utterly useless. This is the reason. 
When the water is drawn off the inner bank is ex- 
posed and clay at once cracks in the drying; surface 
soil don't crack. Having selected the site for the 
pond, by all means put in your pump and be pre- 
pared to pump water the very first step of all. Your 
depth and supply of water will determine the size of 
your reservoir. If you have lots of water and lots of 
room, make a great big pond. The very best shape 
for building easily and using horses and scraper is 
an oval, or at least rounded corners, the curve being 
such that a team and scraper can drive easily all 
around on the bank. Having marked out the ex- 
treme outside limits of the pond, if it be in sod, 
carefully remove the sod and pile it up out of the 
way, to be used later on. Then thoroughly plow the 
whole space; remember, you must plow where the 
banks are to rest, as well as the pond part; then, 
with cultivator, harrow and garden rake, work 
down fine — as fine as is possible — the dirt upon 
which the bank is to rest. Keep the team going 
over and over the bank foundation until it is fine 
and packed as hard as possible. The reason for this 
is: If the banks are built upon the natural surface, 
there is always a crack; the ground must be all 
worked for the banks from the bottom of the pond 
up to the top. 

I have in mind now a pond near me where this 
precaution was not used, and that pond has always 
leaked along the surface of the ground, while no 
suspicion of dampness even has ever appeared on my 

The Banks. The foundation of the banks being 
made, then, with team and scraper, move the plowed 
dirt from the bottom of the pond and dump it on the 
bank; start the bank twelve feet wide; for four-foot 
banks, twelve feet at the bottom is not too wide, 
and the top at the finish will be about three feet 
wide. As the dirt is dumped, you yourself — no one 
else — with a hoe or potato hook spread each scraper 
load evenly; break up every lump, work it fine, and 
till the tracks of the horses. This settles and packs 
the banks even and hard. The keynote to making 
good banks is the fining the ground and keeping it 
level as the banks rise, so that the whole business is 
uniform and packed solid. The horses and heavy 
scraper do this all but the edges; the edges you will 
pack with your own feet, by walking back and forth 
as you do in making a garden bed or walk. 

The dirt from the first plowing being all removed 
from the pond and placed evenly all around on the 
banks, take the plow and plow deeply the bottom; 
then, with harrow and cultivator, make this dirt as 
fine as you can; now you are ready to puddle the 
bottom, and the doing this will give you a bottom 
which will not leak. This bottom dirt being all fined 
to a depth of eight inches, weight down your har- 
row, put on your rubber boots and turn on the wa- 
ter: harrow, harrow, until this plowed ground is a 
thin paste, and quit. There is your bottom made, 
and if the soil is at all like mine, the chances are 
that the bottom will hold water. My soil is a loam 
upland loam. 

The Sluice. — Now for your sluice. Have a box 
with an opening 4x4 or 6x6, 16 feet long, made of 
heavy plank fitted as tightly as possible— water- 
tight. The end which enters the pond is cut off' at 
angle of 45°, upon which is fitted a cover hinged to 
the top of the box; where this cover fits the box, it 
must be lined with heavy rubber; be careful that no 
nails or tacks are driven where the jointure is made. 
Let this cover be considerably larger than the out- 
side of the sluice-box. The reason for this is obvi- 
ous. Upon this cover fix a good sized box, large 
enough to hold fifty pounds of old irou or stone. At 
the highest outside surface level place the sluice- 
box, so that it projects about two feet into the 
pond. Under, on the sides and on top of this sluice 
ram well-worked clay, mixing short straw with the 
clay, until it is impossible for ever so small an 
amount of water to either follow down the sides or 
leak out of it. This whole sluice business must be 
well done; any lack of care here will cause trouble. 
The box being in position, load the cover with scrap 
iron or stone; fasten a small chain to the cover to 
raise it with; it will drop of its own weight, and you 
can then stop and take a breath. 

The Finish.- It takes time to make a pond. Even 
after this work has been done, time is required to 
settle and solidify bottom and banks. Therefore, it 
is better to build the pond in the fall, so it will be 
ready for use the following season. One of the very 
best ways to puddle the bottom of a pond is to keep 
the bottom damp and feed cattle in it for a couple of 
months; but I have no cattle to use, so horses aud 
harrow were used by me. 

The balance of the banks may be finished at your 
leisure. I haul the dirt to complete the banks, my 
object being to have the water all except a foot at 
the bottom for use. Use any kind of dirt — whatever 

is the most convenient — for completing the banks; 
still surface dirt is the best for the pond and best to 
start grass on. After you have the banks as high 
as the horses can readily walk on, then take the sod, 
if you removed any, or get sod or stone and build on 
the outside a wall two and one-half feet high, fill in 
with dirt and finish off the bank with the shovel. Be 
sure and not fill your pond up rapidly with water; 
fill it up six inches higher every day or two and 
draw it off; this is to settle and firm the banks, until 
you can grow grass or plants on the inner bank to pre- 
vent washing down. Have a goodly lot of loose 
boards floating in the pond and see to it that they 
are in position to break the waves when the wind 

The Pipes. — In the middle of the bank place a gal- 
vanized sheet-iron pipe to carry off the water when 
it reaches as high as desired; put a joint iu it at the 
outer end to let the water down without being blown 
back against the bank, thus washing it away. The 
conductors from the pumps to the ponds are galvan- 
ized sheet-iron troughs without leak. 

The Wi lls and Mills. — My new pond is 50x55, and 
its cost, not counting my own labor, was just $14. 
It carries three and one-half feet of usable water. 
Figure out now for yourself how much it holds. My 
place is on a bluff on the north bank of a river, 
where the bluff approaches quite near the river, and 
the ponds are nearly eighty feet above the river 
bottom. It is sixteen feet to the water in the wells, 
which are driven wells. Water is found in inex- 
haustible quantity in a strata of coarse sand and 
gravel five feet thick, and that is the depth of the 
wells — twenty-one feet. The pumps are each six- 
inch cylinders; one wheel is twelve feet in diameter 
with nine-inch stroke, and another is ten feet in di- 
ameter with five-inch stroke. Both are what is 
called direct-acting — that is, each revolution makes 
a stroke and lifts water. I am not an expert on 
windmills, but I have seen so many different kinds 
in operation that I am quite of the opinion that most 
any one will do the work. 


The Poultry Business in California. 

Extracts from an essay by S. H. Oi.mhtead, of VerUugo, at Ulen- 
dale Farmers' Institute. 

The poultry interest is of importance enough to 
demand your attention as well as command your 
respect. So I call your attention the United States 
Agricultural Report, which says: " England im- 
ports for consumption $18,0(1(1,000 worth of eggs an- 
nually- the United States over $2,000,000= New 
York City and State alone consume $45,000,000 
worth of poultry and eggs annually, and the United 
States yearly consumes $500,000,000 worth of eggs 
and poultry." Add to this the value of the breeding 
stock and eggs for hatching, and we have the enor- 
mous sum of $('00,000,000 as the value of the poultry 
industry of the United States. 

To impress these figures upon your minds so that 
you may the better understand them, I will compare 
them with some of the leading industries of the 
nation. The poultry industry is worth $200,000,000 
more than all the cotton grown; $180,000,000 more 
than the hay crop; $150,000,000 more than all the 
dairy products of the nation, and more than double 
the value of all the iron, silver, gold, copper, lead, 
zinc, quicksilver and nickel taken from our mines. 
Now we will add to this every non-metallic mineral 
taken from the earth within the bounds of our broad 
land, and still the poultry business exceeds all this in 
value by $10,000,000. Now, gentlemen, farmers and 
horticulturists, is this industry beneath your notice ? 
And are you willing to turn it all over to the women 
and children ? If so, give them the net proceeds 
from it and do not grumble and scold as do some of 
the lords of creation I have known, who were con- 
tinually cursing the old woman and heus, who but 
for these much-abused individuals would have gone 
without the whisky and tobacco they used. 

Who Fails With l'oulry? — You will ask me the 
question: " Why do so many that go into the poul- 
try business make failures ? " Simply because they 
are failures themselves. They have failed in nearly 
every enterprise they have undertaken along the 
whole line of their lives, until (like your humble ser- 
vant! they got down to that point when they were 
willing to go into the chicken business for the simple 
reason that they would have little or nothing to do 
but carry the egg basket, amass a fortune and to 
spend the remainder of their lives comfortably; but 
their greatest enjoyment in a year or so is telling 
every one they chance to meet that there is nothing 
in the chicken business, for they have tried it thor- 
oughly and they know all about it. Show me a prac- 
tical business man or woman engaged in poultry 
raising, and I will show you an enterprise that is 
paying well. 

My observation has led me to the conclusion that 
women, as a general thing, are better adapted to 
care for poultry and get more money out of the busi- 
ness than men, the great trouble being that custom 
has placed upon her burdens she cannot shift to 
others. She must care for the family, do the cook- 
ing for them and for whatever company may come, 

January 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


keep everything clean and neat, and do it all with 
her own hands, as the husband's business is gener- 
ally such that he cannot afford to hire help for the 
house. But he can hire men to secure the farm 
crops, and the wife has them to feed. So don't ques- 
tion your wives' ability to carry on any branch of 
business until you have given her a fair chance. I 
have known frail, delicate women making a success i 
of the poultry business. That which they had not 
the strength to do themselves they hired done, and 
the hens paid for it, and everything pertaining to 
the poultry was kept clean and neat. 

Who Should Go Into the Business. — Perhaps you 
think I am going to advise every one to go into the 
business. If so, you are mistaken, without my first 
knowing whether you have correct ideas in regard 
to business in general, and whether you love birds 
and animals well enough to do good, hard study and 
work in caring for them — study and thought to ascer- 
tain their wants and capabilities — work for develop- 
ing all there is in the business. If so, I am ready to 
talk and give you the best information I can in re- 
gard to stocking and caring for a poultry plant. If 
not, I will show you my birds and we will have a 
pleasant visit, talking about them or other topics of 
interest, and I shall not advise you to buy birds or 
eggs; for I love my white beauties and do not want 
a man or woman to touch them who cannot learn to 
love them, too, and make a success of the business. 
I want no failures, and there need be none. 

The Chance in California. — I now call attention to 
a matter that interests each one of individually — the 
fact that California imports yearly over $3,000,000 
worth of poultry and eggs. Only think of this enor- 
mous sum sent out of the State every year. It 
means almost $3 for each man, woman and child in 
the State, or $12 for every voter who goes to the 
polls on election day. Now, this is all wrong and 
tends to poverty. 


The Year at the Horse Market. 

Horses came to the Chicago market last year, 
says the Breeder's Gazette, to the number of 113,193, 
as against 97,514 in 1894, an increase of 15,778. 
Shipments reached 94,362 head. Prices have not 

been high, but an enormous business has been done 
on a basis that is encouraging in view of the general 
depression. The market at the first of the year re- 
corded an advance of $25 a head on all useful horses 
in consequence of the increased demand attendant 
upon a revival of all lines of business. 

Foreign buyers have opened an avenue for the 
flood of horses that has come upon the market. 
France has wanted toppy drivers and coachers ; Bel- 
gium chunks of 1200 to 1400 pounds; England good 
drivers and finished expressers for omnibus service; 
Scotland single drivers and carriage teams; Mexico 
coachers and roadsters, and Germany blocky chunks 
and draft horses from 1300 to 1800 pounds. While 
for several years foreign buyers have been on this 
market, the low prices have attracted many more 
and induced a remarkably heavy export trade. It is 
reported that our horses have given satisfaction 
abroad, and as the small farm holdings in foreign 
countries are not conducive to horse breeding it is 
believed that this demand will continue to grow. 

Figures of our export trade with Great Britain 
for the past few years are interesting. For the first 
eight months in i893 we sent to British ports 10,177 
horses; during the same period in 1894 a total of 
15,614, and for the corresponding months of 1895 no 
less than 22,755, which were valued at $2,947,000. 

From a trade review of the horse market at this 
point we quote the following: "The enormous 
domestic demand for expressers, drafters, drivers 
and coachers of quality, style and action in connec- 
tion with the future possibilities of the export trade 
makes the industry of horse breeding as promising 
for a profitable occupation as any branch of farming. 
Well-informed horsemen, in view of the rapidly 
diminishing supply and the certainty of an increas- 
ing foreign demand, predict a sharp advance in 
prices before the century closes." 

To Make the Mane Grow. 

The following is recommended for this purpose: 
Rubbing the mane and tail usually results from an 
unhealthy condition of the skin, which, in most 
cases, is produced by neglect of grooming or by bad 
food. Occasionally, however, it appears in stables 
where both grooming and food are unquestionably 
good. Damaged oats or hay are very ready causes 
for this annoying affection. In every case, there- 

fore, the food should be carefully examined. Young 
horses, on coming into to stable, sometimes suffer 
from irritations of the skin, probably from change of 
diet. Horses recovering from fever frequently lose 
a large portion of the hair from the mane and tail. 
In the latter case it seems to rise from an impover- 
ished state of the blood. In regard to treatment, if 
any positive cause, such as damaged food or neglect 
of grooming can be ascertained to have existed, 
measures of course must be taken to rectify it. With- 
out such amendment local treatment will not 
be of much avail. The local treatment consists of 
dressing the skin with equal parts of mercurial oint- 
ment and soft soap, made into a lather with 
hot water, and applied by means of a stiff hair 

The new hair will grow rapidly after this applica- 
tion. Besides the above local remedies, it will be 
necessary to act on the system generally by a change 
of diet, green food, which, by means of the laxative 
qualities, lessen the irritability of the skin. A bran 
mash should be given with five grains of arsenic 
daily, in addition to the usual food. It will exert 
beneficial influence on the skin. 

Colic in Horses. 

Randolph Huntington gives the Country Gdnthmmn 
some advice on treatment of horse colic. He says 
always keep on hand pure bicarbonate of soda. In 
case of colic ta>e a sound, clean champagne bottle, 
and put into it a large tablespoouful of pure bicar- 
bonate of soda ; then fill to the neck with tepid, 
warm, soft water ; shake until the soda is dissolved, 
then pour down the throat. I have not known a 
case in thirty years where a cure was not effected 
inside of fifteen minutes, and more often at once. 
The soda neutralizes acidity of food in the stomach, 
passing away in wind. In case of colic no delay 
should be made in giving the soda, lest other organs 
become irritated and congested. The fewer and 
more simple the remedies the better for the horse. 
Saltpeter, salt, bicarbonate of soda, aconite, extract 
of witch-hazel, raw linseed oil and Thomas' electric 
oil, with compound and saturated tincture of iodine, 
Stafford's castorine ointment, tar and oakum are all 
the remedies to be found about my stables, so that I 
am a very unprofitable breeder for the veterinary 

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The Pacific Rural Press 

January 25, 1896. 


At the Door. 

1 thought myself indeed secure, 
So fast the door, so firm the lock; 

But, lo! he toddling come to lure 
My parent ear with timorous knock. 

My heart were stone, could it withstand, 
The sweetness of my baby's plea,— 

That timorous, baby knocking, and 
"Please let me in : it's only me. 

I threw aside the unfinished book, 
Regardless of its tempting charms; 

And, opening wide the door, I took 
My laughing darling in my arms. 

Who knows but in eternity 
I, like a truant child, shall wait 

The glories of a life to be. 
Beyond the heavenly Father's gate; 

And will that heavenly Father heed 
The truant's supplicating cry, 

As at the outer door I plead, 
"'Tis I, O Father ! only I " '■ 

— Eugene Field. 

An All-the-Year-Round Story. 

If you had only been in the right 
place"at the right time, and had looked 
in the right direction, you might have 
seen all this yourself; but since not one 
of you was anywhere near the Palace 
of 'the Future when its great doors 
swung slowlv open you did not see the 
people— one, two, three, four, five, six, 
seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve 
of them— as they came out. But they 
did come, nevertheless, and looked 
about them in a puzzled way, as if 
they did not know what to do or where 
to go. 

Before they had much time to won- 
der, however, an old man stepped for- 
ward and greeted them heartily. 

"Glad to see you, friends ! Glad to 
see you, I knew you would come if I 
sent for you. One, two, three, four, 
five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, 
twelve. That's right, you are all here. 
And now I suppose you would like to 
know why I sent for you, wouldn't 
you ? " 

The twelve friends said they would, 

"Look then," said Father Time, for 
that was the old man's name, and he 
opened his big*cloak which he had been 
holding close about him. 

The twelve crowded near to see, and 
what they saw was well worth looking 
at, for it was a dear, sweet, tiny baby, 
laughing and cooing and stretching up 
its pretty hands to be taken. 

" There," said Father Time, " that's 
my youngest child, and his name is 1896. 
I do not want him to be all alone dur- 
ing his visit upon the earth, and be- 
sides, there are so many things to be 
sent with him that he could not possi- 
bly carry them all." 

"Oh! I'll go with him!!" "And 
I!" "And I !" shouted the twelve 
in chorus. 

"Softly, softly," said Father Time. 
" You cannot all go at once, but you 
shall each have your turn. And each 
shall carry something for little 1896. 
My storehouse is right here and we can 
plan now what you shall each take, so 
as to have no confusion later. Come, 
January, you must be the first." 

"Then will I carry this banner." 
said January; and he brought a beauti- 
ful silken flag from the storehouse. On 
it was " Happy New Year " in flash- 
ing golden letters. January had also 
a larire pack upon his back. This was 
full of snow, with which ho intended to 
make coasts for the children. 

"February!" called Father Time, 
and a little fellow stepped forward 
from the group and ran into the store- 
house. Presently he came out with a 
package of valentines in one hand and 
George- Washington's picture in the 
other. " You have chosen well," said 
Father Time: " valentines for fun, and 
George Washington's picture to remind 
people of that good man." 

"March!" March where?" said 
February. "March!" said Father 
Time, a trifle sternly. "Oh! excuse 
me," said February, skipping off to 
talk to January. 

March was rather a wild-looking 
fellow, showed that he had a good 
heart and liked to make people happy, 
for when he came out of the store- 
house, behold ! he had chosen kites for 

the children to fly, a big bunch of sil- 
very pussy willows, and a few— a very 
few— flowers, just one or two daffodils 
and crocuses and some spears of green 
grass. " But see," said he, " and 
listen ! This is my greatest treasure 
and what will be best loved," and there 
was a warbling bluebird perched upon 
his hand. 

" April " called Father Time. A pril 
danced forth from the waiting group, 
curtesied to Father Time, and ran into 
the storehouse. She brought out a 
lapful of violets, a flock of robins and a 
picture of Friedrich Froebel. " Right, 
ri^ht ! " said Father Time nodding ap- 
provingly; " that picture belongs to 
you, and Friedrich Froebel is another 
good man whom the children should 
learn about and love. And now, May, 
my dear, run in and choose your bur- 
den." Another pretty maiden an- 
swered this call; and a beautiful sight 
she was, especially after she had been 
in the storehouse. She was laden with 
apple blossoms and wreaths, and car- 
ried a long pole; and she walked to the 
sound of music, for velvety bees hum- 
med about her and birds of many kinds 
filled the air with their warbling. 
"Music and dancing and flowers ! " said 
May. " The children shall have a merry 
time when lam with them." "Have you 
forgotten the soldiers ? " asked Father 
Time. "Oh! no," said May. a tender 
look upon her bright face. " The most 
and best of my flowers are for Memorial 
Day." May took her place with those 
who had gone before, and Father Time 
called June, saying: " Hasten all you 
can, dear June, for there are still many 
to follow you." 

So June made no delay in choosing, 
but chose well, nevertheless, for she 
brought roses— roses in such profusion 
that one could scarcely see her lovely 
face peeping out from between the 
flowery branches. "Strawberries, 
too, good Father Time," said June. 
"I couldn't resist taking the straw- 
berries, too." 

Father Time smiled fondly. People 
always smile upou June, for every one 
loves her. 

"July!" called Father Time. 

Into the storehouse and out again in 
a trice bounded a lively boy. "The 
minute I saw these I knew they were 
what I wanted," said he, showing 
Father Time a package of fireworks 
and waving an American flag. " Hur- 
rah ! " said Father Time, "that's 
right ! But have you also the book of 
American history?" "Here it is," 
said July; " these things were fastened 
to it, so I brought them all along to- 

" Right again," said Father Time. 
" Flags and fireworks wouldn't be of 
much account without that. Now, 
August, see what you would like from 
the storehouse." August returned 
with golden sheaves bound upon his 
back, and carrying a great flower- 
decked basket. "In the basket I have 
put as much fruit as I can possibly 
carry," said August, "and yet there 
is so much left that whoever takes the 
rest will have a rich load." 

"That shall be you, September," 
said Father Time. " Nothing would 
suit you better, I am sure, with your 
warm heart and your strong arms." 

September accordingly located him- 
self with beautiful fruits — apples, 
pears, peaches, grapes — not a whit 
less delicious than those which August 
had brought. 

October was next called. He was a 
gay, breezy fellow. "Ha, ha!" he 
laughed. "Who will be welcomed 
more than I, with these ripe nuts and 
these beautiful, colored leaves ? " 

" My faith ! " said Father Time, " I 
fear my storehouse has no more trea- 
sures, each one of you has taken so 
much. Go and look, November." 

November came forward rather sad- 
ly, but looked cheerful enough after 
his return from the storehouse. He 
fairly staggered under the weight of 
the golden pumpkins and the big fat 
turkeys which he carried. " What do 
you say to these ? " he said triumphant- 
ly. " But the best thing is in my pocket 
— a paper which tells that Thanksgiv- 
ing Day belongs to me." 

"True enough," assented Father 
Time. " And now, December," said be 

turning to the last waiting figure, 
" you, I know, will find no warbling 
birds nor budding flowers; yet you are, 
above all others, a joy bearer." 

December disappeared in the store- 
house; but soon stepped out trans- 
figured. No warbling birds had she, 
indeed, but lacked not for music, for 
snatches of gladdest carols burst from 
her lips from time to time. No fresh 
flowers bloomed for her in beauty and 
fragrance, but holly berries gleamed 
brightly among glossy green leaves 
and a delicious odor came from a little 
fir tree which she carried over her 
shoulder. Looking up, one could see a 
large star which shed its silvery rays 
upon her. 

But the wondrous light that shone 
all about was not from the star or 
moon or sun, but from a picture in her 
hand upon which she fixed her gaze. 
The picture was of a baby lying in a 
manger. Father Time's eyes softened 
as he looked upon it, and his voice was 
full of love as he said: " Ah ! the best 
days and the best of gifts are thine, 
December. Fitting it is that thou 
should'st be the last, and that the love 
and joy which thou bearest should be 
left to the earth as the last memory of 
1895. For so it shall be; 1895 shall stay 
no longer than thy last day. And now, 
friends all," said Father Time, "will 
you kindly form in a procession, so that 
each may know certainly when his 
turn will come ? " 

The twelve laden friends did as 
Father Time requested, and filed close- 
ly past him. He called their names as 
they went by, that there should be no 
mistake (January, February, March, 
etc.) All were in their right places. 

"The hour draws near," said Father 
Time. " Hark ! it is striking ! Here, 
January, take the little New Year in 
your arms. Farewell ! " And lo ! at 
the instant that the clock finished 
striking the midnight hour January 
and 1896 appeared upon the earth. 

And all the other friends laden with 
their beautiful gifts went back into the 
Palace of the Future, and are only 
awaiting their turn to come and bless 
the earth with their bounty. — Emilie 
Poulsson, in the Detroit Free Pi ess. 

Popular Science. 

For over 1200 miles the Nile does not 
receive a single tributary stream. 

Under the most favorable auspices 
electric heating is twice as expensive 
as steam. 

The taste nerves are two thousand 
times more sensitive to quinine than 
they are to sugar. 

In the human subjec t the brain is 
the l-28th part of the whole body's en- 
tire weight. In the horse it is not 
more than 1 -400th part. 

There are 1500 different species of 
snakes in the world. Out of all that 
vast number England has only four 
species, and only one of those is 

A beam of light shoots through 
space with the prodigious velocity of 
196,000 miles a second^ occupying eight 
minutes in making its trip from the 
sun to the earth. 

Piercing the flesh with even the 
finest needle hurts, because the nerves 
are so thickly matted just under the 
skin that not even the finest point can 
be introduced without wounding one 
or more. 

According to Galton the patterns on 
the finger tips are not only unchange- 
able through life, but the chance of the 
finger prints of two persons being 
alike is less than one in 04,000,000,000. 

Electricity has been successfully em- 
ployed by Dr. M. G. Jenison in check- 
ing hemorrhage from the extraction of 
teeth. The current caused instant 
coagulation of the blood, and gave re- 
lief where the usual remedies were 
without effect. 

Mathematical calculations show that 
an iron ship weighs twenty-seven per 
cent less than a wooden one, and will 
carry 115 tons of cargo for every 100 
tons carried by a wooden ship of the 
same dimensions, and both loaded to 
the same draught of water, 

Gems of Thought. 

Avarice is a weed that will grow 
only in a barren soil. — Hughes. 

Conscience warns us as a friend be- 
fore it punishes us as a judge.— Stan- 

They serve God best who do well 
their simple duties — not some fanciful 
sacrifice at a distance, but the plain, 
homely, every day task that lies be- 
fore them. — Religious Herald. 

The love and aspiration which once 
really existed live forever before God, 
and in him ye shall find the fruit there- 
of; that is, to all eternity it shall be 
better for you than if you had never 
felt them.— J. Tauler. 

Be as free, be as liberal, be as cour- 
ageous as you will; but be religious be- 
cause you are liberal, be devout be- 
cause you are bold. Cast away the 
works of darkness because you are 
bold. Cast away the works of dark- 
ness because you are the children of 
light. — Dean Stanley. 

A faith that does not make desire 
purer, and motive higher, and conduct 
holier, and character more beautiful 
with truth and sympathy and charity, 
cannot be an orthodox faith, though it 
claim the sanction of innumerable 
creeds; for orthodoxy means right 
thinking, and right thinking is only 
the rational side of right living. — 
Philip Stafford Moxom. 

The presence of God is not a vague 
sense or abstract feeling or arbitrary 
faith, but shapes itself in every object 
of light and luster, of strength and 
terror, sweetness and tenderness, in 
every kind of order, beauty, progress 
and righteousness, in every insect, 
I bird, animal, man or angel. The sense 
of it inevitably grows as the mind 
grows in spirtual fervor. — Mozoomdar. 

The way of life is by no means 
smooth, but let us not make it rougher 
than it is. The world is not all we 
could wish, but, if it goes wrong, let us 
not spend ourselves trying to make 
it go worse. Rather let us make it a 
little smoother and a little pleasanter 
by our disposition, manners and deeds. 
If men in general are out of sorts, there 
is the more need of our being in sorts. 
— John Learned. 

Hope is the principle of activity; 
without holding out hope, to desire one 
to advance is absurd and senseless. 
Suppose, without a sou in my hand, 
one were to say, "Exert yourself, for 
there is no hope, " — it would be to turn 
me into ridicule, and not to advise me. 
To hold out to me the hopelessness of 
my condition never was a reason for 
exertion; for, when, ultimately equal 
evils attend upon exertion and rest, 
rest has clearly the preference. — Burke. 

The focus of success is within, not 
by rushing about and finding fault 
with other people; not by laying the 
blame to circumstances or this or that; 
by centering all activity in right 
thought and right purpose — at that 
moment and from that moment— so 
will life proceed from a new point of 
departure on a higher plane. How 
often one sees a man expend sufficient 
force in recrimination and antagonism 
and general fault finding with every- 
body and everything because he has 

lightest Honors — World's Fair 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 



Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 

January 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


lost some place or appointment that he 
held, — how often does he expend in 
this unworthy way force enough to 
have created for himself a dozen new 
places, each better than the one he 
has lost ! In fact, the individual who 
meets change or disaster in a bitter 
and acrimonions spirit reveals by that 
very attitude that he was unfit for 
the office that he held. Let him sit 
down with himself and achieve harmony 
and concentration; let him generate 
psychic power sufficiently to act upon 
outward circumstances; and thus will 
he " reduce chaos to order and indraw 
the external to the center." Then in- 
deed, will he have found his own cen- 
tral point, and thus realize that " all 
power is given to him in heaven and 
on earth. — Lilian Whiting. 

Fashion Notes. 

A simple and youthful gown of Lin- 
coln green wool is trimmed with a 
quantity of black mohair braid ar- 
ranged in bands with pointed ends 
that are caught down with cut- jet but- 
tons. One band goes all around the 
bottom of the skirt, and two above it 
are divided by a perpendicular band on 
the sides, which is made to appear con- 
tinuous with a band on the waist. A 
yoke and bretelles are outlined on the 
waist, framing a square and collar 
band of white cloth. 

A black velvet costume is composed 
of a gown and a cape lined with pink- 
ish mauve silk. The entire, costume is 
trimmed with a narrow jetted galloon, 
which is studded at intervals with 
white guipure stars caught with a jet 
spangle. The waist has a plain back 
and gathered front, and is fastened on 
the side. Angular velvet revers turn 
down horizontally at front and back 
and over the sleeves. A velvet belt 
with choux finishes the front, only the 
galloon edging the back. The collar is 
covered with square tabs. The cape 
has a neck ruche of satin ribbon loops. 

A dainty little blouse, which, while 
it is simple enough to be copied by any 
home dressmaker, is worth attention 
on account of its becomingness, is high- 
necked and of a cream gauze, with a 
white velvet stripe and a silver thread 
running through it, and is mounted on 
cream satin. Nothing is more becom- 
ing to the average young face than a 
high-necked, fluffy white waist, and 
this one is arranged to form a very 
soft and airy bebe effect. The elbow 
sleeves are very light and large, but 
have no stiffening except the satin 
foundation. A thick ruche covers the 
elbows, and is held with a band of tur- 
quoise-blue velvet ribbon, tying in a 
square bow on the outside of the arm. 
There are bows on the shoulders and 
bretelles of the velvet, and the choker 
is a band of velvet with a ruche of the 
gauze above and a large bow in the 
back. The belt is of cloth of silver, 
studded with mock turquoises. 

Turquoise blue is even more popular 
than it was last season, and, indeed, all 
shades of light blue are much worn, as 
well as the navy blue so common now 
for street costumes. 

A charming visiting gown, in which 
navy blue plays a prominent part, is 
of satin (the true navy blue, without 
any tinge of purple in it), and has tiny 
figures in it embroidered in gold silk. 
The bodice, a pointed basque, is of blue 
velvet. It fits the figure snugly, but 
has a surplice front laid in a few folds, 
and is edged about with a rich gold 
and black embroidery. The little point 
that the surplice leaves exposed at the 
throat is of gold satin, covered with 
cream lace, and the choker is of blue 
velvet, with an immense bow and lace 
wings in the back. The sleeves are of 
the fancy satin, with a high cuff of vel- 
vet trimmed by lengthwise strips of 
the embroidery. 

Pine clairette makes the most admir- 
able of mourning veils. It is infinitely 
more becoming than crepe, which has 
a hard and metallic luster that is ex- 
ceedingly trying to some styles. 

Dull jet in spangles and beads is used 
with crepe trimmings. 

There seems to be a different way of 
arranging the hair for every face, and 

yet all are stylish. The woman with 
dark, glistening locks must wear her 
hair in the evening after the style of 
the Empress Josephine, if she has the 
face to stand it, and the diamond and 
pearl tiara which gave- the finishing 
touch to this very fetching arrange- 
ment of her locks. If she can't afford 
the latter, two or three strands of imi- 
tation pearls look well wound in and 
out among the dark puffs. Dark hair 
does not look well too much befrizzled. 
Crimping causes it to lose its luster, 
which is brought out by light orna- 
ments. On the other hand, the woman 
with yellow or reddish hair should 
wave it on all sides and puff it up high 
in a fluffy mass. 

Winter millinery comprises hats of 
all sizes and shapes, and the display of 
fashionable head gear was never more 
varied. Tam O'Shanters and effects 
that suggest tams are plentiful. The 
former are much seen in velvet, there 
seeming to be an especial craze for 
tams of plaid velvet. Some of these 
little affairs are hardly more than puffs 
of velvet set away at one side of the 
top of the head, with a cluster of 
drooping feathers restoring balance. 
Many of the caps are rather Henry 
VIII caps than the tam, but they are 
all becoming, and, when matched to 
the overgarment, to the lining of the 
cloak, or, as they in many instances 
are, to the gown itself, the effect is 
most happy. It is unpleasant to see 
such a cap worn over any but a fresh 
face of some piquancy of color and ex- 

Lowell has on one of her roadsides a 
large urn, which is kept constantly 
filled with fresh flowers at the expense 
of a wealthy lady who resides in the 
vicinity, as a memorial to her pet 
poodle, which was killed by the cars at 
that point. 

An expeditious mode of getting up a 
row is to carry a long ladder on your 
shoulder in a crowded thoroughfare, 
and every few minutes turn around to 
see if any one is making faces at you. — 
Tacoma News. 

"Your friend, Van Dooze, is a great 
practical joker, I believe?" "Yes, 
but he isn't my friend any more." 
" What's the matter ? " " I played a 
joke on him the other day." — Chicago 


Hints to Housekeepers. 

be soft and soggy. The top of meat 
and all kinds of raised pies should be 
glazed. Beat the yolk of an egg for a 
short time and add one spoonful of 
milk. When the pie is two- thirds done, 
remove from the oven, brush over with 
the glaze, return to the oven and finish 

When a bed is obliged to face a win- 
dow, as is sometimes necessary, a dec- 
oration and a relief in one is secured 
by a valance above instead of below 
the footboard. Two small brass up- 
rights are fastened in it, with a rod 
adjoining them, on which is hung a 
curtain of some light silk or stuff in 
harmony with the general tone of the 

If the ticking put over down or 
feather pillows is well coated with bees- 
wax on the wrong side, the fluff will 
will not come through. Coat the wrong 
side of the fabric by rubbing the wax 
in with a hot iron. This is a better 
way for down pillows than to recover 
the muslin with canton flannel before 
putting on the ornamented cover. But 
in making feather pillows for bedroom 
use it is worth doing. 

The most stubborn cases of neuralgia 
are apt to yield to a hot-water treat- 
ment. Wherever the pain is located, 
there a hot water bag should be ap- 
plied. The suffering part should be 
wrapped in a blanket, and the unfor- 
tunate patient should be put to bed and 
covered with more blankets and in- 
duced to drink at least three cups of 
water as hot as the palate can stand. 
This treatment may seem severe, but it 
is sure to bring relief. 


Domestic Hints. 

After washing never wring worsted 
dress goods. Shake them. 

Soak black calico in salt and water 
before washing, and so prevent its 

Apply castor oil once a day to warts 
from two to six weeks, and they will 

Spirits of turpentine is the thing 
with which to cleanse and brighten 
patent leather. 

Toilet vinegar, cologne water, alco- 
hol and red wine are good for oily and 
moist hands. 

The dirtiest frying pan will become 
clean if soaked five minutes in ammo- 
nia and water. 

In making black lace dresses, when 
transparent sleeves are desired, if the 
sleeves are first lined with very fine 
white net, the arms will look much 
whiter. The lining does not show when 
the sleeves are worn. 

To stone raisins, pour boiling water 
over them and let them stand in it five 
or ten minutes. Drain, and rub each 
raisin between the thumb and finger 
till the seeds come out clean, then cut 
or tear apart or chop, if wanted very 
fine. Scald only a few at a time. 

If mothers will remember that until 
the first teeth are cut there are no se- 
cretions in the mouth to act upon and 
begin the digestion of such starchy 
foods as bread foods and gruels, they 
would often save the stomachs of very 
young children a great deal of trouble. 

If the bottom crust of fruit pies is 
glazed with the white of egg, It will not 

These have to be offered every 
year at or near the close of the 
season to close up broken lines 
in wearing apparel and other 
goods. You make the gain; we 
make the loss; but 'tis all right 
and we suggest that you order 

Rolled Steak. — Cover a skirt steak 
with finely chopped parsley. Roll and 
tie tightly. Place on a bed of vege- 
tables and finish the same as fricandeau 
of veal. 

Baked Sweethreads. — Lard and 
parboil two heart sweetbreads. Place 
them in a baking dish. Baste well with 
butter. Add a half cupful of stock. 
Bake slowly. Baste almost constantly 
for a half hour. When covered with a 
rich glaze, dish and serve with hot 

Chocolate Loaf Cake. — First, for 
chocolate mixture, scrape half a coffee 
cup chocolate in granite basin; add 
one-half cup sweet milk, yolk of 
one egg. Set on the stove; stir till it 
thickens. To two well-beaten eggs add 
one and one-half cups white sugar, one- 
half cup butter, beat well; then add the 
above chocolate mixture, one cup flour, 
then one-half cup of sweet milk, in 
which dissolve one teaspoonful soda, 
then one more cup flour. Mix two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder with the 
flour. Bake in a loaf or two square 
tins, with white frosting between. In 
baking cake it pays to bake a " pattie " 
sample first. 

Fancy Cakes. — Delicious little faucy 
cakes may be made by making a rich 
jumble paste, rolling out in any desired 
shape; cut some paste in thick, nar- 
row strips and lay around your cakes, 
so as to form a deep, cup like edge; 
place on well-buttered tin and bake. 
When done, fill with iced fruit, pre- 
pared as follows: Take fine, large 
canned peaches and drain well from all 
juice, cut in halves, or canned plums, 
strawberries, pineapples cut in squares 
or small triangles or any other avail- 
able fruit, and dip in the white of an 
egg that has been very slightly beaten 
and then in pulverized sugar, and lay 
in the center of your cakes. 

Jumbles. — Cream together two cups 
of sugar and one of butter, add three 
well-beaten eggs and six tablespoon- 
fuls of sweet milk, two tablespoon fuls 
of baking powder, flavor to taste, flour 
enough to make into a soft dough. Do 
not roll it on the paste board, but 
break off pieces of dough the size of a 
walnut and make into rings by rolling 
out rolls as large as your finger and 
joining the ends; lay them on tins to 
bake, an inch apart, as it rises and 
spreads; bake in. a moderate oven. 
These jumbles are very delicate and. 
will keep a long time. 



Little gray hose— 5, 5(4 5c 

Brown mixed, best — 5, 5(4, 7(4 7c 

Colored cashmere, 25c— 1(4 to 54 15c 

Colored wool, ladies', 50c— 8*, 9Vi 35c 

Natural gray, ladies - , 50c— 8(4, 9, 9(4 38c 

Extra heavy black wool, 50c— 8s 25c 

Extra heavy rib wool, 50c— 7, 7(4 30c 

Misses' brown wool, 50c— 7(4 25c 

Misses' black wool, 25c— 5^4, 7%, H% 12'4c 

Boys' gray mixed wool, 25c 12(4c 

Boys' red mixed wool, 25c 12MC 

Bicycle hose, colors— 8 to 9V4 15c 

Fifty-cent black wool, ladies— 8, 8(4 25c 


Misses' red, 50c— 8, 8(4 20c 

Ladies' striped, 25c— 8, 8V4, 10 15c 

Tan outsizes, 50c— 9s , 25c, 35c 

Misses' heavy black, 65c — 9, 10 35c 

Boys' heavy black, 65c— 10s 35c 

Fleece lined black, 8 to 9V4 25c. 35c 

Colored outsizes, navy, brown— 9, 9V4 25c 

Opera shades, samples, 75c— 9s 25c, 35c 

Silk hose, black— 9s 50c 

Silk hose, white, $1— 9s 50c 

Silk hose, fancy, 11.25— 9s 50c 

Lace boot, black, 75c — 9s 25c, 35c 


Fine wool, brown, 50c— 9'4, 10(4 35c 

Fine sample hose— 10, 1014 15c, 20c, 25c 

Heavy wool, gray, red 25c, 35c 

Order only in sizes named at these prices. They 
are genuine bargains, too costly for the times, so 
we cut price in two. 


Girls' rubbers with heels— 13 to 1(4 15c 

Girls' heel-strap foot holds 10c 

These free, with every pair kid shoes. 

Men's foot holds— 8, 9, 10 15o 

Free with every pair fine shoes. 

Over shoes. (4 high, cloth top— 2(4 to 4 35c 

Misses' high-cut gaiters,; heels— 13(4 35c 

Ladies' Favorite arctics— all 2(4 25c 

Short boots for boys— size 5 81 75 

Little girls' coats, 3 to 4 years 75c 

Ladies' circulars, not recommended 65c 

If you order mention page 32. 


Health, gray— 18, 19, 20, 29, 30 90c 

Health, black— 23, 24. 30 SI 15 

Health, extra size, gray— 32, 33, 35 1 25 

333, $1 corset— 18, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30 75 

444, black, extra— 18, 20, 22, 25, 27 1 15 

444, gray, extra— 19, 21, 82, 23, 34 95 

4-in-hand, short— 20. 23, 24, 27 85 

Abdominal, gray— 22 to 30 1 85 

High bust — size 22 85 


Black, Perfectiou-IH, 19, 20, 21, 25, 30 75c 

Gray, Perfectiou-18, 19, 21. 24, 25, 26 75c 

White, Perfection— 18, 19 45c 

Baby waists, cheap— 1(4 to 3 . -250 

Bicycle waists, mailed free $1 00 

These are (Hit down in price because sizes are out. 




414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 25, 1896. 

The Trans-Siberian Railway. 

Regarding the new trans-Siberian 
railway, the Russian Government hopes 
to have the line completed and open for 
traffic in 1S»00. Engineering works of 
vast magnitude must be constructed, 
including bridges for spanning three of 
the greatest rivers in the world — the 
Obi, Yenise and Amoor. The most 
troublesome task will be to get around 
the south end of Lake Baikal. That 
great sheet of water is 350 miles long, 
comparatively narrow and very deep 
and lies in the midst of a high plateau. 
It is surrounded by mountains, over 
which the road will have to pass. The 
highest point is 3600 feet above the sea 
level, near Shceta, a considerable dis- 
tance east of the lake. 

The line will be 6700 miles long. It 
starts at Chelabinsk, on the western 
edge of Siberia. At that point it con- 
nects with the European system of 
railways in a direct line to St. Peters- 
burg, by way of Moscow. What may 
be termed the first section of the road 
extending east from Chelabinsk to 
Omsk — a distance of 500 miles — is al- 
ready practically finished, and will be 
opened for before the end of this year. 

From Omsk to Crasnoiarsk is a dis- 
tance of 800 miles. The road joining 
those two points is built — that is to 
say, the embankments are constructed, 
the cuts are made and the rails are 
laid, but there are no bridges yet. 
This section will be opened for the run- 
ning of trains in 1896. From Cras- 
noiarsk to Irkutsk is a distance of 700 
miles. That section will be finished 
and in running order in 1890. This will 
carry the road nearly to Lake Baikal. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty and 
expense attending the transportation 
of material by water all the way from 
Europe, a beginning has been made in 
the construction of the railway from 
the Pacific coast end — the Russian port 
of Vladivostock, on the sea of Japan. 
From that point northward toGraska, 
about 200 miles, the road is built and 
in running order, and from thence it is 
being carried forward as fast as is 

On the eastern portion of the line the 
labor of convict exiles will be employed 
to a considerable extent, but not so 
elsewhere. About 25,000 men are now 
at work on the railway. The railway 
and everything in connection with it is 
under the control of a Government 
Commission, the president of which is 
the Czarowitz. 

This movement for bringing the weather 
reports more within the reach of the 
general public has the strong support 
of the chief of the Weather Bureau at 
Washington, and he has written to all 
the principal cities urging the making 
of the necessory arrangements. In 
this way the country will be practi- 
cally covered. 

Telephone Weather Bulletins. 

An important step has been taken in 
the organization of a supplementary 
weather warning service by means of 
the telephone, and a plan is now being 
proposed for affording to a large number 
of communities the advantages of the 
new scheme. In New York the local 
telephone company has placed at the 
service of the chief of the weather sig- 
nalling department a telephone to be 
used only in giving special information 
of weather forecasts to the general 
public. Anyone can call for answers 
to special questions at any time and be 
sure of an immediate reply. Moreover, 
any subscriber who wishes to have all 
important weather news can send his 
name to the telephone company and he 
will thereafter be telephoned by them 
whenever any marked change is ex- 
pected. These special warnings, all of 
which are to be sent to the office of the 
telephone company, and from there to 
the subscribers wishing to receive them, 
include all heavy storms, cold waves, 
warm waves, sleet and storms, etc. 


Unequalled in 



♦ ♦ Fully Guaranteed. + ♦ 

Will be sent on trial to responsible people wishing 
to purchase. 

Oatotogatt frtt on application. 


S3K Posl Street San Erauclsco, Cal. 

Beccham's pills are for bilious- 
ness, bilious headache, dyspep- 
sia, heartburn, torpid liver, diz- 
ziness, sick headache, bad taste 
in the mouth, coated tongue, 
loss of appetite, sallow skin.etc, 
when caused by constipation; 
and constipation is the most 
frequent cause of a!l of them. 

Go by the book. Pilis io<J and 
25$ a box. Book free at your 
druggist's or write B. F. Allen Co., 
365 Canal Street, New York. 

Annual sales more than 6.000,000 boxes. 

A twelve-mule team left Fresno on the 
11th with two wagons and 1S,00() pounds of 
electric plant for the San Joaquin river— the 
framework and the armature for one of the 
dynamos which will generate electricity to be 
transmitted to Fresno. Two of these dyna- 
mos have arrived from New York, and another 
is on the road. Each dynamo weighs '.24,000 
pounds, but is in three pieces, and each piece 
can be handled separately. The largest piece 
weighs 11,000 pounds and is loaded on the 
front wagon; the next piece, SOOO pounds, is 
on the trail wagon. The 5000-pound piece will 
go at another time. The second dynamo re- 
mains for the present near the freight depot. 
The road to the mountains is a fairlv good 
one. The bridge across the San Joaquin, 
built by the electric company, was designed 
especially to carry such loads. There is other 
heavy machinery to go. but not so heavy as 

State of Ohio, City op Toledo, 1 

Lucas County. I ' 

Frank J. Cheney makes oath that he 1b the 
senior partner of the tirni of F. J. Cheney & Co., 
(loins business in the City of Toledo, County anil 
.State aforesaid, and that 'said llrm will pay the 
sum of ONE HUNDRKD DOLLARS for each and 
every case of Catarrh lhat cannot be cured by the 
use of Hall's Catarrh CntE. 


Sworn to before me and subscribed in my pres- 
ence, this 6th day of December, A. D. 1886. 


Notary Public. 

Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally and acts 
directly on the blood and mucous surfaces of the 
system. Send for testimonials, free. 

F. J. CHENEY ft CO., Toledo, O. 
«-Sold by Druggists, 75c. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

The California wool crop for "J5 was 35,- 
866,890 pounds, against 86,968,400 pounds in 
'94. Spring clip, 24.01*, 110 pounds; fall clip, 
10,080,580 pounds; pulled wool, l,75K,t>O0 
pounds. The exports during the year were 
26,.'55ti,000 pounds, exclusively by rail, and 
were valued at $3,500,000. The stock on hand 
Dec. 81, was 6,000,000 pounds, including 
scoured wool. 


With Oats at 20'.i bu., Corn 240 bu., Teosintc 
100 tons, Potatoes 1200 bu., and Silver King 
Barley 116 bu. per acre, Where will yields 
stop? We'll tell you this: The John A. 
Salzer Seed Co. are creating new cereals. 
Above yields are facts to-day and they say in 
ten years their new varieties, now in prog- 
ress, will surely increase above yield 50 per 
cent. If Salzer says so, it's so. That Silver 
King Barley is marvelous ! 

If you wlil cut this out and H«'ii<l it with 10c. 
postage to the John A. Salzer Seed Co., La 
Crosse, Wis., you will receive their mammoth 
catalogue and ten packages grasses and 
grains, including Silver King Barley. 

Los Angeles papers report the production 
of the oil field for the past year to be nearly 
three times that of the previous year, 
amounting altogether to 1,3ns, T5<) barrels. The 
average price received was fifty cents per 
barrel, or $084, 375 for the entire output. Ac- 
cording to the estimate of the oil exchange, 
there are 250 wells which have beeu operated 
during the year, the mean product of each 
being about fifteen barrels daily. 

Irritation of the Throat and Hoarseness 
are immediately relieved by " Brown'* Bron- 
chial Troches.'* Have them always ready. 

The El Completo Coffee and Commercial 
Co. has incorporated here — capital stock $75,- 
000 — to raise and market coffee in Mexico and 
Central America. 


V with long practical experience in California 
and Europe, wants responsible situation. Compe- 
tent fruit-grower, vineyardist and wine-maker. 
Will prove satisfactory in every branch of the 
business. Addreas N. N., this ofllce. 

New Varieties of 


" Clairac 



~~ a horticulturist, to take charge of a vineyard 
or orchard, ditches, irrigation of whatever magni- 
tude. Address TRIPAL, 201 Lombard Street, San 
Francisco, care of Rev'd D. O. Kelley. 

Average size (cured). 

The FINEST and LARGEST prune ever intro- 
duced into this Slate, grading (cured) from 20 to 35 
per pound; splendid to ship East as a plum. 

The CLAIRAC MAMMOTH was originated 
from the seed: nothing "hybridized" about it. 
We can, therefore, guarantee the character of this 
remarkable prune to be " constant." All our trees 
of that prune are on Myrobolan root; on peach it 
Is too liable to sever from the stock. Prices, 13, $4 
and $5 per dozen, according to sizes; $24, H30 and 
$35 per hundred. 


We would caution the public against buying 
trees pur|>orting to be that New Prune of ours, 
under any name whatever, as we know of some 
unscrupulous nurserymen in the State trying to 
pass the " Robe Imperial " a large and juicy plum, 
under the name of "Imperial" short, for the 
Clairac Mammoth. We assure the public that 
those nursorymen are frauds, and contemptible 
frauds, they claiming to have bribed an employe 
of ours to obtain scions of that prune ! 

Chatenay D'Ente Prune. 

This is another new variety of French Prune, 
earlier than the earliest. We particularly recom- 
mend this valuable variety to Oregon prune grow- 
ers, as it would permit them to dry their prunes to 
the sun. 

Two more new varieties of prunes under "ex- 
perimental test " test in our grounds. 

Nat Trees of All Kinds. 

23 Varieties of English Walnut (GRAFTED 

9 Varieties of French Chestnuts. 

4 Varieties of Alnionds. 

S Varieties of Filberts. 

241 Varieties of Grapes. 

62 Varieties of English Gooseberries. 

New Pears, New Cherries, New Apples, New 
Fruit In general, etc. 

Send for General Descriptive Catalogue and 
Price List. 

Felix Gillet, 

Barren Hill Nursery, Nevada City, Cal. 


Pear and Cherry Seedlings. 

No. 1, A and up. . $5.00 per 1000. 

No. 2, J to A 2.50 

No. 3, X to i 1.50 

Terms cash before shipment. Mention this paper. 

Sunrise Nurseries Montavilla, Oregon, 

C/lLltltp tnUITS 

— AND- 


A Manual of Methods which have Yielded 
Greatest Success; with Lists of Varieties 
Rest Adapted to the Dlfierent 
Districts or the State. 


Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, San PraocUco, Cal 

For Planting Season of 1896 

We offer for sale a choice lot of 

Budded Orange and 
Lemon Trees, 

One and two-year buds of the leading varieties, on 
sour or sweet stock. 

Priees to Suit the Times. 

SEEDLING OR ANQE TREES at your own price. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 

Orovllle, Rutte Co., Cal. 



Has on hand of his own growing a choice stock of 
yearling and two-year-old nursery trees, 
consisting of 

French Prunes, Tragedy Primes. 

Royal, Blenheim, Moorpark, French and 
Newcastle Apricots. 

I. X. L.. Nonparlel, Texas Prolific, Lanque- 
doc, La Prima and Ne Pins Ultra Almonds. 

Crawford, Salway, Susquehanna, Muir, Fos- 
ter and other Peaches in variety. 

Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Nectarines, 
etc., etc. 

Also Orange and Lemon Trees, Acacias, 
Texas Umbrella Trees, Grapevines and Small 
Fruits In endless variety. 

Guaranteed true to label and free from Insect 
pests. For particulars, prices, etc., address 

J. A. ANDERSON, Lodi, Cat. 

Santa Rosa Nurseries. 

A Fine Slock of Clean, Unirrigated Trees. 

All the Standard Varieties. 

Aliio California Red (bent, n»o»t prolific and 
largest early I'lum), Wonderful Tennant 
Prune, Kent New Japan 1*1 u inn and 
Young-Bearing Applet*. 

A?.™*** R. W. BELL, 


Established IH7B. 

riyrobolan Nursery 


Offers for the season of I80MS a complete 
assortment of 

Clean, Healthy, Non Irrigated 
Fruit Trees. 

Plums, Prunes and Apricots on the true Myrobolan 
Root my specialty. No cut-backs or hold over 
tree, dug-stock. No insect pests. 

J AS. O'NEILL, Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Olive Growers Handbook 

and Price List Fre» 


OH\/e^ Trees. 

All Sizes. 

John E. Packard, 

I'omona, California. 

Olive Trees. 


Send for Price List. 




Union Nursery Sacramento, Cal. 

Frank Kitnz, Proprietor. 


C. F. LOOP & SON, 
Send for Price List. Pomona, California. 


Sent Free on Application to 
F. M. HUNT Redlands, Cal. 

Jauuarv 25, 189G. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Pacific Nursery 

Office and Greenhouses, 
Cor Baker and Lombard Sts., Sau Francisco. 
Nursery at Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 


Evergreens and Coniferous, Palms and Pracenses. 

Largest and best grown stock of Camellias, the 
best double sorts. Azaleas indica, double and 
single. Roses on own roots and grafted in the 
best varieties, and healthy, very strong plants. 




Perfect seeds grow 
r payingcrops. Perfect seeds"' 
Fare not grown by chance. Noth-J 
Ting is ever left to chance In grow-^ 
ing Ferry's Seeds. Dealers sell 
tbem everywhere. Write for 


for 1896. Brimful of valuable j 
[ Information about uest and new- 
, est seeds. Free by mail. 
D. M. FERRY & CO.. 
Detroit, Mich. 

French Prune ! Royal Apricot ! 

Black Tartarian and Royal Ann Cherries. 
Cork Elm, Birch, Linden, Maple, Hawthorn. 
Acacias, Magnolias. Dracaenas, Pittosporums. 
Laurestinus Carnations. 
Roses and Palms in large quantities. 
Gums and Cypress in boxes. 

Send for price list. 

F. GILL, Nurseryman, Oakland, Cal. 



Every planter wants them, Wo 
2 CTS. & up. Extras with orders. 
mailed FRF F. Maiket Qarrlrnera 
|OS/c /or Wholesale Price List. 


No. 11 Alneer Blk, Rocklord. III. 

igsmss is mm 

r We are the only seedsmen making the growing of = 
• farm seeds, grasses and clovers a great specialty.:: 
rOur Extra Crass and Clover Mixtures loot a life-s 
-time without renewal. Prices dirt cheap. Mam-5 
2 moth catalogue und 10 pkgs. Grains and Grassess 
£ free for but 10c-. pn stage. Catalogue alone Ac. - 
S JOHN A. SALZER SEED CO . La Crosse, wis. = 
Xiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ■iiiiitiniiiiiiii inn mini? 


But You Must Plant the Right Seed. 

My new Seed Book tells all about the best kiDd B of 
t omatoes and much else of interest in the Seed Line. 
Most attract ive and instructive buyers catalogue ever 
published, illustrating these Tomatoes, free to all 
intending purchasers. Address at once. P.O. JBox 6]5 


Rockford Seed Farms, ROCKFORD, ILL. 

Headquarters for the Choicest 



Elegant 168 Page Catalog, Free. 
Send for It before buying. 
Half saved by dealing direct. Every- 
thing mail size postpaid. Larger by ex- 
press or freight. 8otl«factlon Guar- 
anteed. 42nd year. lOOO Acre* 
JB0 Greenhouses. 


Painesville, Ohio. Box 125 


Palms are considered tho ricb X 
man's plant, because so hlgh«plic : ;1J 
ed at the North. We grow lhatn>9R 
at a uiiDirnum of cost, and to lu--Jfc 
troduco them to the general pub- A & 
lie, we will mail a too, healthy ;[L 
plant — and. a copy of our eato-j! 
lnuite, irhtvh teUs just how to man- * ; 

age Palms in the irindmr — post . " c 
paid to any address for only 20 cjts. 3 » 
CltF.VlLLE.Y ROBUST*. $ \ 
Known as Australian Silk Oak'* 
(but Is not a true oak). A splendid i £ 
ffi"^g^s^f^TirtfTSfc=3> pernj l« uv<-.i |*»»t plant, uh ,i,..-,„ a . 
3 ;tiveaa a Palm, as hardy and easily managed as a Geranium 
a land as graceful as a Fern, The 
Tb • 1 list, heat, and gas of living 

* ; rooms has no visible effect on it, 
"3 ? and everybody Bhould grow it A 
3 rflne, strong plant— and a copy 
5 our cataloaua — sent postpaid 
3 i for only 16 cents. Or for only 
^.85 cents we -will send 

both the Palm and tore* 

* " villoa — and a catalogue 
"5 r — to any address. 
3 r FnEE t Our 68 page C»t- 

3 f ftlogue of Rare Florida 
$ i Flowers A Fruits for 1896, -= 
a »with fine colored plate, mailed free to all applicants. 

iPIKE & ELLSWORTH, Jessamine, Fla 

Australian Salt Bush Plants 

For alkali land, for sale by Lord as Walton, 
60!) E. 2nd St., Los Angeles, Cal. 




Fruit Trees, Olive Trees, Grape Vines, 
Ornamental Trees and Roses, 



GEORGE G. ROEDIING, Proprietor. 


(Atriplex seniibaccatum) 

— — S E E D.- 


Descriptive Circular sent on application. Correspondence invited. 



419-421 Sansome Street, San Kraiu-isc-o, Cal. 

Oak Lawn Nursery. 


H . E. HULBFRT Proprietor. 


Are YOU going to plant this season ? 

If you are, be fortunate enough to secure some of the following: 

ItllRBANK . . . }°™ M!ir,al,a S7.50 the 100 


SIMON on Myrobolan mt . „ ..... 



These trees have been grown without irrigation. 
WASHINGTON NAVELS and MED. SWEET ORANGE TREES at such bard times prices as 

will meet your purse. 

Aloha Nurseries, 




Trees! Trees! Trees! Trees! 



Get Our Prices Before Buying your Stock. 


Stockton, Gal. 


RIO BONIT0 NURSERIES, Biggs, Butte Co., Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coast. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894=95 in Stock. 

cale^ o\her pes e ts ged everywnere t0 De e 1 ual t0 tne best - Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address : 

Alexander & Mammon, 

Biggs, Butte County, Cal. 

Special and Important to All Fruit Growers. 


We have boon 
appointed b y 
Stark Bros.. 
CAGEN, Louisiana, Mo., 
m sole agents for 
. the s p i e i] (i o r 
H» Prune on the 

\>H IM'itic coast. 

Trees grown 
by us at our 
nurserien here. 

Every tree to 
>e sold under 
their register- 
ed tr;ule mark. 

The Splendor 
han the sweet- 
ness of the 
D'Agon, but Is 
several times 

Send for description and special order blank at once. Only a limited number left. larger. 

We have a large list of new varieties of Peaches. Plums and Prunes. Also a large list of Roses. 
Greenhouse Plants, etc. Catalogue and Price List sent upon application. 


Successors to Leonard Coates. 




table Seeds 

Choice Bulbs and Plants. 

We prepay the postage and guarantee safe delivery of the Plants. 

Set A— 3 Beautiful Palms, 3 sorts, strong plants, 50c 

B— 10 I.ovely Carnations, 10 sorts 50c 

C— 10 Prize-winning Chrysanthemums, 10 sorts 50c 

O— 5 Superb double Petunias, 5 kinds 50c 

E— 5 Grand large-flowered Oeraniums, 5 kinds. 50c 

G — 10 Hlegaut ever blooming Roses, 10 kinds 50c 

10 l'lovvering Plants, viz: r Fuchsia, 1 Heliotrope, 
1 Manettia Vine, 1 Carnation, 1 Geranium, 
1 Solaum, 1 Petunia, 1 Abutilon, 1 Hydran- 
gea, 1 Chrysanthemum 50c 

12 Violet Plants, 50c. JgM&'«*S£ 

] w White, 3 Marie Louise. 
Qf»nrl fr»«" r\ttr Illustrated Catalogue. It contains a 

cciiu lur UUI complete list of our Flower, Vegeta- 
ble, Grass, Clover, Tree and Shrub Seeds, Fruit Trees and Small 
Fruits; our latest importations from Germany, France, England, 
Australia and Japan; all the Latest Novelties in Flower and Vege- 

COX SEED AND PLANT CO., San Francisco 

411, 413 Sansome Street 


3 Sets 




5 Sets 






''"""KANSAS SEED HOUSE p " B ^™n«K co " 

Grass, Field, Garden, Tree and Flower-seeds, all espec- 
ially (frown and selected forWesternsollandcllmate. 
Alfalfa, Kaflircorn and other forage plants for dry cli- 
mate a. specialty. Our elegant lHUti catalogue Is ready and 
will be mailed Free on application. 8tad for one now 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 25, 1896. 


Produce Market. 

San Fkancisco, Jan. 22, 1806. 
WHEAT— The local wheat market is very 
firm and, taking it altogether, is in a satis- 
factory condition. Since our last issue prices 
for May option have advanced, while milling 
and No. 1 are also slightly better. In spot 
trading there is a good inquiry for export, but 
few offerings, as holders seem to be confident 
prices will go higher, and as they wish to get 
everything possible out of it, there is not 
much disposition to sell. The Eastern mar- 
kets are a little stronger, with a tendency to 
go higher, and the English market is strong 
and steady. These circumstances have tended 
to strengthen the local market. But probably 
the most important factor has been the de- 
mand for milling wheat for shipment to Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand and Cape of (iood Hope. 
In ordinary seasons these markets are sup- 
plied locally, but the almost total failure of 
the wheat 'crop in that part of the world this 
last season has created a market there for 
California. Whether we can hold these mar- 
kets another season is, of course, question- 
able, as they usually raise more than is 
needed for their own wants and are exporters 
themselves. This season, however, this state 
of affairs has helped California and has helped 
to maintain and advance the local market, of 
San Francisco particularly, for the higher 
grades. There are at the present time five 
vessels loading at the whars'es for Australia 
and South Africa, and more are looked for 

Milling wheat is selling at $1. IT! 20 and 
No. 1, tl.U7 1 /, ; May option, 11.09% 

Freights to the United Kingdom and Europe 
at the present time are low, some being 
quoted at 21s 3d to direct ports. A good many 
of the vessels were chartered previous to 
arrival, however, and these get better fig- 
ures, some as high as 31s tid. 

BARLEY.— The market for barley remains 
steady at former figures: Feed, 70c; brew- 
ing, 7o@85c. 

FLOUR -Net cash -Family extra, *tf V>~>(<£ 
3 75 per bbl ; Bakers' extra, *M 45Q6 55; Su- 
perfine, *2 50@3 75. 

OATS— Feed, fair to good, 85®T0c; No. 1, 
72V»®82%c; choice to fancy, S5c; Surprise, 
95cfe#l ; Milling. S0<V/s5c; Norway, black, i\0i: 
1 25; Gray, 80(?*85c; Red, $1 05@l 10. 

BUCK WHEAT— 87'4'S 95c perctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS There is little, if 
anything, to report in the butter market this 
week. Receipts are light, as the rainstorm of 
the past few days has prevented the farmers 
from reaching their shipping points: and even 
if they could, the boats which connect with 
Marin Co. points were not running with any 
regularity. The market is therefore bare of 
some kinds, particularly the better qualities. 
This does not result, however, in higher 
prices, for there is a correspondingly small 
demand. The Eastern market is firm. Prices 
remain the same as last week. 

Butter, creamery, fancy, per pouDd 26@27H 

" " seconds, " 24@26 

pickled, " I8@20 

Cheese, fancy mild, " IIK6UH 

fair to good, " 7® 9 

Eastern. " 12® 12* 

EGGS— The wet weather does not seem to 
have affected the laying ability of the do- 
mestic hen, for eggs were in more plentiful 
supply than last week, with a consequent 
weakening of the prices all around. We quote 
as follows : 

Fancy ranch, per dozen 23®24 

Choice •' " 2Ko.23 

Fancy store, " 20®2I 

Choice « " 18((. 19 

POULTRY— There are a few changes this 
week in the poultry market in the way of 
better prices ; but it is feared this is only a 
temporary improvement caused by the storm 
of the last few days. Farmers were unable 
to ship, and the supply was consequently 
shortened. There is not. however, a very 
strong demand; and when the storm sub- 
sides, there will, in all likelihood, be a drop 
in prices. We quote as follows: 
Live Turkeys, gobblers, per pound llw ]■> 

" " hens lii.i 18 

Dressed Turkeys ism M 

Roosters, old, per dozen A UKa I ho 

; ' young 4 S0®5 00 

Broilers, small 2 5U®8 mi 

" large 3 50to4 Ml 

Hens 4 ui<« 5 00 

Ducks 5 0U(« « 50 

Geese, per pair I aoi.i I 78 

Pigeons, per doz I 00(d'l 25 

" young I iic I 75 

BEANS— There is no change to report in 
this market and last week's prices will hold 

Bayos '. SI 05f« 1 15 

Butler t I TOioi I iKl 

Pink I 00®l 15 

Red 1 20C« 1 35 

Lima 2 tS0Ca>2 75 

Horse I 30® I ?li 

Pea 1 90® I 79 

Small white I 4001 55 

Large 1 lu©l 35 

Black Kye 1 ?5®l 95 

Red Kidney 1 75@1 95 

ONIONS— Onions are reported scarce and 
prices higher. Good to choice Silverskins are 
quoted at from S0e/«.$1.10 and cut Onions at 

POTATOES— There is a continued im- 
provement in the Potato market, with prices 
of most varieties higher. This, of course, is 
due to the rain which has been so general for 
the past week. Farmers are getting ready to 
plant as soon as the storm is over, and the de- 
mand for seed stuff is good, with higher prices. 
Should good planting weather set in now, as 
there is every indication of it doing, the 

chances are prices will go still higher on ac- 
count of the large demand and short stocks of 
some varieties, such as the Early Rose. We 
quote as follows : 

Oregon Burbanks 60® 80 

Salinas " 80® 75 

River " 36®50 

Reds 90@8O 

Karlv Rose 55®7U 

Oregon Garnets *K» 70 

RICE MEAL Mill prices, *13@15 per ton. 

OILCAKE MEAL— New or old process, mill 
prices, $21 per ton. 

FEED CORN MEAL Choice grades, per 
ton, #19 50@20 50. 

CRACKED CORN— Choice qualitv, per ton, 

BRAN — No. 1, *13 50(3)14 50 per ton. 

IK H>S per lb, according to quality; 
old stock, 3@5c. 

HAY— New crop, per ton: Wheat, tXOi: 
12 50; Barlev, *hY«s 50; Wheat and Oat, *7 50 
@tl; Wild Oat, $»Vtt9; Clover. W@8; Alfalfa, 
*5 SOGcS 50: Compressed, *ii 50ft) 10 50; Stock, 

CORN— New crop, small Yellow, ctl, 87^ft! 
9(lc; large Yellow, S7'^i90c; White, S5ft] 

s~y t c. 

RYE 75(if SOc per ctl for new. 

MIDDLINGS -Fair to good per tou. ftl8@ 
18 50; No. 1, $19@20; extra choice, 121. 

per ton, *21. 

GROUND BARLEY -Choice to fancy, *lfi 
6t.\7 per ton. 

STRAW— Good to choice, per bale, 40ft!G0c. 

HONEY AND BEESWAX — The prices of 
these articles are merely nominal. There is 
a little doing all the time but only in the way 
of jobbing sales. Prices are as follows : 

Comb 10®I2 

Water White, extracted 5<a5i«; 

Dark Amber 4®4H 

Beeswax 94086 

WOOL — There is nothing new to report in 
this market. Sales for good quality continue 
fair, while poor qualities drag. Prices are 
maintained at about last week's figures: 

Short, trashy San Joaquin plains 3@5c 

Good San Joaquin plains 4®Sc 

Southern and Coast 4®5c 

Mountain Wools, light and free 8®7c 

Mountain Wools, defective and heavy 6®6c 

Humboldt and Mendocino 8®9c 

Prices of Wool From 1889 to 1895. 

Luiil, Jan. lOth, 1S90. 

P<> the Editok:— Will you be kind enough 
to publish, for the information of your readers, 
the quotations of prices of the various grades 
of California wool from 1SHH to 1895, repeating 
the quotations from your paper for the first 
issue in May and November of each year I 
Yours truly, J. F. Bi sbv. 

The information asked for in the above let- 
ter is given in the following table: 

•tnn v ' 
ro o •' ' 

• TED' 


£ £ | 5 


a _ . jji | 


o 2, ■ 

- w — ■ cn k. o» I m 

: £: , I s 

^ 3 . a 3 : 3 I $. 
i— — ■ *c w . 

X 4- O- » / I 

- — — *Z 5 ~ 71 *£ v> 5? t « 

\ ^ I £ 

— fw fi fi' <'f '» (i 'i 

•C 4- 'J' tL -u tl -I J- tZ I 

* * g 

TZ c ZZ Z>. -3 tZ x S ! 

s 3 -: g = 3 -: 2 

• w — — I ? xuc^£ I v-, 

: * I B 

t& ~. <i " — *i *i (a, | 

ZZ- — — ^ 5 x i:^ S — I 

* \g 
5 ; : :3;53'35 I , 

I I I I I I I I I I I • 






- _ 

33 3f 

n - TZ "im' Zp I 

= 3! — - 

J- ■ V — wo 

H = 

f f 

■ ttS 

■ opa«.< 

: ;55: 




: ®: : : : 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at SOc per Hue per 

Horses and Cattle. 

K. H. BUKKK, H»! Market 9t„ S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
stelns; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

Butter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs 
and Poultry. William Nile* St Co., Lob Angelex. 
Cal.. Breeders and Kxporlers. EHtablltthed in ISTti. 

i B KSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
Is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

HULLS— Devons and ShortboniB. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine Individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or In carload Ioih. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danvllie. Cal. 

I'KTKK SAXK St SON, Lick House, S F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Oor- 
reHpondence solicited. 



for poultry. Kvery grocer and merchant keeps It 

MANHATTAN EtiU FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale. Tillman & Bendel, S. F. 

MR8.J.U. FKKDEKICKS, Madison. Cal. Bl.Mln- 
orcas and Br. Leghorn Egg» for sale at SOc per doz. 

WILLIAM NILES& CO.. Los Angeles.Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 

Send for illustrated anddeacrlptlvecatalogue. free. 


F. II. HUKKE, BH Market St. , S. F — BKRKSHlliKS 

TVLEK KEACH. San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 


Best Stock; Thoroughbreds. Wm. Nile* St Co.. 
Los Angeles. Cal. Established In 1876. 

A. P. HOT AXING Berkshires from Imported 
stock— Maytield. Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

P. H. MUKPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breederof 
Shorthorn Cattle, Poland-China & Berkshire Hogs. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden. San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton. Reglsfd Berkshires. 

Sheep and Goats. 

.I.H.IiLIDE, Sacramento. Very largeeholeeSpan- 
l«h, French and Shropshire rams. Bedrock prices. 


Vou C»ll Largely lm -reuse 

Your Income by buying an lncu 
bator and engaging in the chicken 
business. Send stamp fur our 
catalogue of Incubators. Wire 
Netting, Blooded Fowls and Poul 
try Appliances generally, liemem- 
brr Iht It. .-t it thr Cheapeit. PACIFIC 
INCUBATOR CO., 1317 Castro St.. 
Oakland, Cal. 


Eggs, Poultry, Butter, Cheese, Honey, Etc. 



i07 Front Stre«-t 

Shii Kthik-In 

1 incubator Co, 
Box iq Ujbiloin&s Ju 



Our magnificent 
lew oatulouue 
giving full In- 
formation re- 
ardlng artificial 
latching* Brooding 
_nd treatise on poul- 
try mialng sent for 4o 
■tamt«. Clronlarfr**,. 



and Book of Valuable Becipea, 64 large 
pages, contained beautiful colored plates 
ofrowls, gives description and prices of 
45 varieties, with Important hiutson care 
of poultry, and pages of recipesof great 
value to everyone. Finest Poultry Book 
published for 1*96 Postpaid only 10 cts. 
C. N. Bowers, Box a, Dakota, III 

bftkr frum $MUo $300. nmunllinl liuneorlt,... 

rlla;. »..n r.-r .- .....I . . I.I . Uun'l rrljr «■ alk- 

rr>. bm veiirown ll«U>. (lullll frw, 
Urt U nt* «l ••o.CHICAUO Sl'lLK 10. c I, 


Tomatoes, Melons, Cabbage, 
Turnips, Lettuce, Peas, Beets, 
Onions, and all Vegetables, re- 
move large quantities of Potash 
from the soil. Supply 


in liberal quantities by the use 
of fertilizers containing not 
less than \o% actual Pot- 
ash. Better and more profit- 
able yields are sure to follow. 

Our pamphlets are not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain- 
ing latest researches on the subject of fertilization, and 
are really helpful to farmers. They are sent free for 
the asking. 


93 Nassau St., New Yoik. 

nEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco., Cal. 
arc our Agents lor the Paciiic Coast. 

"rice, in craie. }3: weight. 10 lbs. 
Makes Bisulphide effective and ecouQQjlca] 
works ;ih well on Ground Squirrels. 
For use In applying 

Price reduced to W per fr-gal ean. 
Sold by the trade and the manufacturer. 

M.ih ami Alamtilit .Mh.. ^ in KranelHco. 

he 1 acific Loast Dairyman. 


Semi-monthly, 18 pkges. (iood illustrations. 
Price ffl.OO per Year. 

Sample copies free. 

The Pacific Coast Dairyman Publishing Co., 

Tacoimi, WaiiliinKton. 

Whitewashing done for T 1 1 K K K -O I ' A KT K K S 
OF A CKNT per Square Yard. 


400 yard* of whll«- 
WHHhltiK ur irwu 
may b*^ Hpraveil In our 
hour by Whiiiw right *h 
WhiteuHNhiuK Ma- 
■ li in. a Tree MpMT«ri 
Maohlneaat prices from 
fa to $r>u. WMtAwttehliiK 
or Tre»* Siiraylntr NozzIch 
hpiH by mail at f I.UOcat'li. 
Wild this machine, rotlti 
and nozzleB. buUdlnfffci lit 
feet hlffll can be whlt**- 
\v ashed or trees sprayed 
without Htatdntr or lad- 
tiers. All the lartfe bulld- 
ingB at the Midwinter 
Fair were whitewashed 
with lime and had the 
appearance of tine paint 
work We also supply a 
full line of the Best and 
Cheapest Telephones. 
Transmitters. Wire, etc , 
for communication be- 
tween office, warehouse, 
dwelling, etc. Send for 
Outaloeue. WM. WAINWK1UHT, 1660 .Ma-ket 
ntreet, near llayet. 


Poultry Guide for I 390 Fiue 4 t 
book ever published, contains Dearly luo 
pagea, all printed In colon plana for beat 
poultry bouses, sure remedies and recipes 
for all diseases, and howto make poultry 
{ and gardening pav. Sent post paid for 15c. 
JotanBanscherjJr^boxeoFreeport, llL 

H ATCH Chi ckens •V«fi!5; 

EXCELSIOR Incubator 

i..;/. In -ii. ,--..i u | 
■ ■ier»tlon. I. ,•«,■.( „ r | ( .,.,| 

In -I - ' llali-lier made. 

<;r.«. II. ST \ III.. 
I I I lolM ~. fith m. ttahll > . III. 


Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 088, Loa Angeles, Cal. 


At the STATE FAIR our BERKSHIRKS won Five 
Firsts and Three Sweepstakes Premiums. We have 
a few choice pigs on band, also a lew JaD'y and Feb'y 
sows— just the age to breed. Correspondence solic'td. 

There Is No Doubt ^b! 

- KNIFE - 

Ihranville. Pa 

January 25, 1896. 

The Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, January 22, 1S96. 

This market still continues in the unsatis- 
factory condition which we have had to report 
for the last few weeks. The statements we 
receive from the fruit merchants are unani- 
mous. They all declare that business is prac- 
tically dead. At the same time there is con- 
siderable inquiry from the East with requests 
for samples and prices. The spring demand 
has not yet set in, but these requests would 
indicate that the market is bare of dried 
fruit and that we may look for some activity 
at any moment. 

There is a large supply of second quality 
peaches in Chicago and other centers of dis- 
tribution, and when quotations are asked 
from coast holders of these goods, it requires 
fruit of a choice quality to compete with the 
consigned article. Low-grade and Chinese 
bleached are a drug in the market, and can 
be bought at almost any figure. One of our 
merchants describes the situation here as 
follows: "No demand whatever for carload 
lots ; some local business is being done for 
northern shipment, but it is light. Are 
quoted in a small way at from :*c to 4c for 
American and 2c to 8c for Chinese bleached." 

In regard to prunes, there is practioallv no 
business being done. What few carload 
buyers there are at the present moment, do 
not appear willing to pay more than 3%c for 
the four sizes, and sellers will not consider 
anything less than 3%c. As full assortments 
of the four sizes are scarce, the holders of 
these grades consider 4c a low enough figure. 
It is the opiuion of the trade that after Feb! 
1st all spoi stocks in both prunes and apricots 
will be cleared up. Stocks of apricots are 
very light and undoubtedly will be cleaned 
up before long. 

The prices on other varieties of dried fruit 
are nominal, there being no movement. 


Apples, fancy 

" choice 

Apricots, fancy Moorpark.. 
" choice " 

" fancy 

" choice 

" standard 

" prime 

Figs, white, fancy 

" " choice, 

" standard 

" black, fancy 

" choice 

" standard 

Nectarines, choice 


" prime 

Pears, fancy halves 


" choice 

" standard 

" prime. 

Peaches, fancy 

" choice 

" standard 

" prime 

peeled, in boxes.. 

pitted . . 

" unpitted 

Prunes, i sizes 


















<§ i% 



2\i<g\ 2 


3«@ 4 

m<n 1 llll 

I lorn i r.i) 
2 25 
2 75 

9 @10 


4-orown, loose, sacks or 50-pound boxes 
2 " 

Seedless Sultana, " " " 

" Muscatel," " ■« 

Dried Grapes, " " » 

3-crown, London layers, 20- pound boxes 

Clusters, " •• 

" Dehesa, " " 

" Imperial, " " 


Jobbing prices : 

Almonds, paper shell 

" soft shell 7 

hard shell 3i4(& 5 

Walnuts, soft shell ' ' 9 @ J0 

" hard shell 7 <a 8 

Brazil .. .. ... g @10 

Peanuts, California 33^@ 4^ 

RAISINS— There is nothing new to report. 
Accounts of sales from the East of fruit sold 
before the end of the year are not at all en- 
couraging. In some instances, of course, a 
fairly good price has been realized, but as a 
rule the returns are not very satisfactory to 
the grower. 

GREEN FRUITS— This market is quiet at 
the present time. Receipts of fruit are large 
and no demand. The rainy weather of the 
past week had a bad effect on green fruit 
sales, but now the storm is over we look for 
improvement all along the line. We quote as 
follows : 

Oranges, seedlings, per box $ 85@I 60 

Navels, Riversideand Redlands 2 25@2 75 

others 1 25@2 00 

Apples, ordinary, box 40®1 00 

choice to fancy 1 00(S 1 25 

Lemons (as to quality) 1 00@2 50 





The Pacific Rural Press. 


Our readers will please notice H. B. Rus- 
ler's advertisement of the Comet Force Pump 
Sprayer in another column of this paper. The 
Comet is a Lawn and Garden Force Pump as 
well as a Fruit Tree Sprayer, so arranged that 
the foot-rest can be instantly attached or de- 
tached, and is warranted by the manufacturer 
to be exactly as represented in every respect 
The very low price at which it is sold places 
it at once within the reach of everyone in 
need of a sprayer. 

Horse Owners! Try 




1 Safs Speedy and Positive Cure 
..Th? Safest, Bent BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Hornri 
OR FIRING. Impossible to produce scar or blemish. 
pSL er Vl ot i« sold '2 » a , rra ated to give satisfaction 
Price $1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or 
sent by express, charges paid, with full directions 
tor its use. Send for descriptive circulars.* 


Six months free! Monthly Paper: Postpaid 
to anyone interested in the fence question. 
Under no obligations to buy of us, but use 
your best judgment. 


rprr Prepaid. 

rnLL catalogue and hints on spraying. 


All Brass are best; sells on sight. Sprays 
from bucket or barrel. 50 feet. You want it 
for your orchard, vines, and plants. I want 
agents. Write today. 
H. B. RUSLER, Johnstown. Ohio, U. S. X 


1 IS PRO- 


Our ▼ 

Illustrated , 

. Spray Pump Catalo E ue tells How and" When 
Spray-mailed Free. THE DEMINC CO 
Gen'lwestern Ag'ts. _ , J. 

Hsnlon A Hnbbpll. Chicaco Salem, Ohio. 9 


Over 508tyles 

Bestonearth. Horse-high, 
Bull-strong, Pie and 
Chicken tight. TTou can 
make 40 to 60 rods a day for 

12 to 20c. a Rod. 

Illustrated Catalogue Free. 

Ridgeville, - Indiana. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 


All about Bees and Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 

(Established 18H1 >. 
Weekly, 81 a year. 7 Editors. 
160 -page 


tmt br b V3> Sample copy 01 


A Handsomely Illustrated Drr CIIDDI ICC 
Magazine, and Catalog, of Ott OUT "LI £3 
PttKK. THE A. L ROOT CO.. MedintuO. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

T. W. JACKSON «fc CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. 226 market Street, 


Fenced and cross-fenced, good buildings. 

W. W. POTTER, 508 California Street, S. F. 
















iw,iIiffi , tf^^ ,r,taMt ™ wtgraM4 ' style A - bliides 16 taSI 

Avery's Steel Frame Napoleon 
Gang Plow. 

ing twenty-three incnes in the clear; prevents 
clogging with trash. 

HIGH WHEELS, twenty-six inches in diameter. 

AXLES, one and five-eighths inch cold-rolled 

THE HITCH is center draft, reaching from rear 

THE LIFT is extra high and easy. Furnished 
with or without seat attachment and rear wheel. 

The Morgan Grape Hoe 

Is one of the greatest labor-saving tools ever in- 
vented for use in the culture of grapes and berries, 
and is especially adapted to vineyard work. After 
cultivating between the rows the MORGAN 
GRAPE HOE will take out all grass and weeds 
that remain under the wires and around vines and 
posts, and will thoroughly stir the soil close to 
the vine. The saving of time and labor will soon 
pay the cost of this tool, for this work is usually 
done by hand-hoeing— a slow and expensive way. 




F*or deep or shallow wells; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,000 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A . T. AMES, Gait , Cal. 


Those who desire to read law at home can ob- 
tain information as to what books to purchase at 
the least possible cost to complete the course, by 
addressing CHAS. A. H. SMITH, 261 Second St., 
Oakland, Cal. 

Eggs Will Pay Large Profits 

At 10 cents per dozen. Write me and I will tell you 
how. Give plainly your name and address. H. K. 
STARKWEATHER. 310 California St.. San Francisco. 

Blake, /VI o f f I 1 1 & Towne, 


512 to 516 Sacramento St., Sao Francisco, Cal. 

ULAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 

KENDALL'S SPAVIN CURE. Certain in its 
effects and never blisters. Sold everywhere. 

Get in the Swim. 

It will be but a 
very short time until 
the modern dairy 
will find the Little 
Giant Cream Sepa- 
rator as important 
as the large separa- 
tor is in the cream- 
ery. In other words 
it will be impossible 
to run a dairy with- 
out a Little Giant. Customers with a 
taste for fine quality butter will de- 
mand it. Send for circulars and testi- 
monials. P. M. Sharples, 

West Chester, Pa. 
Elgin, Illinois. 
Rutland, Vermont. 


The California Special Plows are manufactured expressly for the California trade. They are fitted with extra long adjustable Index Beams, making them desirable for Orchard 

and Vineyard Work. 


Write for Catalogue and Prices. 


-4.21 dfc -+-2 3 MARKET STREET 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 25 , 1896. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 


Uy Worthy Lecturer Ohi.eykk. 

No passing observation can bey in to 
do justice to this important foothill 
city. It is at once the most important 
and prosperous quartz mining city on 
the Kl°oe, and horticulturally it is not 
excelled anywhere in California. While 
men are delving for gold quartz hun- 
dreds — yes, thousands — of feet below, 
the fruit grower cultivates or gathers 
his golden harvest from his trees above. 
The superiority of its apples, pears, 
peaches, plums and prunes is nowhere 
disputed, and so with numberless 
products of the soil. 

In consequence of these industries 
the city is expanding in all directions. 
Streets are being improved, new and 
better business houses are taking the 
place of old ones. Splendid and numer- 
ous dwellings are going up throughout 
the city, and their cleanly and well 
cultivated door yards are a pleasure to 
behold. Such is Grass Valley as I saw 
it during a very brief visit on Satur- 
day, January ilth. At some other 
time I may be able to enjoy a longer 
stay and witness more in detail the 
advantages of this mountain city. 

Worthy Lecturer Ohleyer tells us through 
the Pacific Rural Press that in riding from 
Marysville to Sacramento recently a distance 
of more than fifty miles, he saw from a car 
window as many as sixty single plows in op- 
eration drawn by two or three horses and the 
driver walking in furrows just as " when we 
were boys," and not a single gang plow was 
in sight? The gang plow is passing away. It 
is claimed that the six animals following each 
other in the bottom of the furrow for year 
after year by and by pack the soil into a crust 
which shuts off the moisture from below and 
leaves the field of growing grain to exhaust 
as soon as the surface moisture has been 
sucked up. It was not given to men to ascer- 
tain beforehand that such must be the case, 
but successive short crops and blastings of 
line prospects have beaten the truth into 
their heads after a while, at least in parts of 
the Sacramento valley. But it does seem that 
something ought to be found that would be 
preferable to the old seed plow, something 
that would enable a man to ride and still not 
pack the soil. Walking is wearisome. 

The above is from the Tulare Weekly 
Register of January lid and is a fair ex- 
planation of the conditions of the soil 
as produced by the shallow gang plow 
in a series of years. The question is 
receiving serious attention by the 
press and by the farmers everywhere. 
But the Register, by innuendo, exempts 
the San Joaquin valley from this evil, 
when throughout the entire valley shal- 
low plowing with numerous plows and 
long teams is practically the rule, and 
where the wheat blight of 1895 greatly 
excelled that in the Sacramento valley; 
or does it mean that the farmers of 
the Sacramento valley are more easily 
convinced of an error than those of the 
San Joaquin ? 

However, the gang plow will not pass 
away, but it will be improved so as to 
break the crust and join top and bot- 
tom moisture. . 

Some time since Tulare Grange dis- 
cussed the road question and how they 
may be improved without increasing 
the tax rate. The discussion resulted 
in a committee to go before the Board 
of Supervisors for the purpose of fur- 
thering the conclusions of the Grange. 

On Saturday, January 11th, accord- 
ing to the Tulare Times, said com- 
mittee, consisting of D. K. Zumwalt, 
C. J. Berry, John Tuohy and A. W. 
Matthewson, appeared before the Board 
of Supervisors and the arguments of 
the committee were listened to with 
close attention. 

Space at this time forbids the re- 
production of the discussion, but the 
plans proposed were simply of the 
common-sense order, looking neither to 
bonds nor an excessive or additional 
weight to the tax-payer. 

Tulare Grange has a habit of getting 
to the front in all matters pertaining 
to agriculture and every-day farm life 
that might be emulated with profit by 
other Granges. 

It is hardly necessary to say that 
the storm prevented the State Lec- 
turer from visiting Elk Grove Grange 
on the 18th. Whether it prevented 

the meeting and installation he is not 
advised at this writing. 

It was a phenomenal downpour here- 
abouts, amounting to about an inch of 
water per day for three days, causing 
high waters and considerable interrup- 
tion to travel by rail and otherwise. 

The earth being very dry, it has ab- 
sorbed the superabundant rainfall, 
leaving but little above ground, and, 
the weather being very warm, it has 
given grain and grass a wonderful im- 
petus towards covering the ground. 

Work of the National Lecturer. 

The State Lecturer is in receipt of 
the following taken from the National, 
Grangi Quarterly Bulletin issued by the 
Lecturer of the National Grange. Hon. 
Alpha Messer, and as will be seen re- 
fers specially to the duties of the 
Lecturers in all departments of the 

" In accordance with the suggestions 
contained in the report of the Lecturer 
at the late session of the National 
Grange, the Committee on Good of the 
Order reported the following resolu- 
tions which were adopted: 

" Resolved. That the Lecturer of the National 
Grange is hereby instructed to issue quarerly 
bulletins to Subordinate and Pomona Granges, 
containing a sufficient number of topics 
or questions for discussion to cover this 
period, and at least two topics for each month 
shall be of a general nature, and applicable as 
near as may be to all parts of the country. 

"Hfno/mL That each of the Lecturers of Sub- 
ordinate and Pomona Granges are hereby re- 
quested to make an abstract or report of the 
discussions of such general questions as may 
be proposed for a given month, and forward 
the same to the Lecturer of the State Grange, 
who is requested to summarize these abstracts 
and send the summaries thus obtained to the 
Lecturer of the National Grange, and he is 
hereby instructed to collect the summaries 
and publish them in such bulletins as may be 
thought best, for distribution to the member- 
ship of the Order." 

The worthy National Lecturer then 
further explains thus: 

"The lecture work of the Grauge has 
assumed such proportions and is of 
so much importance to the life and 
prosperity of the Order, that it has 
been thought best to try and system- 
atize it, in a measure at least, as out- 
lined in the report of the committee 
as above quoted, with the hope that in 
the future much better results may be 
obtained from the educational depart- 
ment of Grange work. 

" Only one topic is given for a month 
in this quarter; but each of these topics 
is divided into two questions, and these 
may be subdivided into others if need 

" The other questions given are for 
use by the Grange, if needed, but only 
discussions on the questions under the 
general topics are to be reported by 
the Lecturer. This report should con- 
tain the substance of the discussions of 
the questions under the given topic 
and be sent at once to the Lecturer of 
the State Grange." 

The general topics for the month of 
January are placed under the head of 
" Taxation " as follows: 

Question 1. To what extent does 
unequal and unjust taxation exist? 

Question 2. What means can best 
be used to equalize taxation ? 

The supplementary questions for 
January are: 

How can farmers and their families 
spend winter evenings to the best ad- 
vantage '! 

In what does real pleasure exist ? 

Can the enjoyments of country life 
be made equal to the enjoyments of the 
city ? 

The ideal farmer and his family. 

Does it pay to feed cattle for market 
under present conditions '/ 

A night with the favorite poet of the 

Ladies' night. Home decorations. 
The art of home making. 

For the month of February the fol- 
lowing two general questions are given: 

Question 1. Is there just cause for 
a reduction in the salaries and fees of 
public officials ? 

Question 2. What means can best be 
used to secure a just and fair reduc- 
tion of official salaries and fees ? 

The supplementary questions for 
February are as follows: 

To what extent are farmers respon- 
sible for unjust laws ? 

How does the Grange aid the church 
and benefit society ? 

Is the young farmer at a disadvan- 
tage in the matrimonial market ? 

Must one get in debt to make money ? 

Aside from Washington and Lincoin, 
what President has contributed most 
to the prosperity of the people of this 
country, and why? 

What is the " Monroe Doc trine ?" 

In what does the absolute equality of 
the sexes consist ? 

The general topics are supplemented 
by Worthy National Lecturer Messer, 
with suggestions how they may be dis- 
cussed, which will doubtless be read to 
each Grange from copies distributed 
for the purpose. Here is outlined a 
fine opportunity for reportorial work 
for the Grange lecturers, and is a sub- 
stantial recognition of the value and 
utility of newspaperdom in the Order. 
And, besides, the writer feels specially 
flattered on observing his own previous 
suggestions so nearly adopted. 

From Stockton. 

Stockton, Jan. 19, 1896. 
To the Editor:— At the meeting of 
Stockton Grange on Jan. 18, '9b', the 
following resolutions were passed: 
To the Senate and House of Representatives 
assembled : We deem the building of the 
Nicaragua Canal the greatest question of 
the times— greater than the Venezuelan 
dispute, vital to the Monroe Doctrine and 
to the perpetuity of our Republic. 
Resolved, That there is need of prompt ac- 
tion; that delay is fraught with great dan- 
ger, because of the eagerness of England and 
Europe to control this, our only isthmian 
transportation route between the oceans, by 
furnishing the funds to build this great 

Hemilre<l, That it is the one means to rolieve 
the Pacific Coast from the burdens of high 
freight, now paralyzing its energies. 

Resolved, That the bill of Senator Perkins 
covers the difficulties hitherto urged against 
the "Maritime Canal Co. of Nicaragua," who 
hold the only concessions granted by Nica- 
ragua and Costa Rica, and that we petition 
your honorable body to pass the bill of Sena- 
tor Perkins. 

nVwfrrrf, That a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to Senator Perkins and our other repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

A. T. Root, Secretary. 

After Thirty Years. 

(From the Ashtabwla, Ohio, Beacon.) 
Mr. Fred Taylor was born and brought up 
near Elmira, N. Y., and from there enlisted 
in the 189th regiment, N. Y., V. I., with 
which he went through the war and saw 
much hard service. Owing to exposure and 
hardships during the service, Mr. Taylor con- 
tracted chronic diarrhoea from which he has 
suffered now over 30 years, with absolutely 
no help from physicians. By nature he was a 
wonderfully vigorous man. Had he not been, 
his disease and the experiments of the doc- 
tors had killed him long ago. Laudanum was 
the only thing which afforded him relief. He 
had terrible headaches, his nerves were shat- 
tered, he could not sleep an hour a day on an 
average and he was reduced to a skeleton. A 
year ago he and his wife sought relief in a 
change of climate and removed to Geneva, 
Ohio; but the change in health came not. 
Finally on the recommendation of F. J. Hoff- 
ner, the leading druggist of Geneva, who was 
cognizant of similar cases which Pink Pills 
had cured, Mr. Taylor was persuaded to try a 
box. " As a drowning man grasps a straw so 
I took the pills," says Mr. Taylor, " but with 
no more hope of rescue. But after thirty- 
years of suffering and fruitless search for re- 
lief I at last found it in Dr. Williams' Pink 
Pills. The day after I took the first pills I 
commenced to feel better and when I had 
taken the first box I was in fact a new man." 
That was two months ago. Mr. Taylor has 
since taken more of the pills and his progress 
is steady and he has the utmost confidence in 
them. He has regained full control of his 
nerves and sleeps as well as in his youth. 
Color is coming back to his parched veins and 
he is gaining flesh and strength rapidly. 
He is now able to do considerable outdoor 

As he concluded narrating his sufferings, 
experience and cure to a Beacon reporter, 
Mrs. Taylor, who has been his faithful help- 
meet these many years, said she wished to 
add her testimony in favorof Pink Pills. "To 
the pills alone is due the credit of raising Mr' 
Taylor from a helpless invalid to the man he 
is to-day," said Mrs. Taylor. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Taylor cannot find words to express the 
gratitude they feel or recommend too highly 
Pink Pills to suffering humanity. Any in- 
quiries addressed to them at Geneva, O", re- 
garding Mr. Taylor's case they will cheerfully 
answer, as they are anxious that the whole 
world shall know what Pink Pills have done 
for them and that suffering humanity may be 
benefitted thereby. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills contain all the ele- 
ments necessary to give new life and richness 
to the blood and restore shattered nerves. 
They are for sale by all druggists, or may be 
had by mail from Dr. Williams' Medicine 
Company, Schnectady, N. Y., for 50 cents per 
box, or six boxes for $'J.50. 




rSmfit rcm ? r , k < lh '< remedy, both for TTf. 
IBRT^AL and LWLKNAL use, a nd won . 
acriul in Us quick action to relieve distress. 

Pain=Killer cu ;. e f,,r f> s r " 

(■kill i»- i 1 '"■'•"«• Cnu«hs, 

}.■«"■» »ini rhu n, DvM-illery, t ramp*. 
< holrra, and uii Bowel CbtnpUUnU. Killer lsT,| >: bestm**. 

u,r.h! , ^.T , '£J ,en,lnrne ' Pnln »» ""> 
■sack or HMe, Kheasaatlannaod Neui-nlgin. 

w»i,r • i,, * ,tcr »»>T LINIMENT 

.HA Ilk. It brings sprrtly ami permanent relief 
in all cases of Bruises, Cuts, Sprains, 
!>evere Burns, Ac. »«■»•■«■, 

Pain= Killer ta tho ,riert an <i 

iT . . trusted friend of the 

'lerhnnir, Farmer, Planter, Sailor, and 
In fact all class, a wanting » nteilieine always at 
hand. and la/ete ute internally or externally 
with certainly of relief. 

By Mmfcimu, l.y UUtHmarim, by .Vm(«er.,by 

Juechaniet, by .\urte* in Jios/iitalt. 

P/ttn-Kilt/^r is R Medicine Chert In 
M-CM.MMM-M\liiCM itaeir. and few vessels 

leave pi.rt without a supply of It. 

Mr- No family can afford to be without this 
Invaluable remedy in the house. Its price brings 
It within the reach of all. and It mil annually 
save many times its cost in doctors' bills. 

Beware of Imitations. Take uuue but the 
genuine "Pimay Davis." 


For House, Barn, 
Buggy or Furniture. 

At Manufacturer's Low est 
Prices. Shipping Charges Prepaid. 

Sample cards and full information free for the 
aakloit. If you intend to paint let us hear from you. 
It will be money in your pocket. 

F. W. DEVOE & CO.. 224 S. Clinton St., Chicago. 


Watsonville. Cal . Manufacturers of the 

McLean and Dorsey Orchard 
and Field Cultivators. 

Iloth similar in construction of frame and teeth, 
but different lift for raisins and lowering culliva 
tor, the Dorsey being the latest improved and lifts 
very easy. Both Cultivators are highly recom- 
mended by all who use them, cilher for field or 
orchard use. 


Business College, 

24 Post street San Francisco. 


This College Instructs In Shorthand. Type-Writing. 
Bookkcoplng.Telcgrapli.v. Penmanship. Drawing. all 
the English branches, and everything pertaining to 
We have It! teachers 
all our pupils 

business, for full six months 
and give individual instrueti 

A Department of Electrical Engineering 

Has been established under a thoroughly qualified 
instructor. The course is thoroughly practical 
Send for Circular. C. S. HALEY. Sec. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
723 /V\ A R K E T STREET, 
San Fkancisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, $25; Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay. $10. Full course of 
assaying, $50. Established IH64. Send for Circular. 


with the Writing always In sight . and has Simple 
Strong Quick Action. Direct Stroke. Steel Type. 
Powerful Manifolder, Permanent Alignment. Price 
only $7A, sent on trial. H. K. STARK WEATHER CO.. 
Ground Floor 310 California St., San Francisco. 

January 25, 1896. 


A Chance for Young Engineers. 

Tf Commodore Melville's bill now be- 
fore the Senate receives the approval 
of Congress, ambitious young engineers 
in civil life have a new career in view 
which they may feel is worth striving 
for. There are not nearly enough naval 
engineers in the service now, and the 
Naval School at Annapolis does not fur- 
nish enough, and the bill proposes to 
make it possible to supply the deficien- 
cy by drawing on the various scientific 
schools and colleges in the country. 

The bill provides for an increase of 
the corps to 300 commissioned officers. 
The rank and titles of the line officers 
are asked for. The engineers ask that 
t heir chief of bureau be known as the 
Naval Director-General of Engineering 
and that he shall have the rank of Rear 
Admiral. To relieve him of the duties 
which are comprised in his work it is 
proposed that he shall have two Assist- 
ant Inspector Generals of Engineering, 
who shall rank as Commodores. The 
engineers ask that they have command 
of their department, subject to the 
authority of the commanding officer 
alone, and a naval engineering experi- 
mental school is suggested, which the 
engineers believe should be established 
at New London. 

Those colleges which are to establish 
a course of marine engineering satisfac- 
tory to the Secretary of the Navy shall 
be empowered to graduate men who 
shall be appointed cadet engineers in 
ihe naval service. These young men 
will be sent to sea and to some post- 
graduate school of instruction for two 
years and then undergo competition 
with the Naval Academy graduates 
for commissions in the Navy. A radical 
change is suggested in the manner of 
appointing the cadets of the engineer- 
ing branch at the Naval Academy. As 
there seems a disinclination on the part 
of these young men to choose the engi- 
neering profession, it is proposed that 
the appointment of naval engineering 
cadets be vested in the Senators of the 
several States, the delegates from the 
Territories and four appointments at 
large by the President, it being compul- 
sory to appoint one resident of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. As the Senators 
would have an appointment every four 
years, it would give a class of cadet en- 
gineers numbering about twenty-four 
annually. The general sprit of this bill 
is to give the engineer his proper status 
on board war vessels. 

Would You Buy Cheap? 

A Greek philosopher once announced to the 
community in which he dwelt that upon a 
certain da"y and hour, at an appointed place, 
he would 'tell to all that might attend, the 
wish that lay nearest their hearts. When 
the day arrived, an expectant multitude 
thronged about the philosopher, who calmly 
surveying it, said simply : " My friends, the 
dearest wish in the heart of every one of you 
is to buy cheap and sell dear." To buy cheap 
is certainly every man's wish and right, even 
though he buys to consume and not to sell. 
However, buving to advantage is not always 
easy though'one lives close to the source of 
supply and how much more difficult then must 
it be for those who live <it a distance from the 
great manufacturing and distributing cen- 
ters You may have a trusted friend in the 
eity where you wish to trade, or you may 
come yourself, but in neither case can you 
buy for individual use, as can the merchant 
or agent who buys in much larger quantities. 
It was to meet and overcome this situation 
that an association was organized and has 
been successfully conducted in this city for 
more than ten years. When you join this as- 
sociation it becomes at once your trusted 
friend at the business center, with an ability 
to work for your interest far beyond that of 
auv individual, because it buys on a mammoth 
scale at manufacturers' or wholesale rates, 
every imaginable thing that civilized man 
requires. ' ... 

The membership fee to this association— 
*T for ten years, equal to (ic per month- 
cuts but little figure, since you are liable 
to save more than the slight outlay in 
one' purchase, and besides, the association 
supplies you with a very comprehensive illus- 
trated catalogue in which the ordinary retail 
orice appears, and also the discounts or net 
nrices that your membership obtains for you, 
thus keeping you posted on values and en- 
abling vou to estimate closely the amount 
that vou are saving on any particular order. 

Doubtless many readers have long been 
familiar with the advantages of this system ; 
if those who are not, will calmly and without 
prejudice, investigate its methods, they will 
find much to be gained by joining Its ranks. 
The breath of life of a business of this char- 
acter is the integrity and reliability of its 
managers ; without these qualities it could sur- 
vive but a little time. The fact that this as- 
sociation has been increasing in numbers for 

The nervous system Is weakened by the 

Neuralgia Torture, m 

Every nerve Is strengthened in the cure of it by 


Get the PLAN ET J R. tools to do it. You'll astonish the neighbors by 
the amount of ground yon can stir up with 'em in a day. The Planet Jr. 
Twelve Tooth Harrow is the handiest tool you ever hitched a horse to. 
Newly improved — better this year than before. You want to learn all 
about this and 20 other time-savers and money-makers for farmers and 
gardeners. Send for the Planet Jr. Book — it's free. 

S. L. ALLEN & CO., 110? Market Street, PHILADELPHIA. 



First patented by Jacob Price. 

I have just received a new lot of these machines, with a steel box and other improvements, which 
make it one of the most complete and compact sowing machines in the market. 

This Seed Sower will sow wheat 100 feet wide (working width, 80 ftet), elevating just enough grain 
to distribute it properly, whether the team walks fast or slow. Price $35. For sale by 


WM. H. GRAY, Agent San Leandro, Cal. 

more than ten years, until now its member- 
ship has reached more than 38,000, and 
extends all over the Pacific coast, would 
indicate that its reputation was thoroughly 

Whether you live in the city, near the city, 
or five hundred miles away, whether you buy 
fifty or five thousand dollars' worth of goods 
a year, it will pay to join the Pacific Coast 
Home Supply Association without delay. Its 
new and enlarged business quarters are at 
No. 13 Front street, where its members will 
always be welcomed when visiting the city. 

Address C. K. Sturtevant, the manager, 
for more information. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


552.685.— Calf Wk.aner— B. W. Bussell, Walla 

Walla. Wash. 
552,704.— Gas Cock— Jos. Clark, S. F. 
552 82-1 — Brake Rod— Cook & Scott, Woodburn, 


552.519.— Concentrator— H. R. Ellis, S. F. 

552,759 — Stone Clamp— M. J. Hawley, S. F. 

552.7H0.— Bei.i. Ringer— T. W Heintzelmau, Sac- 
ramento, Cal. 

552 . .'1 1 . — Fire Escape— J. Knapke, New Pine 
Cr. ek. Or. 

552.8711— Curtain Fixture— J. W. Lang, Los 

Angeles, Cal. 
552,698.— Mouth Mirror Support— O. P. Myers, 

S. F. 

552,667.— Evaporator— J. W. Mote, Wilbur, Or. 
558,868.— Fire Engine Harness— Thos. Murphy, 
S. F. 

552.774.— Tvpe Writer— H. G. Perry. Suisun, Cal. 
552,782.— Box Machine— O. A Sanford, Newcastle, 

552,872 — Fluid Motor— J. Schadc, Los Angeles, 

552,624.— Lead Bath Apparatus— A. M. Shields, 
Oakland, cal. 

552,672.— Invalid Bed— E. C. & T. D Souney, Sac- 
ramento, Cal. . 

552,793.— Angle Cock— E. B. Stouer, Seaside, Or. 

552,675.— Voting Machine— G. J. Sweeney, Peta- 
luma, Cal. . , 

552,601.— SHIRT Sleeve— W. F. Williams, Bishop, 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
by mail 'or telegraphic order). American and For- 
eign patents obtained, and general patent business 
for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security, at reasonable rates, and in the shortest 
possible time. 



Famous Feather River Bottom Lands. 

Mainly in Peaches, with some Prunes and Al- 
monds. Trees in their sixth year, in line condt- 

U There is one large cannery at Gridley, three 
miles distant; another at Biggs, seven miles, who 
will use all the fruit raised in the adjoining or- 
chards. , , . 

Will lease for one or more years, as desired. 
Reason for renting— an estate with several minor 
heirs. For further information, address: 

Gridley Butte Co., Cal. 



Fruit Ranch 

In the beautiful Vaca Valley, Solano county, Cal. 
French Prunes, Bartlett Pears and Cherries, all in 
full bearing. House with hot and cold water; all 
modern conveniences on the place. 


Vacaville . California 

Or 126 Kearny St., Room 12, San Francisco 


Well fenced, flowing artesian well, good build- 
ings. Address 

W. W. POTTER, 508 California St., S. F. 



Trade Mark— Or. A. Owen 


The latest and only scientific and practical 
Electric Bolt made, for general use, producing 
a genuine current of Electricity, for the cure 
of disease, that can be readily felt and regu- 
lated both in quantity and power, and applied 
to any part of the body. It can be worn at an; 
time during working hours or sleep, and 


khei: mavis;?! 
i. urn b ago 




Electricity, properly applied, is fast taking 
the place of drugs for all Nervous, Rheumatic, 
Kidney and Urinal Troubles, and will effect 
cures in seemingly hopeless cases where every 
other known means has failed. 

Any sluggish, weak or diseased organ may 
by this means be roused to healthy activity 
before it is too late. 

Leading medical men use and recommend the 
Owen Belt in their practice. 


Contains fullest information regarding the cure 
of acute, chronic and nervous diseases, prices, 
and how to order, in English, German, Swedish 
and Norwegian languages, will be mailed, upon 
application, to any address for 6 cents postage. 

The Owen Electric Belt and Appliance Co. 

MAIN office and only factory, 
The Owen Electric Belt Dldg., 201 to 211 State Street 

Ihe Largest Electric Belt Establishmentin the Wort) 



ROOT, Ieilson & co.,<e> 

—Manufacturers of— 

And all kinds of 
Flonr Mills, Saw Mills and Quartz Mills; Machin- 
ery Constructed, Fitted Up and Repaired. 
FRONT STREET, Bet. IN «*: O , 




4< General Commission Merchants, 4« 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

JW Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 


chock full 

— THE— 

World's Washer 

In itswashingprin 

ciple is like the 
Humboldt, but it is 
of improvements. 
Child can use it. Clothes clean, 
sweet and white as snow. Lasts 
lifetime. Sent freight paid. Circulars free. 
C. B. KOSS, 10 McLean St., Lincoln. 111. 




Gas and Gasoline 

For operating irrigation and drainage pumps, 
hoisting works and stamp mills, etc. 

The strongest, most economical and most dura 
ble engines made. 

Highest award at Mechanics" Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1895. 

216 and 217 Spear St., San Francisco. 


POTATO Cutter 


It marks, furrows, cuts, 
drops and covers all in one 

No more cutting feed 
bv hand, 

it cuts the potato the 
same as if done by band. 

It leaves tbe Held with 
its work done complete". 

The only perfect potato 
planter made. 
Send for free catalogue to 


BMK.ER & H f\ Jy\ I L T O IN. 


reverses without detaching; with or without Ex- 
tension heads. Write for Special Circular. 
San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles. 

Whatis "INDURINE?" 


It is the CHEAPEST PAINT ever made. 

Why for whitening, disinfecting and a ti t «•- 
retardant In factories, public buildings. etc 

For painting wood, brick and Cemented buildings, 
electric light polos, fences, etc., and for protecting 
shingle roofs from fire. 

It is a dry powder combined with a Cheimcal 
binder, to be mixed only with cold water. , 

It is the only satisfac tory paint for cement 1 
work, as It is hot affected by alkali. 

The kind sold for inside use works well over old 
whitewash and can be applied with brush or spray 
pump. The "Outside" is made in white and scv- 


KALsOM INK- No miction, brush marks or laps, 
does not rub, scale or soften with age. Send tor air 
etilars testimonials and prices to 

Mi lls Building. - - San Fr» ■ < »l. 




The Pacific Rural Press. 

January 25, 189C. 




Steel Frame, Heavy Castings, Heavy 
Blades. Oil Tempered. 


No. 5-5 ft |55 

No. 6—8 ft 80 

No. 7—7 ft 85 


Combined Hand* Foot and Power Lift. 

This Cultivator lias been thoroughly tested in 
all conditions and is acknowledged to have more 
desirable features than any other orchard culti- 


4-Furrow $60 

3-Furrow 50 

Cash with order. 
We are selling these below 
cost for a short time only. 

Light — Strong — Durable. 








For hauling rocks it has no equal. 


A Harness with which are Required 
No Doubletrees. 



20,000 SETS 


For lodging it is perfection. 


HOOKER 8c CO., 16 and 18 Drumm Street, San Francisco, Cal 


Spray Pump 

Beats the Record. 


If you buy a "BEAN" you will have the 
best there is. 

The "BEAN CYCLONE NOZZLE," Bean's Latest, 4 5 

... J zlvE- 

v il 

Anderson Orchard Brush Rake 


Orchard and 
Brush Rakes 

Wi re sold in Santa Clara 
County alone during the 
moat h <>f < ><-i ober, 

Is a surprise to all the oilier fellows. 

Bean Spray Pump Co., 


(Patent Allowed.) 


Write for circulars and prices 
— TO— 




^^-FOR- ' 


-x- -x -x- -w- -X- 

Farm and Lawn Fencing and Gates. 


Send for Catalogues and Circulars. 

John A. Roebling's Sons Company, 

Cross -Compound Engines and "Whirlpool" centra ugai humps 



625 Sixth Street San FrancUco. 




F"r«mont Street. 

San Francisco, 


Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 


Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared or coating all sizes of Plpei 

with Asphaltum. 

Vol. LI. No. 5. 




Office, 220 Market Street. 

Poultry in the Orchard. 

We have often urged the fitness of the combina- 
tion of fruit and fowls in the economy of the small 
farm, where the owner's eye is the surety that every- 
thing will be done in its season and where the own- 
er's industry and enthusiasm are factors in the doing 
thereof. We urge fowls, but never upon a specula- 
tive or absentee basis. We proclaim their profit- 
ability where liking for the work can be counted up- 
on and where close thinking and ingenuity are al- 
ways ready to save labor and surmount difficulties. 
With these qualities and these activities, fowls and 
fruit in combination double the returns from a given 
area of productive land. 

We are glad to place before our readers on this 

ures of the arrangements are clearly to be seen by 
the engraving itself. The houses are placed along a 
row of trees, and extend, with the runs pertaining 
to each, so that a forward movement of the outfit, 
equal to the distance between the rows, exactly 
covers all the ground. Tn this case it is twenty- 
three feet. Two men and one horse move the twenty- 
eight houses and yards and track in one day, besides 
taking care of 1000 other hens which Mr. Osburn 
has in other non-portable buildings. With ten to 
fifteen fowls in each of the houses, one capable, in- 
telligent man can take care of 1000 hens by the aid 
of the labor-saving devices which Mr. Osburn makes 
use of. The enclosed runs shown in the engraving 
consist of three sections for each house: with a total 
length for each house of about fifty feet, two-thirds 

devices, a few of which can be mentioned. There 
are pegs on the roosts so that each fowl has a cer- 
tain fixed space on a rather broad roost, and there 
is no overheating from crowding together on the 
roost. He considers this a favorable condition and 
one of the best features of roosting in trees, while at 
the same time the fowls do not have the exposure 
to inclement weather which they do in tree-roosting. 

There are boxes back of the roosting houses, part 
of which the fowls are put into when the outfit is be- 
ing moved to a new position, and for other purposes; 
the other part of the box is divided into nest boxes, 
so constructed that the eggs roll down and out of 
the reach of hens that are broody or that eat eggs. 
Nineteen out of twenty of the eggs are laid in these 
boxes, which have neither straw nor nest eggs. 


page a pictorial illustration of the truth we would 
enforce. The establishment represented is that of 
J. W. Osburn of Orange, California, who is a fancier 
of high standing as well as a fruit grower and pro- 
ducer of commercial eggs and poultry. He has 
other features of his extensive poultry establish- 
ment than that shown in the engraving, but we 
select this to show how fowls can be systematically 
kept upon an area of young orchard and that is an 
affair of much moment to the hundreds of new com- 
ers to the State, who wish to do the best thing for 
their young trees and the best thing for themselves 
while the trees are growing. 

The chief points in the arrangement shown are 
the portability of the houses and runs, by which the 
fowls are always on new ground and the manure 
evenly distributed. Second — The arrangements for 
keeping proper classification, either for breeding 
purposes or for escaping the ills of huddling or 
crowding. Third— The devices for furnishing shel- 
ter adequate to the climate and maintaining health 
and cleanliness among the fowls. Many of the feat- 

of which is five feet wide and the rest three feet wide. 
Where these sections join there are 1x6 boards close 
together (for the entire bottom of each run is en- 
closed with 1x6) and there are also a number of 1x2 
strips in each run, extending across to brace and 
stiffen the frame of the run. These boards and j 
strips the fowls have to jump over as they run 
around and this enforces desirable exercise on the 
part of the fowls. 

The construction of the houses, as the picture 
shows, consists of parts boarded over and parts 
screened with wire cloth, and back of these is the 
roosting place, open at the front, but furnished with 
a rolling curtain, which is dropped when the weather 
makes it desirable to exclude chilly winds and beat- 
ing rains, and helps to keep the fowls comfortably 
warm during the more trying seasons of the year. 
Mr. Osburn says these curtains are used more or 
less during about ten months of the year and they j 
are lifted or lowered nearly as fast as a man can 
walk along. 

Mr. Osburn uses in these houses many ingenious ' 

Each house has its feed trough that folds into the 
wall, also water, grit and shell boxes— all made so 
that the fowls cannot get their feet or droppings in- 
to any of them. 
The special advantage of such an arrangement as 
! Mr. Osburn's in its relation to orchard poultry 
keeping consists in the ev.^n distribution of the 
manure. In the front part of each house he puts 
about six inches of straw and into the section of the 
run, just behind the house, he puts horse manure. 
The grain fed is thrown on the straw or on the 
manure, and the fowls have to do lots of scratching. 
The result is that the straw and manure are all 
broken fine, the chicken droppings are incorporated 
therewith and the whole adds to the soil much rich- 
ness. The soil under the roots is forked over every 
third day in wet weather and weekly in the dry season. 
The whole arrangement reflects Mr. Osburn's sys- 
I ternatic way of doing things, and the fact that he 
[ has taken the Rural Press for seventeen years, 
i and has every copy on file, is also evidence that he 
' knows what he is about. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 1, 1896. 


UJHce. ffO.XK) Market St.; Elevator, .Vo. 11 Front St., San b'rancisco. Cat. 


Advertising rates made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an inquiry on any subject lo the Rl'KAi. 
Phkh.s, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest form* yo to pre** Wednesday eveninu. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mall matter. 


B. J. WICKSON special Contributor. 

San Francisco, February I, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATION.— Portable Poultry Houses and Runs of J. W. 

Osbum, Orange, Cal. 
KDITORI A L — Poultry in the Orchard, 65. The Week, 66. 
THE IRRIGATOR.— The Wright Law Before the United Slates Su 

pretne Court, 70. 

b'LORIST AND GARDKNER.— California Vegetable Growing, 70. 
THE POULTRY YARD. — Oakland's Poultry Show; A Success 

with Brown Leghorns, 71. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— From '• the Ganleu That I Love:" Open 

Secrets: Joel Dracutt's Intentions, 72. Pleasantries; Fashion 

Notes; Don'ts for Housewives, 73. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Hints to Housekeepers; Domestic Hints. 


MARKET REPORT— The Produce Market, 76. The Fruit Mar 

ket, 77. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Lecturer's Desk. 7s. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Pith of the Week's News, 66. Gleanings. 
67. The Consignment System, 67-8-H. To Protect Forests from 
Fires, 71. California Floral Notes; Magnifying Power. 75. The 
Human Skin: Some Ancient Highways, 78. Los Angeles Oil Men 
Combine; Best Sawmill Record: Borax in the European Market ; 
Lumber Received Here in 1W5 from Oregon and Washington Saw- 
mills: Train of Traction Engine and Wagon; Value of Bread- 
stuffs Exported in 18fl5: A New Feature In the Flour Industry: 
The Southern California and Salt Lake Raiiroad. 7y. 


(Xew this issue.) tuae. 

Agricultural Implements— Deere Implement Co 80 

Plows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works 78 

Roses— Champion City Greenhouses. Spriugrteld. Ohio 75 

Seeds and Plants— Peter Henderson & Co., New York 74 

Seeds and Plants— John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, N. Y 78 

Smith's Cash Store 78 

Fencing— McMullen Woven Wire Fence Co., Chicago, 111 75 

Canvassers Wanted — National Library Ass u. Chicago, III 75 

Poultry aud Eggs— J. W. Forgeus, Santa Cruz, Cal. 77 

Dehorner— John March Co., Chicago, 111 77 

Poultry— Parkview Poultry Farm. Sacramento, Cal 77 

Seedlings Wanted— Alta Loma Nurseries. Alta Loma, Texas .78 

Land Grader— B. F. Shuart, Oberlin. Ohio 79 

Orchard for Sale— C. H. Stcinmetz. Yacaville, Cal 78 

Jerseys for Sale— Sulphur Spring Farm, Niles. Cal 77 

Ranches for Rent— W. W. Potter 78 

The Week. 

The Great 


As we write on Wednesday, the 
skies seem to have cleared, and it 
will take a new storm to start 
water to falling again. There is now no indication 
of such a storm. The rainfall has been generous 
everywhere and excessive in many places. A vast 
amount of surplus water now overflows the un- 
leveed lowlands of the interior and awaits its escape 
to the ocean through streams which are now run- 
ning at their full capacity. In some places insecure 
dams have gone out and released quantities of de- 
bris for the further injury of the valley streams and 
lowlands. There is a considerable area of land 
which will be out of use for the season, and there has 
been destruction of property in crops, stock and 
levees. On the whole, though, the rain has been 
grand and will return to the whole State in produce 
a million times the value it has destroyed by local 
overflows. The ground has been soaked everywhere 
and it matters little that the season's rainfali is but 
a half or a third of last year's total to this date. 
There is enough for weeks of growth, and a moder- 
ate amount well distributed during the next two 
months will carry crops up to a vast aggregate. 
There is every reason to expect such a course of 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m., 
January "JO, 189l>, are from official sources, and are 
furnished by the U. S. Weather Bureau expressly 
for the Pacific Rural Press: 






— _ 


ce to 


"* D 

a * 

a> "" 

K X 

11 to 


a c 


a> c 




Date . . 

ast Y 
Oate. . . 

Date . 

m Temi 

il Tern] 

Week . 

: 5* 
■ i 

i W 


• £ 
: W 

• Q> 

'. v 


: 3 

: 5 

; «P 

: ll 

. gs 

! c 

: c 

. a 

: 5" 


: o 

• CD 

- to 


1 9-1 

23 37 





Red Bluff 


13 67 


14 45 



3 84 



11 13 



San Francisco 



19 66 

13 68 





4 1)9 

9 62 

5 12 



San Luis Obispo 


12 25 





Los Angeles 


5 91 

11 22 



San Diego 



9 64 










Indicates reei. ill 

\ Home Market >s. 
the Consignment 
83 1 I e 1 1 1 . 

From time to time in the past the 
Ki RAL Press has printed letters 
dealing with the system of selling 
dried fruit by consignment, writ- 
ten by fruit producers; and we vary the discussion 
this week by giving a series of interviews with a 
number of well-known merchants on the same sub- 
ject. It will, we believe, be a genuine surprise to 
many to find that the producers and handlers of our 
fruits stand on almost exactly the same ground. If 
anything, the merchants, whose greater familiarity 
with trade methods gives them a clearer view of 
the situation, are even more positively opposed than 
the growers to the system of selling by consignment 
in the Eastern markets. They see in it, as the in- 
terviews published elsewhere declare, the utter de- 
moralization of the dried fruit interest, involving 
both the California grower and the California han- 
dler in ruin, unless a way can be devised to change 
back to the old system of f. o. b. sales — that is, to 
the sale of our stuff before it leaves California. The 
statements of fact contained in these interviews ex- 
pose the whole theory and practice of the consign- 
ment system and leaves no room for doubt that the 
consignment road is the direct way to disaster. 

At this stage of the business it is idle to enquire 
who is at fault. Certainly the merchants are not 
wholly free from blame, for they have been in the 
past, and are even now, heavy consignors — as, in- 
deed, are the growers themselves. The practical 
question is not how the present situation came 
about, but how can the system be reformed. 
The first step toward this very desirable con- 
summation is the union of all parties in inter- 
est; and the interviews herewith published indi 
cate that such union may easily be effected. With 
the California growers and the California handlers 
united against the system of consigning to the East, 
there is no serious obstacle to its destruction; and 
when this is done it will be time to regulate the rela- 
tions between the two local interests. But the chief 
fight — that between the system of consigning to the 
East and the system of selling at home — is one which 
calls for united effort, and which cannot by any 
chance be accomplished without it. 

An alsolute necessity, as we view it, for the future 
of our dried fruit trade is a home market. As to 
how this is to be maintained there are many and 
diverse theories; but since all are agreed as to the 
main obstacle — namely, the consignment system — 
let that first be overcome, and let all other differ- 
ences be considered when that is out of the way. 

It would help greatly toward a friendly under- 
standing, and toward a final adjustment on a sound 
basis, if there could, before the beginning of the next 
fruit season, be a conference in which all interests 
were authoritatively represented. We have been 
taught by experience how useless " mass conven- 
tions are. What is wanted is a conference between 
delegates duly authorized to speak and act for 
organized bodies of growers, who will work with the 
home trade organization to accomplish a reform 
which is clearly demanded by the interest of all 

There is a look almost of old times 
in the wheat market this past 
week. Within seven days the 
price of shipping wheat advanced from $1.07 per 
cental to $1.15, and as we go to press Wednesday 
afternoon it has settled down to about $1.12A. For 
milling grades the advance was proportionate, sales 
being made freely during the week at $1.'22(" 1 .'!'» 
per cental, with the views of certain shrewd holders 
ranging still higher. This advance is not a merely 
local movement. On the other hand, it is strictly 
reflective of the tone of the world's grain market, 
which since last March has been tending slowly but 
steadily toward better prices. That it is a genuine 
improvement and not a mere speculative spasm is 
demonstrated by the fact that prices being paid for 
delivery at future dates throughout the year are in 
proportion. It is clearly the opinion of the com- 
mercial world that wheat is going no lower this sea- 
son; and there are many willing to back by pur- 
chase for future delivery on the basis of present 
rates, their faith in still better prices later on. At 
London, New York, Chicago and San Francisco — in 
fact, at all the grain markets — the week has been 
one of large sales on account of future delivery. 

A vear ago in the San Francisco 

\\ hat It J a 

market No. 1 shipping wheat was 
sold for 80 cents per hundred 
pounds. To-day the same quality of wheat is worth 
$1.12J. The immense significance of this advance, 
in its relation to the interests of the farmers of Cali- 
fornia, may be seen easily with the aid of a few fig- 
ures. We sell annually about 735,000 tons of wheat, 
so that an advance of one cent per hundred in price 
means an addition of $147,000 to the direct cash in- 
come of our people. The advance of 32i cents since 
last March means, therefore, a gain of nearly five 
million dollars for the wheat farmers of California. 
If the event shall be in keeping with the prospect, it 

The Ad»anee In 


will drive the clouds away from many a California 

The conditions which have brought 
about this betterment in prices are 
easily traced. First, under the 
blight of low prices there has been a heavy curtail- 
ment of acreage sown to wheat all over the world. 
The decline of wheat growing bt'gan nearly three 
years ago in England and has culminated in its com- 
parative abandonment. To a certain degree, the 
same statement applies to India, which, while pro- 
ducing less than formerly, consumes more. Argen- 
tine, which has lately been our great rival, has had 
a bad year and will send into the world's markets 
less than she did last year. Australia has had a 
failure of crops this winter and is now an importer of 
wheat, whereas she is usually an exporter. On a 
general balancing of accounts it is found that on .Ian. 
1st of this year the world's available supply of wheat 
was 169,973,000 bushels, as against a total available 
supply of 184,758.000 bushels on Jan. 1st a year ago. 
The figures for Jan. 1st, 1894, were 190,223,00(1 
bushels ; for 1893, they were 184,(198,000 ; for 1892, 
they were 156,530,000, and for 1891, they were 111,- 
484*000. A little study of these figures will show a 
reason for the decline of four, three and two years 
ago, and a similar reason for the advance of the past 
year, which still continues. As to the permanence 
of this tending, we are not brave enough to prophesy. 
It is perhaps enough to be assured that the prospect 
is good for present prices, or better during the cur- 
rent year. 

A call, signed by upwards of forty 
well-known fruit growers of the 
Santa Clara valley, has been 
issued for a mass meeting of growers to be held in 
Turn Verein Hall, San Jose, on Saturday. Feb. 8, at 
10 o'clock a. H. Every one interested in the fruit 
product is urged to attend without further invita- 
tion. The call urges the necessity of earnest, de- 
liberate efforts in the line of market extension. It 
alleges that in 1895, with a crop below an average 
for the bearing acreage, with no foreign competi- 
tion, with an export demand of some magnitude, 
and fruit of the best quality ever produced by us, 
the supply appears to be amply sufficient to meet 
the wants of trade and consumption. It is believed 
bv many, and it is approximately true, that but one- 
half of the planted acreage is in bearing. It must 
be remembered that the prune crop of 1894 was 
more than three times as large as that of 1890, and 
that of 1897 or 1898 will be three times that of 1804, 
or upward of 100,000,000 pouuds. With these con- 
ditions confronting us the signers to the call 
earnestly request their fellow fruit growers in Santa 
Clara valley to meet them in general mass meeting 
at the time aud place stated, to take into considera- 
tion questions of market extension and increased 
consumption of our fruit products. 

Fruit Growers" 
Mass Meetllig. 

Pith of the Week's News. 

Both the Utah Republicans bavB declared themselves for 
free silver and protection. 

An enthusiastic national meeting of women suffragists is 
being held In Washington City this week. 

It is reported that the Chinese Government has appropri- 
ated a vast fund for the equipment of a navy. 

Geo. L. Wem.inoton, the uew Senator from Maryland, is 
the first Republican to enter the Senate from that State. 

Senatok Perkins is tryiug to have the Government estab- 
lish a naval school on Coat island, in San Francisco harbor. 

tni French Government has assumed tin- sovereignty of 
Madagascar, which has long been among her dependencies. 

Tmeoipoke Kin von, U. S. Minister to Germany, died at 
Berlin on the 96th. His successor has not yet been named. 

ALL but six members of the D. S. Senate, it is said, warmly 
applaud Mr. Cleveland's position In the Venezuelan matter. 

Pkim.e Hknkv of Battenburg, husband of Queen Victoria's 
daughter, Beatrice, died last week of jungle fever while 
homeward bound from the Ashantee war. 

The Senate has passed a series of resolutions protesting 
against the atrocities in Armenia. The slaughtering, how- 
ever, still goes on, 9000 helpless people having been put- to the 
sword last week. 

The great Loudon papers now declare that England will 
arbitrate the boundary dispute in Venezuela. They are sup- 
posed to reflect the views of the Government, but nothing has 
come authoritatively from the latter sou roe 

The primary election law passed by the last Legislature 
and designed'to stop certain grave abuses In the cities and 
larger towns, has been declared unconstitutional by Judge 
Van Dyke in the Los Angeles Superior Court. 

The national silver partv, of which Senator Jones of Ne- 
vada is the head, will hold a national convention at St. Louis, 
July 'J2nd. It is understood that if either of the old parties 
nominates a straight free-silver man he will be endorsed. 
Otherwise, independent candidates will be put up. 

It is informally announced that Brazil will not consent to 
arbitrate her claim, as against Great "Britain, to Trinidad 
island. This, possibly, is one of the fruits of the U. S. pro- 
tectorate over the Simth American States implied by our 
attitude in the Venezuelan matter. Our ' dago" neighbors 
are likely to be ext remely saucy if they feel that I 'tide Sam 
stands behind them. 

Theke have been two fatal railroad wrecks within the 
week in this State, one at Santa Clara and another at Baden. 
In the former, narrow-gauge and broad-gauge trains came in- 
to collision at the Santa Clara crossing, resulting iu the death 

February 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


of an engineer and the serious wounding of several passen- 
gers. At Baden a San Jose passenger train ran into a wash- 
nut. Engineer Keyer was killed and Fireman Gill badly 
hurt. Several passengers suffered in a minor way. 

.Tt nr.E Wallace has written a letter stating that even if 
the Wright irrigation law be declared unconstitutional by the 
Supreme Court of the U. S., where it is now pending, that 
the State of California will not be bound by the decision. 
That property, if the taxes remain unpaid, will be sold under 
the law, and in each and every instance where the property is 
sold the case will have to be taken into the courts to 
quiet title which will cost, in the end, as much as the tax 
amounts to. 

Nothing decisive has occurred in Cuba during the past 
week. There has been daily fighting, with the general ad- 
vantage on the side of the patriots. Their great leader, 
Gomez, was wounded on Saturday last and will be laid up for 
some time. Indeed, it is doubtful if he will ever again be 
able to take the field as he is a victim of consumption and at 
best has only a few months to live. His loss will be very ser- 
ious, since with large military abilities he combines the per- 
sonal devotion of the people in rebellion. Our Government 
delays recognition of the patriots in spite of the fact that the 
people everywhere are favorable to it. 

From recent reports it appears that John Hays Hammond, 
the California mining engineer, now under detention by the 
authorities of the Boer Republic, was among those who insti- 
gated the invasion of filibuster Jameson. His name is said to 
be among the signatures of a highly incriminating document, 
now in the possession of President Kruger. Mr. Hammond's 
life is not in danger, but he may suffer the confiscation of his 
property and by imprisonment. If it be true that, while a so- 
journer in the Boer Republic, he invited its enemies to march 
against its government, there seems small reason to sympa- 
thize with him in his punishment. It is serious business to 
conspire for the overthrow of a country in which one is a privi- 
leged guest. 

On Tuesday of this week, in the United States Senate, 
Wolcott of Colorado made a notable speech in criticism of the 
President's application of the Monroe Doctrine to the boun- 
dary dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain. The real 
Monroe Doctrine, he said, declared the purpose of this country 
to defend itself against European aggression; but the little 
trouble in Venezuela in no way involved the interests of the 
United States. He denounced the President's position as ex- 
ceedingly mischievous, in that it virtually established a 
United States protectorate over a half-score or more of revo- 
lutionary countries, in whose quarrels we have no natural 
sympathy and whose rise or fall is in no way related to the in- 
terests of this country. 

Some sort of compact, the nature of which is not positively 
known, has just been made between Russia and Turkey; and 
it is surmised that it practically involves the sovereignty of 
the former country over the latter. England, which has long 
maintained the autonomy of Turkey as a bulwark against the 
ambitions of Russia, appears to have suffered a complete 
diplomatic defeat. Just what will be the effect of an arrange- 
ment which gives Russia the greatest port of the Mediter- 
ranean remains to be seen; but it will certainly make her a 
great naval power. If the young Czar is ambitious he can 
easilv, with the resources at his command, rule the sea and 
dominate Europe. It is declared, upon what appears to be 
good authority, that the first effect of the new situation will 
be Russian occupation of Armenia and, of course, cessation of 
the reign of terror which prevails there. 


An olive oil plant will be put in at the Blower orchard near 

The Cloverdale Citrus Fair opens Wednesday and continues 
through the week. 

The rise in wheat comes too late to do farmers much good, 
since everybody has long since sold. 

Mus. Jennie Stakh, one of the most successful fruit grow- 
ers in the Yuba City district, has just dug out seven acres of 
wine grapes and planted almonds instead. 

A meeting of fruit growers has been called at San Jose for 
the sth of February, to consider ways of extending the mar- 
ket for the fruit product of the Santa Clara valley. 

A Cai'av Valley letter says: "The fruit industry in west- 
ern Yolo has received a new impetus, if we may judge by the 
number of people who are talking about planting trees." 

Ontario Record: "From eighty acres of peat land at 
Westminster planted to celery, the shipments for the season 
at the beginning of this week to amounted 80,000 dozen. The 
crop has sold thus far at 17 cents per dozen delivered on 
board the ears." 

The swift current of Putah creek cut off a good slice of land 
at the Boyd place near Winters last week. A correspondent 
declares that the danger to lands along the south side of 
Putah creek is very great, and that Solano county must soon 
take steps for its protection or else loose a large area of fine 

Ckanmoke letter in Sutter Independent i 'The fruit growers 
seem to be well pleased with the outlook for a big crop next 
season. The frost and cold weather are keeping back the 
trees, but that will be an advantage as it will insure them 
from danger later. The farmers are not altogether suited. 
They would prefer a big rain. It is hard to please all." 

Watsonville Pajarnnian: Salinas and Monterey county 
have gone into cahoots and have purchased a rock crusher and 
roller. The outfit cost $1425 delivered in Salinas. It is of 
light capacity. A proposition to purchase a similar ontfit in 
this county was made at the last meeting of the Board of 
Supervisors, but the road districts did not feel flush enough 
to make the expenditure. 

Marysville Democrat: "A Yuba City ladv, who was pes- 
tered as many people are, by other folks' chickens scratching 
up her flower beds and littering up her yard, hit on a novel 
scheme for conveying a gentle hint to her neighbors. She 
tied a lot of strong pasteboard cards with small threads to 
big kernels of corn, and wrote on the cards: 'Please keep 
your chickens at home.' The chickens ate the corn and car- 
ried the message to their owners in a fashion that was start- 
ling and effective." 

We note that Mr. George C. Roeding, for a long time past 
manager of the well-known Fancher Creek Nurseries (Fresno), 
has succeeded to the proprietorship. It is good for the nur- 
sery business that it should be in the hands of men like Mr. 
Roeding who understand it from the ground up and whose 
character is an assurance of straightforward dealing. Of 
late Mr. R. has been making a careful study of the olive and 
already ranks in the list of specialists with respect to the 
propagation and culture of that fruit. 

Hanfokd Journal: " This winter is almost an exact coun- 
terpart of the winter of 1884-5. In the last-named year it was 
very dry until it began raining at midnight on the 14th of 
January; this month was a dry winter up to the time it be- 
gan to rain on the afternoon of the 15th (last Wednesday). In 
1884-5, when it started to rain, the moisture fell abundantly 
and made a good season ; it has now been raining nearly a 
week and prospects are fine for abundant harvests, as it is the 
late winter and spring rains here that make the harvests." 


Fruit Trade Experts Condemn It as 
Utterly Demoralizing. 


the members present should sign an agreement to 
cease consigning goods. This was immediately done 
and most of those present signed and others prom- 
ised to do so. 

As the discussion at the meeting was somewhat 
desultory, instead of reporting the remarks verbatim 
the Rural Press considered it would be more satis- 
factory to its readers to get the opinions of many 
prominent dealers in dried fruits in a more extended 
form, as follows; 

Opinions of "The Trade." 

Mr. Bonner Discusses the Tendencies of the Consignment Sys- 
tem in Detail. 

The Ways in Which the Consignment System Tends to Reduce 
Values and Demoralize Business — It Must Be Stopped, 
Say Our Trade Experts, or the Fruit Trade Will 
Be Ruined — Eastern Jobbers Would Prefer 
to Deal on the f. o. b. Basis. 

To the farmer, the packer and all who in any way 
handle the most important product of California to- 
day no subject is of more interest than the market- 
ing of dried fruit. We are past the stage now in 
which the first need of the farmer is instruction in 
the planting of an orchard or vineyard and as to the 
varieties best suited to his locality and soil. He has 
shown that he can grow fruit successfully by the 
enormous crops he raises and forwards to market. 
The time has now come in which serious attention 
must be given to the methods of marketing the prod- 
ucts of his orchard or vineyard if he wishes to make, 
not a fortune, but a decent living, as the result of his 
labor. This is true, whatever department of the 
dried fruit business we consider. Raisins are already 
down to bedrock aDd are selling to-day and have 
been for a year or two at less than the cost of pro- 
duction. Deciduous fruits are tending toward the 
same condition and at the present moment, in some 
cases, had already reached it. Prunes are in a some- 
what better position, chiefly through the effects of 
better organization on the part of the growers of 
this class of fruit; but they, too, are considerably 
under the prices of two years ago. 

We do not intend, at the present time, to discuss 
the causes which have led to this unfortunate condi- 
tion of affairs. We wish, rather, to draw the attention 
of our numerous readers to the opinions, printed 
below, of men who are prominent in their line of 
business, namely, the handling of dried fruits, and 
who are well qualified to speak on the subject from 
the experience and from the standpoint of the mer- 

At a meeting of the San Francisco Fruit Exchange 
held a few days ago the matter of consigning fruit 
to Eastern commission houses was brought up. The 
meeting was held for the purpose of discussing the 
inspection and grading of dried fruits, but a remark- 
made by one of -the members, Mr. Arthur Castle of 
Castle Bros., raised the question of consignments. 
The subject, though thus inadvertently introduced, 
was none the less emphatically discussed, and, though 
foreign to the object of the meeting, engrossed its 
attention for the greater part of the time. Mr. 
Castle stated that while he was in accord with the 
other members on the subject of inspection of goods, 
he thought it was only a part of a much more import- 
ant subject, which required investigation and serious 
consideration at the hands of the exchange. This 
was the consigning of fruit to Eastern commission 

The discussion thus begun was taken part in by 
many of the members present, and it seemed to be a 
general opinion that this was an evil that had to be 
remedied before the dried fruit business could be 
rescued from its present position and placed upon a 
business basis. 

The discussion led to a motion for the appointment 
of a committee of five gentlemen — of course, all mer- 
chants — to enquire into the whole subject and to 
report back to a subsequent meeting the results of 
their labors, with any recommendations they saw fit 
to make, with the object of rectifying the evils attend- 
ant on the present situation. This motion was duly 
seconded and became the finding of the meeting. 

Tt was also proposed, seconded and carried that 

.l/c. riws. G. Banner, of Williams-Brown Fruit Co. — We have 
been requested to express our views on the subject of con- 
signment of dried fruit, to be sold in the Eastern markets 
after arrival for account of shipper— a system of market- 
ing our California products which has become more gen- 
eral year after year, until now it is almost impossible to 
sell any other way. During the last year we find that a part 
of the fruit crop of the State has been consigned by growers, 
a large part of the balance has been bought by shippers and 
consigned by them. The temptation to shippers to buy goods 
when offered cheap and to consign has generally been too 
strong to resist, and a large quantity of fruit has been han- 
dled in this way— in fact, the shipper who has steadfastly 
refused to consign has found that his business has been taken 
away from him, that he must either do business as others are 
doing it or go out of the business altogether. F. o. b. busi- 
ness seems to be a thing of the past and the consignment sys- 
tem has taken its place. Is this system of advantage to the 
fruit grower and shipper of California, or is it a menace to the 
fruit industry— the industry of this State; Has the consign- 
ment system come to stay, or is there any way which can be 
devised to change our methods of marketing the dried fruit 
product? These are very important questions to all inter- 
ested in the fruit industry, and we think it very wise that 
your paper should have invited a discussion of the subject. 

We understand that a contribution to your paper, in the is- 
sue of December 14th, brought about this discussion— none 
too soon, we hope, to have the matter thoroughly studied by 
everybody interested, and to bring about, if possible, some 
very desirable change in the methods of marketing our prod- 
ucts before the opening of the new season. We have read 
the article referred to with interest, as well as a reply by 
Mr. Banks of Cleveland, Ohio. There are undoubtedly a 
great many arguments which can be raised for and against 
the consignment system, and we are somewhat surprised that 
Mr. Banks, in his defense of the system, did not hit upon any 
of the arguments which might be of weight in the discussion. 
Had he done so, his article might have been somewhat more 
of an advertisement for his house. 


The original contribution in your issue of December 14th 
shows a thorough knowledge of the subject, from the point of 
view of both fruit grower and shipper, whose interests are in 
many respects identical. We will in this letter enlarge upon 
some of the points brought forward already, in the above- 
named contribution, and try to add a few more arguments on 
the side of the anti-consignment movement. The fruit 
grower, the shipper and the commission man have been looking, 
for some years past, to the continual decline in values of Cali- 
fornia products, with many misgivings and fears for the future. 
The grower cannot make a living from his orchard or vineyard 
if higher prices are not soon realized. The commission man 
cannot pay the expenses of running his office on commissions 
at present values, and the shipper, if he be buyer, ran make 
only very small margins of profit on each shipment, where 
values are down to the present basis. It means ruin to all if 
a change for the better cannot be brought about. We all, 
who are interested in the fruit business in California, have 
a common cause— can we improve matters by working to- 
gether : 


The writer is both a fruit buyer and shipper and a fruit 
grower, and can speak with feeling. We think the man who 
buys fruit in California to sell and distribute in the Eastern 
States has almost as important a function to perform, in the 
1 marketing of the product, as the man who grows and dries 
the fruit— both have responsibilities which make their inter- 
ests mutual. 

The shipper has built up a business in all sections of the 
country through years of work. Is he not entitled to a con- 
tinuation of the business? Can the grower dispose of his 
products to as good advantage without the assistance of this 
middleman— through co-operation or otherwise? Can the 
grower do without a buyer for his fruits in California ? We 
think not. But the buyer must withdraw if consignments 
continue. He cannot successfully compete against indiscrimi- 
nate consignments, shipped East to be sold without limit. 

How did the consignment system originate? We believe it 
is due to the effort on the part of the growers themselves to 
get closer together with the consumer. A few years ago, 
when values began to decline, the cry was raised in all parts 
of the Stale to do away with the middleman. The growers 
thought that by doing away with him the profits formerly 
made by the much-despised middleman would come to them. 
To come closer to the consumer, the small buyer was given 
the same advantages as the larger buyers; goods were sold in 
small parcels at the same price as in carloads. Fruits were 
consigned with this end in view. The carload buyers were 
discouraged and many houses whose business it was to buy 
large blocks, and resell them to the smaller jobbers, were 
driven out of the business. Were the growers saved the 
profit which the large buyers made? We think they drove 
out of the business the life and support of the industry — the 
money which was needed to carry the fruit from the time of 
drying till it reached the consumer's hands. 


Everybody connected with the fruit business is apprehen- 
sive of a continuation of present conditions and unprofitable 
values. The present is bad enough for all. Will the future 
be worse, or can we find some way of bringing about an im- 


The Pacific Rural Press 

February 1, 1896. 

provement I Let us first look into the cause of the continued 
decline in values from year to year and from month to month. 

Of course, of greatest importance, we must consider the 
increased production in the past few years, and also the finan- 
cial condition of the country. Everything is cheap; we should 
expect our fruit to sell cheap also. The consumption of our 
products in hard times is cut off more than most articles of 
food. It is more or less of a luxury, which people ran do with- 
out. These are the most serious causes affecting the values 
of fruit. But are they all I The increase of the production of 
the dried peaches in the past few years has not been large. 
But what are peaches worth at the present writing I We will 
assign two other causes : the poor quality of most of the fruit, 
and the consignment system. The poor quality of the fruit 
has cut the demand in half. 

We feel quite confident that t he consignment policy is also 
an important cause. It may not be felt in bringing about a 
"decline in values from year to year, but it certainly has the 
effect of causing a decline from month to month during the 
.course of the season. We will attempt to show this. 


One of the most serious troubles arising from the consign- 
ment system (a that it destroys the early demand for fruit 
which existed under the f. o. b. system. We must remember 
that most of the dried fruit is consumed during the Winter 
and Spring months. Most of it is dry and ready for shipment 
in Summer and early Fall. Most growers are obliged to real- 

i/.' iij their fruit us s as dried. They can do this in only 

one or two ways : by selling or by receiving an advance and 
consigning. They may sell to somebody who will consign: 
but in either event the consignment follows. This is liable to 
be the result year after year, If we find a light early demand 
for our ftuits, unless the growers can find a way of holding 
their fruit here until it is wanted and until the Eastern buy- 
ers can be forced to buy in car lots, not alone for immediate 
wants, but tor their Fall and Winter supply. 

Once that consignments reach the Eastern markets, f. o. b. 
business stops. Buying is done from hand to mouth from spot 
stocks, as necessity requires, and the burden of carrying the 
fruit until wanted for consumption rests upon the grower. If 
Eastern markets were bare of California fruits at the opening 
of the season and consignments could be stopped, jobbers 
would buy in car lots, taking in a supply to last them for a 
longer time than if they could buy from consigned stocks. 
This would create a better early demand than we have under 
the consignment system, and the growers could dispose of a 
large part of their crop immediately after drying in a legiti- 
mate way to the Eastern trade. The money of the Eastern 
t rade is necessary to carry our fruit for us. A hand-to-mouth 
policy is bound to bring about low prices and a continued de- 


Let us look into the consignment system and its immediate 
effects on values. The commission man does not advance 
money on fruit to carry it for several months to make a small 
brokerage or commission. He advances the money to get the 
business and takes the fruit on consignment with the purpose 
tif not always expressed l of selling as soon as possible, mak- 
ing his commission and getting his advance out, ready to re- 
ceive more fruit. Most of California's fruit product, the sup- 
ply of a year, goes on the market in a few months' time, 
finding on its arrival a light Fall demand and no inclination 
on the part of buyers to buy in advance of their requirements 
i as they can at all times buy just what they want from spot 
stocks), the pressure to sell is great and values very naturally 
decline. Hundreds of cars are offered for sale on the market, 
while the consumptive demand at the same time is for but 
few carloads. Many cars are offered below the market— goods 
which have gone East without limit— and continued depres- 
sion of value is inevitable. Ownership of goods to be sold, 
the greatest factor in sustaining values, is missing. There is 
no authority from this end to say, " Withdraw from the mar- 
ket." The commission man has advanced his money to sell the 
goods and reserves the right to sell on the market. These 
conditions are true in the case of many consignments. We 
may be accused of figuring on special cases and accepting 
them as generally true. We do not; but the special cases — 
the abuse of the system, if you wish to call it so— are suf- 
ficient to make the market for those who attempt to do a 
legitimate business and carry the fruit under limits based 
upon the California market. The latter usually suffer through 
their efforts to thus sustain values. 

We know of commission houses in the East which make it a 
practice to tell their trade that they have fruit on the road 
and that they can supply them on arrival. They have it "to 
sell," and will make the price right. They will shade any 
price made by anybody else in the market. Can this have I 
any other effect than to depress values? 


We notice that Mr. Bauks in his defense of the system sug- 
gests that the farmers should select the proper parties with 
whom to entrust their fruit. A grower, in replying to the j 
letter (in your issue of .Ian, 4th), says: "How is the farmer ! 
to know responsible houses which will always get top prices 
for his goods and deal justly with him ; His business is 
farming, not keeping track of the thousand and one commis- 
sion men in the Eastern cities, some of whom are here to-day 
and away to-morrow." Let us suggest that, if consignments 
are necessary, let the grower select some one out of the few 
California nouses (who are represented during the year right 
here among us), and of whose responsibility he can assure him- 
self, and entrust his fruit to this house. California shippers 
are all in a position to ship fruit to any market in the country 
and handle it judiciously. A better distribution of fruit can 
lie brought about if consigned through houses who are widely 
represented in all Eastern markets than if shipped to some- 
body doing business only in one city. Through daily corre- 
spondence the houses here know where goods are wanted, and 
where not, and can select the proper markets to ship fruit to. 
It is the business of the California shippers to look to the re- 
sponsibility of their Eastern representatives. They must for 
their own safety ; it is not the business of the farmer. All 
good, responsible houses in the Eastern markets can make 
connections with one of the larger shippers here and do busi- 
ness mutually satisfactory to both. Some (not all, by any 
means) whose reputations are not of the best can't, but are 
obliged to, send their own men out to select consignments. 


Under the consignment system, values once depreciated, it 
is almost impossible to raise them again until stocks are about 
exhausted. The commission man has taken the fruit to sell 
"on the market" as low as anybody else. What factor is 
there to raise prices unless it comes from this end ; It is very 
easy to cause a decline; very hard indeed while fruit is East 
on consignment to advance prices. The only thing that can 

cause an advance in values is an insufficient supply of con- 
signed stocks, causing a demand for shipment from California. 


We are aware of the fact that demand and supply, and this 
alone, regulate the value of any article, but we cannot con- 
strue this to mean the demand for the year and the visible 
supply. The supply is the amount of fruit being offered for 
sale at a given price at a given time. Cinder the consignment 
system the supply is practically unlimited ; it is all offered for 
sale at the market price— some at any price it will bring. 
There are ten sellers to every buyer. The demand may be 
small— is small, in fact, under the consignment system— con- 
sequently a decline. If the fruit were held here in California, 
some would be held at the market price; a great deal more, 
however, would always be held above the market, and the 
supply in the economic sense would not be so great. 

We have often seen, on account of this "selling on the 
market " consignment system, a very weak market when all 
the I'onditions should point to a strong and advancing market. 
The visible supply might be small, the probable demand be- 
fore the new season might be expected to far exceed the vis- 
ible supply, but the "supply to be sold on the market" was 
greater than the immediate demand, and consequently a 
weak and declining market followed. 


Another very dangerous effect upon the market is that re- 
sulting from forced sales of quite large blocks of fruit — some- 
thing not at all uncommon — but much more serious in its 
effects under the hand-to-mouth or consignment system. 

Where jobbers are carrying light stocks a decline does not 
affect them much and the fruit on a forced sale is thrown on 
the market with few buyers. If all jobbers were carrying 
fair stocks, which would be necessary under an f. o. b. system, 
they would buy any lots thus forced on the market to sustain 
values and protect themselves. The large buyer, whose func- 
tion it was in former days when the f. o. b. system was in 
vogue to supply the smaller jobbers, the speculator, always 
ready to take hold of any "snap," would be in the field when 
such opportunities arose, and the effect of forced sales would 
not be so lasting as under the present system. We have ex- 
plained that a decline in values, once brought about, a reaction 
is almost impossible. For a healthy trade and to sustain 
values, there must be speculators of the kind mentioned. 
When the trade is carrying a good supply of fruit, their in- 
terests are identical with the growers in maintaining values, 
and their every effort is put forth to this end. 


The largo jobbing houses in the East would all prefer to buy 
f. o. b., provided consignments could be stopped altogether. 
Many have told the writer so. But with consignments coming 
on after they have purchased their carloads, with declining 
values owing to consignments, how can they be expected to buy 
except from spot stocks? These consignments have caused a 
loss to every house in the past which has bought in car- 
load lots. 

With declining values it is difficult for the wholesale trade 
to make money in dried fruit even if they buy in a small way 
from day to day. Consequently, their interest in pushing 
dried fruit is small, and we lose the benefit of the work tbey 
would do in finding a market for our products if prices were 

Look at the demoralized condition of the raisin market, duo 
we must admit principally, to the enormous increase in pro- 
duction and apparent over-supply, but the demoralization has 
certainly been augmented by the consignment policy, and in 
the case of raisins particularly, by wretchedly indiscriminate 
consignments to every Tom, Dick and Harry in or out of the 


If the consignment of dried fruit becomes general, we pre- 
dict a worse state of affairs for dried fruits than has existed 
with raisins during the last couple of years; because the bulk 
of the raisin crop is wanted before the Christmas holidays, 
while the bulk of the dried fruit, which is ready for shipment 
earlier than the raisin, is in demand later in the season. 
The element of time will he found a serious factor. 

It is hardly necessary to mention amongother disadvantages 
of the consignment system the impossibility of proper dis- 
tribution, causing an overcrowding of some markets, depress- 
ing values in certain sections, while not iii others. 

We have used a good deal of your valuable space in explain- 
ing facts known and recognized by every fruit handler in 
California, when it comes to offering a remedy it is more 
difficult and we must confess ourselves incompetent. 

We can only make some suggestions upon which action may 
be possible through the different organizationsof shippers and 


The proposition is: Can we dictate to the Eastern trade 
how they must buy our products? We think we should, 
the fruit is ours to sell. Maybe we cannot sell it 
our way, hut we think there will be as much fruit 
consumed if sold f. o b. as if consigned. The principal 
difficulty lies in supplying the buyers with just what 
they want. When consigned they can see the fruit before 
buying. Every buyer has his ideas of quality, of the char- 
acter and variety of fruit which he wants. We can by a 
proper system of grading of fruit, of type samples and certi- 
fied inspection, satisfy most buyers. We can sell by actual 
samples of goods to be shipped which is better. VVe think 
these matters can be satisfactorily arranged and that they 
are practical. 

We think also that most jobbing houses realize that values 
would be better sustained if business was done entirely on an 
f. o. b. basis. Most of them will co-operate in trying to stop 
consignments: at all events we would not antagonize them as 
much as might be supposed. 

We know that the tendency of the times is towards a more 
conservative method of business, but it is ridiculous to say 
that the trade will not buy in carload lots if they cannot buy 
any other way. They would buy, and buy a great many more 
carloads of fruit during the early fall months than they buy 
to-day under the consignment system. This is when we need 
the demand. California canned goods are nearly all sold 
f. o. b. Have the trade asked for consignments of these I 
They know they would not get them because the canners put 
up only what they can sell, or are in a position to carry any 
surplus until sold f. o. b. The trade is forced to buy 
canned fruits f. o. b. Can it not also be forced to buy 
the dried fruits in the same way? 


An arrangement enabling growers to carry their fruit until 
wanted would seem to be necessary to bring about the F. O. B. 
system again. Most of them are too poor to-day to be able to 
carry their fruit after paying cost of drying without some 
assistance. They must either sell or receive an advance and 
allow their fruit to go on consignment. There should be some 
source from which they can borrow on their fruit, without the 
necessity of losiug control of it. 

Financial assistance is what they need from some dis- 
interested source. This we presume they must get through 
the agency of some association or exchange. 

The dissemination of information regarding market con- 
ditions, correct market quotations, the visible supply of 
different varieties of fruit, statistics regarding production, 

consumption, etc., is valuable to the fruit grower in using 
| proper judgment in marketing of his product. 

It is easier to do business with anybody who is informed on 
I these points than with one ignorant of all these conditions, 
i The farmer should, if he intends to market his product with 
j discretion, be posted on these matters. In this respect ex- 
I changes in different fruit growing sections of the State may 
I be of great benefit. An exchange should also be so organized 
I that it may act as agent for growers in securing loans on fruit 
properly warehoused in their buildings. But wc think that 
here their duties should cease. We do not like to bring up a 
discussion on this point, but we think that in attempting to 
market goods the exchanges have overstepped the limits with- 
in which they should confine themselves. 


According to the present exchange system, growers lose 
their independence. Their fruit is pooled, each to receive his 
pro rata of sales, according to grades delivered or packed. 
This system is opposed by many whole spirit of independence 
has caused them to remain outside of the exchange ranks. 
The exchanges, on this account, have not accomplished the 
good they might have done had they not attempted that 
which was really without their province, the selling of the 
goods of the members of the association. 

They have, therefore, not been wholly successful, and we 
do not believe they ever will be as at present organized. The 
spirit of independent control on the part of the grower of his 
fruit will assert itself more every year. As at present organ- 
ized, the interests of the exchange and the fruit buyers on 
the coast are bound to clash. In order to accomplish the best 
results in the fruit industry the interests of both grower— or 
the exchange as a body — and those of shippers should be made 
to agree. Can the exchange expect to drive out of business 
those who have been in it for years? The exchange must pro- 
tect the shippers, or they will find a continual warfare exist- 
ing between themselves and the fruit buyers of California, 
which will be injurious to the common cause. 

Let the exchanges be so organized that they may count 
among their numbers all the fruit growers of the State, and 
have the support of all the dealers. Let each number be in- 
dependent and free to sell his fruit as his judgment or as 
necessity may dictate. Let the exchanges aim to bring about 
the good which may be accomplished for all in the manner 


The principal cause of consignments on the part of growers 
is need of money. If we can do away with this cause and get 
our money from home, we will stop a great deal of this con- 
signment business. The exchange— a corporate body— is bet- 
ter able to finance a loan for the grower than he would be 
himself. The growers must not expect heavy advances, not 
as much as if the fruit were taken on consignment to sell, but 
in a short time this advance will be found to be as much as 
what the fruit is worth to-day. 

To accomplish anything towards breaking down the consign- 
ment system we must have co-operation on the part of grow- 
ers, shippers and the moneyed interests of the State. 

VVe may be able to remove the cause which has brought 
about many consignments. Can we prevent it, then, on the 
part of those who stick to the system of their own free will, 
and not from necessity ? 

Both grower and shipper must be dealt with. Can we bind 
them not to consign ? 

We hope at least that they have all learned the errors of 
uncertainty and the great losses attending this system, and 
that it wili be stopped altogether. If done, we will again see 
I prosperity in the fruit industry of this State. 
Mr. Freeman Advocates Cunalgumeuts Under Ortain I ion 
tat ion A. 

Mr. A. G. Freeman, nf J. K. Amuby Co.— Our company is 
against the consignment method of handling dried fruits, the 
way the business is now generally carried on. The bane of 
this business, as at present conducted, is in three parts: 
First—Eastern brokers without business reputation, ability, 
trade or capital. Second— California producers who do not dis- 
criminate between commission houses with trade, capital and 
business standing, and those who have neither. Third - 
Transportation companies who make It their business to assist 
unreliable Erstern brokers in obtaining consignments. 

We believe that a large amount of dried fruit, handled on 
business principles, can be sold to better advantage on con- 
signment than in any other way. There are many lots of 
fruit produced in California that are not available for sale f. 
o. b. in car lots. These, if handled judiciously, can be taken 
East and sold to smaller dealers at a price in advance of the 
price asked for car lots f. o. b., thereby obtaining the best re 
suit for the small producer here and the small dealer in the 
East, and at the same time protecting the carload buyer. 

This is not an attempt to shield commission merchants from 
their share in making the dried fruit business unremunera- 
tive, but we hold that the producer is full more to blame than 
the commission merchant. We believe that if the consign- 
ment business is to continue, radical changes must be made 
to make the dried fruit business a successful one, either for 
the producer or the reputable commission merchant: and the 
first reform must come from the producer, who should never 
consign a car of fruit to any broker or commission house East 
who is not shown to be reasonably well capitalized, to have 
been in business a reasonable length of t ime, and who has not 
earned bv honest and fair dealing a good standing with the 
trade East and with producers here. When that reform is 
made others will follow. 

The Eastern JobbeT Will Not Buy f. o. Ii When He Can Boy 
From Consigned storks. 

Mr. M- •/. Fontana of Fontana A Co.— Mr opinion is that un- 
less this consignment method of doing business is stopped en- 
tirely it will always be a losing proposition for those engaged 
in the growing, handling or packing of California fruits. The 
reason of this is plain. The Eastern merchant will not buy 
f. o. b. cars in California when he can buy at his own home in 
small lots from day to day, according to the orders he re- 
ceives from his traveling salesmen, or to supply a local de- 
mand. And, further than that, there are usually several 
commission houses in any town or city who are all the time 
trying to undersell each other in order to realize on these 
consigned goods and recoup themselves for advances made 
and any charges, such as insurance, storage, etc., accruing 
against the goods. Under these circumstances it is often, if 
not always, the case that California dried and canned fruits 
can be bought in Eastern markets for less than the same 
goods are held for here. 

Our experience in consignments is such that we have come 
to the conclusion that whenever we are unable to sell our 
goods f. o. b. it is our wisest policy to keep them in our posses- 
sion at home, even if we have to dump them. By so doing we 
know just where we stand financially. On the other hand, 
by consigning we never know where we stand, for the reason 
that storage, insurance, cartage and interest charges keep 
piling up. When the returns come in, usually the consignor 
is indebted to the consignee. Our experience in consigning 
is such that we have never been able to realize over fifty 
cents on the dollar. It would be far better to let the people 
on this coast who understand business, speculate in these 
commodities, than to consign. Then the handler or producer 
here, when he sells his goods to speculators, would know 
what he would get for them, while by shipping on consign- 

February 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

ment he never knows what he will get. Unless some- 
thing is done to regulate this fruit business of California very 
quickly, every fruit producer, dealer and handler will have 
to quit. It is only a question of time, but the day is surely 
coming, unless we change our methods and agree to work on a 
sound, sensible basis. And again, a fruit grower cannot be a 
merchant. A merchant makes a success of his business by 
long experience and has financial means to back it up. Wheu 
the grower, therefore, consigns his fruit he enters the field 
against the mnrchant, and both get hurt. 

•• It Has Kept the Market Depressed the Past Five Years." 

Mr. Byron F. Stone, of Field & Stone CO. — In my opinion, the 
method of doing business in dried fruit by consignments must 
be stopped. This method has kept the market depressed for 
the past five years. On account of it f. o. b. business has 
grown less and less each year, until now it is almost elimi- 
nated. But even if the commission merchants and dealers 
should agree to stop consigning, representatives of Eastern 
houses, who are constantly traveling through the State, will 
without doubt influence the growers to consign, and thus to a 
great extent the same condition of affairs will still exist. 
Generally speaking, the growers do not seem to favor the 
California dealer, being attracted by the glamour surrounding 
a representative from an Eastern house, and acting as if he 
could do his business better with a man whom he knows 
nothing about two or three thousand miles away than with a 
dealer in his own store. It is absolutely necessary in order to 
guard against loss that the California handlers, at least, 
should not own any of the products of this State. It seems 
■ that the only course to pursue is to work entirely on refusals 
from the growers and under no circumstances carry stock of 
their own on this coast or in Eastern markets. If the growers 
desire to forward consignments, the risk must be theirs. The 
stock of dried fruit and prunes would without any doubt jus- 
tify a firm and higher market if the consigned goods now in 
Eastern markets were on this coast. It would undoubtedly be 
better for the State at large if consigning were entirely 
eliminated from the dried fruit business and until they cease 
to be made the present unsatisfactory condition of the trade 
must continue. 

Fnalterahly Opposed to Consignments. 

Mr. Frank S. Johnson. Johnson-Locke Mend nt He Co. — We are 
unalterably opposed to consignments. We are the original peo- 
ple who fifteen years ago started in on an f. o. b. policy, and 
this we have adhered to as nearly as possible. We have our 
own connection in the East through people of long experience 
with a very large jobbing trade, and we have not felt the 
consignments of others as much as most people. Our large 
jobbing trade, which has taken us fifteen years to build up, 
has rendered us comparatively independent of competitors, 
and as we have given all our friends satisfaction so far, we 
shall continue our old policy. 

•'If We Could Assist the Grower in (letting Baek a f. o.b. 
Market, He Would Stop Consignments " 

Sir. K. A. Cohen, of J. B. t'ohen Co.— Yes, I wasat the meeting 
of the Fruit Exchange where the matter of inspecting, grading 
and consigning of dried fruit was discussed, and consider 
them very important subjects. At the present time there are 
no sales of dried fruit being made, and I do not think there 
ever will in the future be enough to speak of unless consign- 
ing is stopped. It was very truly said at the meeting by a 
number of gentleman that, if we could assist the grower in 
getting back an f. o. b. market, he would stop making consign- 
ments. I do not see how we are going to do it unless he takes 
the initiative himself. It is like a whirligig with the seats all 
full of consignors. Each one is waiting for the other to get 
off, but the man who runs the machine is getting so much a 
revolution and is not going to stop, although his patrons know 
that he is taking money out of their pockets with each turn of 
the machine. If they all agree to get off at once, the machine 
will stop. The members of the San Francisco Fruit Ex- 
change are willing, and have so expressed themselves, to 
agree not to consign, provided the farmers and co-operative 
concerns in this State, who do seven-eighths of the consign- 
ing, would also agree to stop it. This would make an f. o. b. 
market, and it is the only way it can be done. Everybody 
who has been in the habit of buying has found to his cost, 
whenever he happened to consign his goods to the East, that 
when he got his returns they showed a loss, instead of a profit. 
The members of the Fruit Exchange would be very glad to 
get co-operation. Consignments have destroyed the market, 
so that the farmer cannot possibly get cash at his home for 
dried fruit to-day. They have upset values and destroyed the 
home market, and unless the system is changed back to f. o. 
b. sales, the fruit grower will never again see any profit in 
his business. The system proposed of establishing grades and 
having an inspector appointed under heavy bonds, who shall on 
request examine lots of fruit put in warehouse, mark the piles 
and give a certificate stating the quality, will have a tendency 
to insure confidence among those who handle the fruit, either 
in the way of making advances on it or of purchasing it. 

I think bne reason why country bankers are so loath to ad- 
vance money on warehouse receipts for dried fruit is that they 
know nothing about its quality. A warehouse receipt for a 
lot of peaches represents to-day so much paper to the banker, 
and the only information given him is that there is a certain 
number of pounds of peaches in the warenouse. He knows 
nothing about the quality of the goods. The lot may be worth 
1% cents or it may be worth cents a pound. He has no means 
of telling. But if an inspector gives a certificate stating that 
he has examined a certain lot of peaches in a certain ware- 
house, and put a certain mark on them, showing that they are 
well cured and equal in value to a certain standard, the 
banker can then know what he is about, and will be more in- 
clined to make a loan. The farmer in need of money will then 
be able to hold his fruit until there is a demand for it, and not 
be compelled to make consignments. So, you see, one feature 
of the discussion at the meeting is dependent to some extent 
on the other. 

I think the fact that the San Francisco Fruit Exchange has 
declared itself in favor of such a policy will bring out a good 
deal of support from the farming community, because they 
must know that the consignment system now in vogue is not 
a profitable one for them. The Fruit Exchange, however, can 
do nothing at all in this direction unless it receives the sup- 
port of every one engaged in the business. There are many 
people in San Jose, Sacramento, Los Angeles and other points 
in this State who are not members of the exchange, and who 
do their business direct with Eastern buyers. These people 
must also stop consigning to bring the desired result about. 

No matter what price we offer to sell goods here for at the 
present time, people in the East having consignments on hand 
shade our prices. People who have been in the habit of pay- 
ing cash for dried fruit do not find it advisable to do so any 
longer, because, no matter how cheaply they may be able to 
buy fruit, some one having the goods on hand in the East, 
being only interested in getting his advance and commission 
out of it, will shade the prices. They, therefore, decline to 
trade at all and are turning their attention to other lines. 

It seems to me that order will come out of the chaos exist- 
ing in the fruit business. It may take a long time, but it is 
bound to come ultimately, and I think it will resolve itself 
into this : Business will be done on an f. o-. b. cash basis ; 
there will be inspectors who will examine each car of fruit 
before it is shipped and give a certificate of quality ; these 
inspectors will be working under the supervision of an ex- 
change composed of those handling fruits and will be paid by 

a system of fees ; their certificate of quality will be attached 
to other documents, which are sent forward to the buyer; 
j should a rejection occur, it will be referred to the exchange 
I for examination ; if the exchange finds that good deliverv in 
accordance with the terms of the sale has been made, 'the 
attorney of the exchange will be instructed to take action 
toward collecting the draft and requiring the buyer to pay 
any damage that may have accrued ; he will have correspond- 
ents, who will themselves be attorneys, in everv city of any 
importance in the United States. After a few dishonest buy- 
ers have been brought to book business will be found to run 

This may be considered an Utopian plan, but in some similar 
lines of business it has been found to be the only success- 
ful way. 

"A Radical Change Is Necessary." 

Mr. Arthur H. Castle, of Castle Bros.— To my mind a radical 
change in the system of handling dried fruits is necessary, to 
warrant a continuance in business of such California firms as 
are "exclusively'" devoting themselves to this commodity. 

There is no other article of merchandise the world over 
wherein the seller has so little voice in the establishment of 
values, as applies to the marketing of our dried fruits under 
the present loose and unbusinesslike system. Instead of 
holding and storing the stock at home, thereby obtaining or- 
ders for such quantities and varieties as the various Eastern 
markets from time to time may require, the policy of dealers 
and producers for the past few years has been to ship on con- 
signment to their Eastern brokers the major portion of our 
crop, without regard to the all-important mercantile law of 
supply and demand, thereby overloading said markets and de- 
moralizing vaiues. 

After exchanging ideas on the subject with some of the 
Eastern merchants, I can confidently state that they also 
would be benefited were we to cease consigning and in this 
way insure well-sustained values conforming to crop condi- 
tions, etc. As the business is now done, an Eastern mer- 
cnaut is not safe in purchasing more than his orders in hand 
actually call for, experience having taught him that no sooner 
does he stock up than consignments pour into his market, 
thereby reducing the value of his holdings. 

Another very important factor in rearranging our method of 
doing business in the line under discussion, would be the 
more uniform grading of our fruits and the selling of same en- 
tirely on sample instead of, as is now done, on description. To 
arrive at this, at the opening of the season an exhaustive line 
of standards should be established and distributed through- 
out the country to the numerous agents or brokers, with in- 
structions that no orders are to be taken except sales cover- 
ing same have been governed by same standards. To insure 
the Eastern buyers that good deliveries will be made on 
their purchases, reliable inspectors should be engaged to 
carefully examine stock about to be shipped, they having posi- 
tive instructions to forward no goods unless fully equal to the 
standards on which transactions have been based. This done, 
a certificate of inspection would accompany all shipments, 
serving as a guarantee that we, at least, have performed our 
share of the contract. 

To bring about all these reforms, concerted action is of 
course necessary, and the nucleus for same already exists in 
an organization known as the San Francisco Fruit Exchange, 
of which the majority of the San Francisco dried fruit dealers 
and shippers are members. 

Our firm has identified itself with this exchange and I, as a 
member, cordially invite shippers and dea'ers throughout the 
State to join our institution, so that by the combined efforts 
of all interested in the dried fruit industry a betterment of 
the existing conditions pertaining to same can he accom- 
plished, thereby saving to California one of its principal sup- 
ports and one which, if allowed to continue on its present 
downward course, will ultimately die out entirely. 

A large number of producers have already gone into bank- 
ruptcy: numerous others have their property mortgaged to 
its fullest extent ; we learn of constant failures among our j 
merchants engaged in handling these goods, and I think it 
high time something should be tried to bring about a change. 

'• We Must liuurantee the Jobber a Steady, Firm and 
Reliable Market." 

Mr. Ralph W. Herxey, Manager California Dried Fruit Agency, ! 
San Jose, Cat.— To save tne dried fruit industry of California 
from utter ruin, it is necessary to establish a system and | 
method of procedure which will guarantee to the jobber a 
steady, firm and reliable market upon which he can base his 
calculations and from which he may make purchases with or- I 
dinary assurance that a profit will accrue to him. He had j 
rather have prunes, for example, at 5 cents per pound f. o. b. 
on a firm market, than force them to 3 cents per pound on an 
unsteady and fluctuating one, and we honestly believe he 
would make larger purchases, from the fact that he could 
make this department of his business one of profit without j 
much risk, rather than one of loss, as has been the case for the 
last few years. 

One of the most discouraging features of this industry that 
you meetwith in Eastern travel and conversation with the East- j 
ern jobbers, is the indifference shown to the California dried 
fruit industry. They claim there is no profit, in comparison 
with the great risk they run of making losses. They will no 
longer carry heavy stocks, but force California packers to 
carry them either on coast or spot. 

They can replenish their stocks in small quantities from 
spot goods, which in nine cases out of ten are sold lower than 
the f. o. b. asking price, freight added. This is often brought 
about from the fact that consignments are made to houses not 
familiar with the business and without any standing with the 
trade, who, in order to effect sales, must make some conces- 
sion in price. Often this is forced upon them for lack of funds, 
and probably the shipper has drawn against the goods, which 
puts them out of his possession and makes his Eastern con- 
nection the larger owner. The market is naturally weakened 
so long as this class of dealers have goods in their possession 
and responsible houses have to meet this competition. What 
would be the condition of things if goods were all sold in car- 
load lots from California on a firm market; 

First: The large jobbers would carry heavier stocks. Many 
of the smaller ones would buy in carload lots, which they did 
formerly but do not to-day, rat her than buy of their competi- 
tors. Second : From the fact that if jobbers have large stocks 
they become our partners in business and are anxious to hold 
the market up to avoid loss. Third: If they find themselves 
with heavy stocks they instruct their traveling men to 
"force" dried fruits. This is done and the retailer finds 
himself with more than he needs on his hands. He immedi- I 
ately displays it in his windows or on his shelves and asks his 
customers to try it at a price which will reduce his stocks. 

This method, we believe, will widen markets, increase con- 
sumption, reduce the price to the consumer and put the whole 
industry on a firm business-like basis, with fair profits to all. 
In a word, keep your consignments out of small markets, deal 
directly with carload buyers, thus leaving a free open field for 
business to the jobber, and we will have a fair profit-paying 
business. Until then, never. 

•• Unprofitable to Dealer and Grower." 

Mr. J. L. Wilson, of Wilson * Baechtel.—The dried fruit busi- 
ness of the West has been for some time unprofitable both to the 
dealer and grower. Their interests are more or less identi- 
cal; what hurts one is an injury to the other, and what helps 
one is necessarily a benefit to the other. In my opinion, the 
principal cause of this unprofitable state of affairs has been 

the poor business methods pursued by both the grower and 
I dealer and the want of sympathy 'among the dealers them 
selves. Each one has bent all his energies in fighting for 
, himself and has never given a thought for the general good of 
j all. Many of them are now beginning to realize that this has 
been a mistake. Then again, dealers have overstocked them- 
selves and been compelled to consign large lines of fruit to the 
East. This has been thrown on the market for what it would 
bring, necessarily resulting in demoralized prices. Another 
bad feature in the business is the want of uniformity of 
grades of stock. Every shipper has his own line of 
grades and these were made up from his views of their qualitv 
and the result is that there is a great difference in the value 
of what is supposed to be the same grade of goods. It is diffi- 
cult for buyers to tell just what kind of fruit they will get 
unless they buy from an actual sample of the stock. Those in- 
terested should get together and establish uniform grades of 
goods, then make all sales cash f. o. b. cars, with an inspector's 
certificate showing that the goods are kept up to grade and 
stop consigning anything to eastern markets to be sold on 
commission. Consignments have been one of the worst feat- 
ures of the business for the reason that thev are sent to dif- 
ferent towns and thrown on the market regardless of price, 
I with demoralizing results. If the dealers will get together 
and make uniform rules for doing the business and work in 
harmony, it will be of great benefit to evervbody. It can be 
done easily enough. The only thing for them is' to do it in- 
stead of talking about it so much and still going on in the 
same old way. 

"The Method Is Killing Trade and Ruining Everybody." 

Mr. Frank Dalton., of Daippn Bros., Prrxitlr.ut of Fruit F,.r- 
ehange—l am most decidedly in favor of stopping the consign- 
ment method of doing business. There are good men in the 
East who handle our goods honestly, but the method is bad 
and the loose way in which it is done is killing trade and ruin- 
ing everyone concerned. We would all rather hold our goods 
here than in the East, as we can then control them. 

It Is Destructive to the Home Market. 

Porter Bros. — You can put us down in favor of any move- 
ment that will tend to establish the dried fruil bus'iness of 
j this (toast on an f. o. b. basis. We do not believe it can be ae- 
j complished by the efforts of the San Francisco dealers alone, 
i for they must have the hearty co-operation of the growers. As 
I long as the Eastern commission men can secure large consign* 
j ments of dried fruit simply for the asking and the advance of 
! a certain sum of money, just so long will it be difficult, if not. 
impossible, to do a satisfactory f. o. b. business. One great 
difficulty at present in f. o. b. business is the loose method 
employed by many growers in curing their fruit. While it is 
comparatively easy to sell a straight car of choice fruit, a 
large proportion of the growers in the State do not produce 
the article in carload lots, and as a consequence consignments 
are often made up of several varieties, which, because of their 
inferior quality and small quantity, it is difficult to sell f. o. 
b., and right here we desire to state that we believe the ex- 
change could prove of inestimable value to the fruit industry 
of the State by getting these different lots together aud 
j properly grading them, so that f. o. b. business could be guar- 
anteed by brokers and dealers here, who do business with the 
exchange, but who at present find it difficult to do so because 
of the lower prices on consignments made by them to Eastern 
houses.- We think the dealers here are in sympathy with the 
exchange generally, but many feel that preference has been 
given Eastern buyers and brokers where the business could 
have been done by California houses on equal terms. 

Fruit Should Be 8old Before It Leaves the Slate. 

Mr. W. M. (irifin of (irittin & Skelleu Co.- — If you mean by con- 
signments goods shipped to a commission merchant or broker in 
the Ejst, and (as in most instances) drawing on the consignee 
for a large part of the f. o. b. value, also requiring consignee 
to pay freight, and leaving the selling price largely to his 
judgment, then the Griffith & Skelley Co. have never'madc a 
consignment in the course of their fifteen years' fruit business. 

We have, however, in order in a measure to compete with 
indiscriminate consignments, been obliged to place a portion 
of our goods in Eastern warehouses, within easy access of buy- 
ers and shippers, and have adopted a system which, if fol- 
lowed by California shippers, wc..d do away with the worst 
feature of the consignment business. We control the prices at 
which our stock can be sold, from warehouses in the East, as 
absolutely as though it was in our own warehouses in Califor- 
nia. To enable us to do this, we ship to our own order, 
requiring our brokers to draw on us for freight, sell at prices 
which we name, report each and every sale on blauk* which 
we furnish, and when such reports are rece ved we bill and 
collect from our San Francisco office. 

Although this system has worked well, we would like to go 
farther and see every pound of California product sold before 
it leaves the State, and if any method can be devised to 
accomplish this end, the Griffith & Skelley Co. can be relied 
upon to give it their hearty support. If, however, this cannot 
be accomplished at once, we think our methods of doing busi- 
ness a decided improvement over placing our products in the 
hands of Eastern commission merchants and brokers, who (in 
their zeal to effect sales and realize the advances they have 
made) force the goods upon the market faster than' trade 
requirements, and at lower prices than necessary. 

The Fastern Buyer Wants a Steady Market. 
Mr. Albert B, Halt, of Kmersnn A- Hall. SI . Paul. Minn — What 
the Eastern buyer wants is a steady market, so that he can 
be sure he will be able to sell the goods purchased without 
making any loss on them. Of course, as long as consignments 
were coming forward, or he knew they were going to 
come forward, he would not purchase any goods on this 
coast, but would wait until they arrived at destination and 
then buy in small lots, if he wanted them. During the season 
of consignments it is very seldom that any one is willing to sell 
free on board cars on this coast at a price as low as consigned 
goods can be purchased in the East. Discrimination is not used 
by the growers in California in regard to the people to whom 
they made consignments. People send out circulars giving fic- 
titious prices to influence consignments to themselves In our 
city you can go in the street where the produce commission men 
are located (we call it commission row) and in front of the 
door you will find some vegetables, a sack of potatoes, a 
chicken coop, and a veal calf, and in the back of the store you 
will find a carload of raisins for sale at any price obtainable 
over the advances, and that as an actual matter of fact, the 
houses having the raisins for sale do not know the difference 
between 3 and 3-crowns and only have a hazy, indistinct idea 
that there is a difference between them, and that knowledge 
is only acquired by hearsay. Of course, if consignments are 
going to be made, Eastern people will not buy f. o. b. But 
when they were satisfied that the market had gotten down 
to bedrock, they would be free buyers. For instance, lately 
we have received very low prices on raisins from houses on 
this coast, who had them and wanted to realize on them; we 
went around to the grocers and one man said, "Put me down 
for two cars:" another said, "Put me down for three cars," 
another for five cars, etc. The prices obtained were only So, de- 
livered, for 3-crowns and 2%c, delivered, for 2-crowns, which 
meant f. o. b. here l 7/ H o for 3-crowus and l a 8 c for 2-crowns. 
We sold more raisins and prunes this year f. o. b. than con- 
signed. The huckster who is flooding this State with delusive 
circulars never vet got an f. o. b order, and if business were 
done on an f. o. b. basis, it would shut out those people. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 1, 1896. 


The Wright Law Before the United States 
Supreme Court. 

On Thursday and Friday of last week the Wright 
law concerning the organization and operation of 
irrigation districts in California came before the 
IJ. S. Supreme Court for decision as to the constitu- 
tionality of some of its provisions. Against the law 
there appeared Joseph Choate of New York, Judge 
T. B. Bond of Lakeport. Cal., and G. H. Maxwell of 
San Francisco. On the other side were ex-President 
Harrison, ex-Chief Justice Rhodes of California and 
C. C. Wright, author of the Wright irrigation act. 

Judge Bond*» Points. — Judge Bond opened his argu- 
ment by outlining the irrigation scheme as carried 
on in the districts. In his argument proper he 
claimed that the Wright act was unconstitutional 
for the following reasons: " It does not distribute 
water for public use; it does not afford an opportu- 
nity to the land owner, who owns improved land or 
houses which cannot be benefited in their present 
condition, a hearing as to whether their property 
can be benefited or not by the system. The assess- 
ment provided for by the Wright act, which is the 
only means for the payment of the bonds, is unneces- 
sary, arbitrary, oppressive and unjust, and takes 
property without clue process of law. As to the use of 
the water, it is exclusive, and is provided by the act 
solely to fertilize land, to make productive land more 
productive, to increase the profits of individuals car- 
rying on their own private business, and under the 
act can only be conducted to the land by works suit- 
able for irrigation, which are dams, ditches and 
canals, which pour the water on and into the soil, 
and saturate it to make it productive of crops. After 
the water is thus delivered to each taxpayer, as it 
must be under the W right act, in proportion to the 
taxes he pays, it is consumed and cannot be used for 
any other purpose. The district cannot construct 
any other works, and were it to do it, it would be a 
misappropriation of funds and in violation of the 
provisions of the act. 

Of the thousand uses the public could make of 
water, all are excluded. It can only be used for this 
one use. that of fertilizing the land of some of the 
taxpayers within the district to render it more pro- I 
ductive. This exclusive use is not a public use. In I 
short, the public are the only persons who are abso- ] 
lutely deprived of any use of the water. State prop- 
erty and the property of counties and cities are not 
taxed, and no water is delivered to them. Cities in 
these districts cannot even use the water for extin- j 
guishing fires, for the sprinkling of streets, for flush- 
ing the sewers, for building purposes, for domestic 
use, or any other public use. Under the constitution 
of the State the use of water is declared to be a 
public use, yet under the Wright act water is with- 
held from those who can use it. and forced upon 
others who cannot Use, and this is not a public use. 
To impose a public tax upon something which is not 
public is unconstitutional. This is the effect of the 
Wright irrigation act. 

Judge Rhodes Defends the Writ/Id Laic. — A. L. 
Rhodes, ex-chief justice of California, followed Judge 
Bond in behalf of the constitutionality of the Wright 
act. He devoted much of his time to explaining the 
Wright act, its provisions and its effects, and then 
he showed the value of irrigation to arid lands in 
California. He said that land which in its natural 
state would barely grow two crops in five years had 
since been transformed by irrigation into the finest 
soil upon which the sun had ever shone. He cited 
an instance in Fresno county where seven acres of 
land originally would barely keep one head of cattle, 
while under the system of irrigation one acre of this 
>ame land would keep seven head. He claimed that 
the proposed use of water was a public use and corn- 
batted the idea of Judge Bond that the assessments 
were not made for a public purpose. He said it was 
just as justifiable as taxing for school purposes the 
property of those who have no children to send to 

Ex-President flu niton. — In his address, Mr. Harri 
son confined himself almost exclusively to one or two 
points. The point on which he laid particular stress 
was the validity of the assumption that the residents | 
of irrigation districts had a right to a hearings be- 
fore Boards of Supervisors. He held that there was 
no more reason why these people should not have 
hearings than would a property holder in a city as 
to whether or not he should pay the assessment on a 
sewer which ran in front of his premises. He cited 
several opinions of prominent jurists to bear him out 
on this point. Hr. Harrison insisted that these irri- 
gation cases were no more than tax cases; and. said 
he, " If anything is made clear by the decision of 
this court, it is that the taxing power of this State 
is a full power.' These two points practically con- 
stituted the range of Mr. Harrison's argument. 

Mr. Maxwell' it Arraignment of the Law. — Geo. H. 
Maxwell, of San Francisco, who has mustered the 
legal forces against the Wright law, made a careful 
argument. "The question before the court is not 

whether the irrigation of arid lands, where irriga- 
tion may be necessary, may be of public use," said 
Mr. Maxwell, "it is whether assessments levied un- 
der the Wright act are levied for a public purpose, 
and whether those assessments can be sustained 
when levied upon lands deriving no benefit from irri- 
gation, such as cities and towns, or lands not requir- 
ing irrigation, or lands already irrigated. Irrigation 
might in arid regions be a necessity, but irrigation 
and confiscation need not go hand in hand. The 
broad question of the power of arid States to carry 
out a State policy of irrigation is not involved, and 
this power will be unimpaired, though the Wright 
act be unconstitutional. We contend that the 
Wright act takes property without due process of 
law. because, as this court said in the Missouri Pacific- 
Railway Company vs. Hume, it is not within the 
legitimate scope of legislative power. 

" The Wright act vested in self-constituted peti- 
tioners the power to determine the expediency, fix 
the boundaries and thereby control the organization 
and operation of irrigation districts, and, without 
hearing, to subject private property to burdens of 
assessment amounting to confiscation, giving to com- 
munities power to assess without limit and without 
any regard to the benefits for alleged public use, 
which is, in fact, private. No law could so violate 
natural justice and constitutional rights and operate 
successfully. It is communism and confiscation un- 
der the guise of law." 

In answer to a claim made on the other side that 
the Wright act should be sustained, since it had been 
re-enacted in other States, Maxwell said that radi- 
cal changes from the Wright act, which have been 
made in the irrigation district laws of Nebraska, 
Idaho and Oregon, which were framed in the light of 
experience compared with the practical operations 
of the Wright act, strongly supported the argument 
that the unconstitutional features of the Wright act 
made it impossible for any such law to operate suc- 
cessfully, and show that these latter statutes had 
sought to eliminate these unconstitutional features of 
the Wright act, which have given rise to its most 
j grievous oppressions and which would work the prac- 
: tical destruction of any law embodying such provis- 

Referring to one of General Harrison's statements 
he said: " My distinguished adversary contends that 
the power of a State to impose taxation is unlimited, 
but assessments under the Wright act cannot under 
the Constitution of California be upheld under the 
power of general taxation. They are assessments for 
alleged local improvement and can only be sustained 
as such, if at all. The benefits conferred are the 
basis of the power of assessment for local improve- 
ment, and the hearing upon this question of benefits 
is essential to due process of law, but under the 
Wright act the landowner has no possible opportu- 
nity for a hearing upon this question at any stage of 
the proceedings. 

" Where lands which are not benefited by actual 
irrigation are assessed under the Wright act," said 
Mr. Maxwell, in conclusion, " they are either taken 
for private use for the irrigation of the lands of own- 
ers requiring irrigation, which under the law cannot 
be done at all, either with or without compensation, 
or they are taken for public use without compensa- 
tion. " 

Mr, Wright' t Position.— C. C. Wright, author of the 
act on the constitutionality of which the Supreme 
Court is to decide, followed next in order. His argu- 
ment was mainly devoted to the benefits of irriga- 
tion to the districts of California, though he made 
one or two telling points in behalf of the act of 
which he is the father. 

Joteph II. Choate. — This distinguished lawyer made 
a plea against the district law on the ground that 
the contemplated use of water was not a public use; 
that lands were assessed which did not need irriga- 
tion; that such assessment was an invasion of the 
rights of the individual. He said: ' ; The water, pro- 
vided under the Wright act, does not go to the land. 
It goes to certain persons in the districts, who may 
either use it or sell it. as they desire. There is no 
public use in this. It simply provides a commodity 
for sale or exchange. It is for the irrigation of a 
class of persons, not of lands, and of this we have a 
grand example in the deluge, when the Almighty de- 
termined that the irrigation of mankind was neces- 
sary for their salvation. Here the question of 
necessity was determined, but under the Wright 
act it has never been." 

.1 mhiv Dillon closed the case and made a strong 
plea in favor of the Wright law as a means of pre- 
venting the monopoly of water and making it sure 
that the water and land should not be separated in 
ownership. If so separated, the land-owners would 
be forever dependent upon the water owners and a 
species of selfdom, involving a perpetual charge on 
the owners of irrigated land, would result. Judge 
Dillon argued that committing the question of the 
erection and administration of irrigation to the ac- 
tion of the people in various localities is in line clearly 
with the national system of self-government. And 
unless the Federal Constitution prohibits that— in 
brief, that the lands reclaimed should be so done at 
the expense of those directly benefited onlv -the 
Wright act must stand. 


California Vegetable Growing. 


To the Editoh.— Now is the accepted time, I 
1 think, to answer some of the communications that I 
have lately received from readers of the Rik.u., 
asking me what I consider the best varieties of early 
dwarf peas, the best early cabbage, cauliflower and 
tomato, and at what time I plant the seeds, etc., 
and if 1 make use of a hot-bed to forward the plants. 

It is an old saying that '"one swallow does not 
make a summer." Neither do a few warm, sunny 
days at this season of the year make balmy spring- 
time. Last Thursday (Jan. IHh) the temperature in 
the shade on the north side of my house during the 
greater part of the day was 70°, aud I told my son 
that many persons would think it was high time to 
begin immediately to make an early garden, as this 
is almost invariably the case here every spring, and ' 
I presume it is the same elsewhere. 

While I was talking with him. a young man of our 
acquaintance rode up and said to me: " Have you 
any good early peas for sale ? I want to plant some 
to-day." I told him I had not saved any pe;is for 
seed for some years, as the bugs destroyed so many 
of them, but that I bought what I needed from seeds- 
men in San Francisco, and occasionally tried some 
new variety catalogued by Eastern seedsmen and 
often found a good one. I advised him not to plant 
any on his low valley land at present, as I had no 
doubt, notwithstanding our unusual protracted spell 
of cold, dry weather, but that we would have a long, 
cold rain very soon, as the weather had been so 
threatening for many days, and in that case his peas 
would be almost, if not quite, an entire failure. He 
soon left. 

If he planted his early wrinkled peas, I think he 
will wish he had heeded my suggestion, as it com- 
menced to rain early Monday morning; and at this 
writing (Jan. 16th) the wind is blowing strong from 
the southeast, and the welcome rain is coming down 
in real old '4!» style, with good prospects for a con- 
tinuance. We need it; let it come ! It will be wel- 
comed by many thousands, especially in the southern 
portion of this State, who had about given up all 
hope of getting a bountiful supply so soon. 

The Best Tiim to Plant Pi as. —I have found by a 
practical experience of many years that there is 
nothing gained by planting peas here, especially on 
valley land, much before the middle of February; 
and then, if planted in a small way, to put them in 
raised beds some eight or ten inches above the gen- 
eral level of the ground. A bed four feet in width 
is amply sufficient for two rows of the dwarf variety, 
putting each row about a foot from each side of the 
bed, which should be made rich and mellow with very 
fine light manure, which serves to keep the soil 
light, porous and warm. I generally open a furrqw 
with a common hoe. and of the same width, and sow 
the peas quite thick au inch or so apart, and cover 
about an inch, tamping the soil gently with the back 
of the hoe. I go over the beds every few days with 
a steel rake; by so doing the soil is kept loose, and 
not a single weed will make an appearance. Hoe 
occasionally, bringing a little of the soil each time 
towards the peas. For a succession, plant another 
bed when the peas in the first bed are three or four 
inches high, and, if desired, a third planting in like 
manner, as here described. 

Where one wishes to grow early peas on a larger 
scale to sell, after plowing and harrowing the ground 
very thoroughly, open itraight, shallow furrows 
thirty inches apart for the dwarf and three feet for 
the larger varieties with a small one-horse plow, and 
sow the seeds as before described, covering them 
with a common one-horse cultivator, taking off the 
front plate. This is the best method I have ever 
originated or seen, and was described more fully by 
me in my article for the Ri rai. of February 1, 1890. 
For the large variety, extend the cultivator the full 
width; for the dwarf, contract it so that the hind 
teeth will not interfere with the rows sown on either 
side. In a week or ten days after the peas are 
sown, give the ground a good harrowing with a one- 
horse harrow, or wait until the peas just commence 
to make an appearance, when you can then walk 
your horse between the rows. Cultivate thoroughly 
at least once a week until the peas are nearly ready 
to be picked. 

The Best Early Dwarf Pea. — I have never found 
any better varieties than the American Wonder and 
McLean's Little Gem, with the sole exception of 
Nott s Fxcelsior, which I consider the beat earliest 
wrinkled dwarf pea that I ever raised. It grows a 
little taller than either of the other varieties, but 
surpasses them, in my judgment, in every respect. 
If 1 remember rightly, it was first introduced some 
five or six years ago by James J. II. Gregory & Sons 
of Marblehead, Mass., who, allow me to say, I con- 
sider one of the most reliable seed firms in the United 
States. Since then it has been catalogued by many 
Eastern seedsmen, but I am not aware of it being 
introduced as yet by any seedsman on this coast. I 

February 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


can conscientiously recommend it, and would advise 
readers of the Rural to try it. 

A Later Pea. — For a succession to any of the early 
dwarf varieties, I have thus far found nothing better 
than the Yorkshire Hero. It grows about two feet 
in height, has a sturdy, branching habit, is very pro- 
lific, with large pods actually crammed with fine 
large wrinkled peas, which remain fit to eat longer 
than any other pea I ever raised. This superior pea 
can be obtained this season of the Cox Seed and 
Plant Co., San Francisco, for the low price of five 
cents a pound in twenty-five pound lots. Neighbors 
can club together and order that amount or more by 
freight, and by so doing can obtain their seed peas 
for very much less than they can obtain them by re- 
tail at the country stores. I intend to adopt this 
plan, and shall send for a good supply in a few days. 
I generally make two plantings of this pea — the first 
about the middle of February if the weather is fa- 
vorable and the second the last of the month. If 
planted much later, a few very hot days that gener- 
ally come here the first part of June will almost en- 
tirely ruin the young and tender pods just as they 
are commencing to fill. 

A Hot-Bed. — In the East, where the winters are 
long and very severe, it becomes very necessary to 
go to considerable trouble in order to prepare hot- 
beds that shall generate a sufficient and steady 
amount of heat which is necessary to protect the 
young and tender plants from injury when the tem- 
perature often falls to many degrees below zero. 
Successful gardeners there have almost entirely done 
away with the old style of hot-beds, which have been 
superseded by greenhouses, which are heated by 
stoves or furnaces, or, better yet, by small iron 
pipes running in every direction, which are kept al- 
most constantly filled with steam or hot water. In 
this State, persons wishing to raise very early plants 
of cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, peppers, etc., on 
a small scale for family use have to resort to the 
old-time hot-bed; but, owing to our genial climate, 
it is not necessary to take extra pains in prepar- 
ing it. Simply make a bed (somewhat larger than 
you wish for your seed-bed) some two feet or more in 
depth of fresh horse manure, mixed with fine straw 
that has lately been used for bedding, a little chip- 
dirt, old leaves, etc. If the horses have not been 
fed with grain of any kind, add a plentiful supply of 
hen manure, as well as a little air-slacked lime, mix 
thoroughly, and tread down as solidly as possible. 
On top of this put three or four inches of light, sandy 
loam, and then place on your frame, which should be 
made sloping, the rear board about one foot in width 
and the front one six inches. Make the sides to con- 
form with the ends of the others. This frame can be 
covered during long, cold rains or cold nights with 
either glass or muslin, great care, however, being 
taken not to let the bed get too hot, as in this case 
you would get very weak and spindling plants which 
would prove to be almost entirely worthless. Al- 
ways give the bed all the fresh air possible when the 
weather will permit; and, when needed, sprinkle 
with luke-warm water. I generally plant my to- 
mato, cabbage and cauliflower seeds in my hot-beds 
the first day of February, always planting the to- 
mato seeds in a separate bed, as they require more 
warmth than cabbage or cauliflower. When the 
young plants are two or three inches high, trans- 
plant them to other rich beds without any bottom 
heat, placing them three or four inches apart where 
they will soon grow strong and stocky and be fit to 
remove to their permanent place in the garden when 
vegetation of all kinds begins to grow rapidly. 

A Warm Heap. — I often raise fine plants of various 
kinds by simply throwing up a heap of fresh horse 
manure, etc., under an old shed, and plant my seeds 
in small, shallow boxes containing not over three 
inches of dirt and place them on top of the heap. 
Great care must be taken for some days at least, as 
it becomes necessary to raise the boxes sometimes 
by placing them on a piece of board or bricks or to 
press them down a little into the heap, owing alto- 
gether to the amount of heat generated. A little 
too much is worse than not quite enough. After 
the plants get a few inches high they can be trans- 
planted into beds somewhat sheltered from the north 
winds, where they can remain until the spring 
weather fairly opens, when they can be again re- 
moved to the garden. 

The Best Early Cabbage. — The genuine Early Jersey 
Wakefield, though comparatively small, is probably 
the earliest cabbage grown. However, there are 
several other varieties nearly as early, equally as 
good, and of a much larger size, Early Flat Dutch, 
Henderson's Early Summer and Burpee's All-Head 
being some of the best. 

Late Varieties. — Like the early varieties, there are 
sn many different kinds catalogued that it is almost 
impossible for a novice in gardening to make a good 
selection. In my judgment, Old Flat Dutch-, Large 
Late Drumhead, All Seasons and Harris' Short 
Stem are among the best. 

Cauliflower. — I have tried a number of kinds during 
the past few years, and have found the Erfurt Earli- 
est Dwarf and Henderson's Snowball to be two of the 
best varieties. I shall, however, try Cox's California 
Wonder this season, as it is claimed to be a new and 
very superior variety, and originated with C. C. 

Morse & Co. of Santa Clara. Cabbage and cauli- 
flower need very rich soil and plenty of moisture, as 
well as thorough cultivation, at least every week. 

Tomatoes. — I shall make no extended remarks 
about this valuable and healthy fruit that perhaps 
has received more names than any other vegetable 
grown. In my article on tomatoes in the Rural of 
Feb. 15, 1890, I said: " The whole thing boiled down 
to a solid fact is that a large, smooth, bright red, 
solid, prolific tomato like Livingston's Favorite is 
good enough for anybody." I am still of the same 
opinion. Set the plants 6x(>, cultivate often and 
thoroughly, and you will have tomatoes that will 
please you. Ira W. Adams. 

Bay State Garden, Calistoga, Cal. 


Oakland's Poultry Show. 

Last week we published an incomplete list of 
awards made by the Pacific Poultry and Pigeon As- 
sociation in the poultry department of the Poultry 
Show held in Oakland January 16th to 22d. The fol- 
lowing were received too late for insertion in our 
last issue: 

$50, gold. Association sweepstakes, for largest display of 
birds scoring 90 points and over, any and all varieties, young 
and old, by one exhibitor; won by Acme Poultry Company. 

$25, gold — Association sweepstakes, for second largest such 
display ; won by W. O. Moore. 

$50, cup— Donated by the American Buff Leghorn Club, for 
best display of buff leghorns, won by W. O. Moore. 

$50, cup — Given by an Oakland admirer, for highest scoring 
buff leghorn cockerel ; won by Charles D. Pierce. 

$25, gold — Donated by Prank Bush, Santa Rosa, for highest 
scoring bird in the show (bantams, turkeys and geese barred) ; 
won by Prank Ross. 

$5, gold — For best black Minorca, male; won by Acme Poul- 
try Yards. 

$5. gold — For best black Minorca, female; won by W. G. 

$5, gold — For best white Minorca, male; won by W. G. Ma- 

$5, gold — For best white Minorca, female; won by Frank 

$5, gold— Donated by Acme Poultry Yards. Santa Rosa, for 
ten best black Minorcas ; won by Frank Pierce. 

$5, gold— Donated by Acme Poultry Yards, Santa Rosa, for 
ten best white Minorcas; won by Acme Poultry Yards. 

One yearly subscription to California Cultivator — For highest 
scoring bird in class 1 ; won by Miss Forbes ; class 2, by Miss 
Forbes; class 3, by Frank Ross; class 4, by W. Trudgen; class 
5, by W. O. Moore ; class 6, by W. J. .Tellings ; class 8, by W. 
J. Jellings ; class 9, by W. O. Moore ; class 10 , by J. B. Ol- 

$25 worth of eggs— For best breeding pen ; won by Charles 

Full-sized broiler shipping coop, valued at $5 — Won by Chas. 
Pierce for best dozen broilers. 

Five complete egg cases, for best display of market eggs — 
Won by May Wilding. 

$10, value— Grand silver medal for best black Minorca, cock- 
reel ; won by Acme Poultry Yards. 

Frank Ross, Santa Rosa, gives $5, gold, for best display S. 
C. White leghorns from Sonoma county ; won by Acme Poul- 
try Yards. 

$2.50— Highest scoring pair, male and female, by one exhibi- 
tor in class 1 ; won by May Forbes. 

$2.50— Best S. C. Brown Leghorn, male; won by Ed Ellis. 

$2.50— Best S. C. Brown Leghorn, female ; won by Acme 
Poultry Yards. 

$2.50— For best individual display of breed winning first 
prize for brown eggs; won by C. C. McConnell. 

$2.50— For best individual display of white eggs; won by 
May Wilding. 

$2.50— For highest scoring barred Plymouth Rock ; won by 
Miss Forbes. 

$2.50— For highest scoring Wyandotte ; all Wyandottes may 
compete ; won by F. G. Wulzen. 

$2.50— For highest scoring Plymouth Rock of white and buff 
varieties: won by F. G. Wulzen. 

$2.50— For highest scoring Cochin in show; won by W. F. 

$2.50 — For highest scoring white Leghorn in show ; won by 
F. Ross. 

$2.50, cash — For best display of bantams by one exhibitor ; 
won by John Mecklin. 

Residents of Menlo Park donate : For best pair of dressed 
cockerels, heads and feet on, $5 cash ; won by W. L. Boldt. 

A Success with Brown Leghorns. 

Mr. S. H. Olmstead of Verdugo, whose pointed 
essay appeared last week, is a lover of the White Leg- 
horns. While at the Glendale Institute we had the 
pleasure of visiting Mr. Olmstead's excellently 
planned and kept establishment, where we saw 
about 2000 of as fine birds of this breed as we ever 
saw. For size, vigor and for truth to the standard 
we never saw better, if indeed, as good. Another 
southern California grower, Mrs. M. L. Smale, pro- 
ceeds upon a Brown Leghorn basis and gives the 
Cultivator an outline of her methods, which is very 

Choice of the Jheed. — Several years since, after 
looking up the merits of the different breeds of 
fowls, we decided to try raising Brown Leghorns, 
and to-day, when we have between two and three 
hundred of the natty little feathered beauties trip- 
ping about with their industry and alert, dainty 
ways, with their clean brown suits and Vandyke col- 
lars of brown and gold, and the little scarlet banner 
falling gracefully over one side of their pretty heads, 
their snowy earlobes, and all the rest of it that goes 
to make a handsome bird, we are glad we decided to 
make raising them a specialty. 

Mating in March. — In March we mate up our pens, 
preferring to give them liberty through the moult 
and the winter following. For the best pen we 
choose the thirteen finest hens over one year old in 

the whole stock, and mate them with a cock of equal 
excellence, approaching the standard for points as 
near as possible, and we found last year by actual 
count that the pen that most fully met the require- 
ments were the best layers and the most satis- 
factory in every way. We then take the next best 
thirteen, mating with a first-class male and one so 
marked as to remedy any defects the females may 
have. The remainder of our stock from which we 
breed for incubators is carefully culled and every ob- 
jectionable bird is disposed of. One or two culls 
running in the flock destroy the beauty of the whole, 
to my mind. 

Incubator and Brooder. — We use incubators, and 
never put in our brooder over fifty chicks, and out 
of that number we lose perhaps three or four during 
the first week; thereafter they are uniformly 
healthy. If in an evil moment we put more in one 
brooder we are sure to reap a harvest of dead 
chicks. We use an ordinary Petaluma indoor 
brooder, covering the galvanized floor with a quilted 
mat, with a hole in the middle to allow the heat pipe 
to come through. Over this pipe I put one and one- 
half inches of clean sand. This does away with the 
evils of bottom heat. I brush the droppings off 
every day, and change the sand entirely every three 
days, occasionally sprinkling the sand with a little 
chloro-naphtholeum and water. I put a teacupful 
of water in the heat pipe every day. 

Home Made Brooder House. — Do not turn the chicks 
out of the brooder too soon. I use four or five 
brooders with an incubator running 100 eggs at this 
season of the year. If the chicks are worth hatch- 
ing they are worth saving, and any other way is a 
poor makeshift. I prefer having every family of 
fifty isolated from every other, and this is how to do 
it: I dig a hole, settling the brooder in the ground 
the length of the legs, leaving an entrance in front 
by which to reach the lamp. I cover this brooder 
with a shed of shakes, leaving the front open. Then 
I have the family genius construct a veritable little 
house out of a large dry goods box that will cost 
perhaps fifty cents, putting on a half-pitch roof of 
shakes. A hole the size of the entrance to the 
brooder, and connected with it, gives the chickens 
access. The south side of .the little house consists 
of a half-sash of a window, arranged so as to slide, 
thereby making it convenient to water and feed. 
Here they are comfortable and happy during the 
stormy season. For the yard, which is connected 
with the box on the opposite from the brooder with 
a little drop door, I use two-foot wire netting; this 
may be of any length desired, but should be only 
two feet wide and be fastened on a movable frame, 
thus enabling one to renovate the ground within. I 
tack the wire the whole length of the top, with the 
exception of a door of the wire, 2x2 feet, next to the 
house; then Mr. Chicken never gets out, and hens, 
cats and dogs never get in. 

One thing more, about the lamp: these are dan- 
gerous things in the main, and require especial care. 
Instead of putting water on the top, which soon 
rusts the lamps out, cover them with a half-inch 
layer of plaster of paris and keep them well trimmed 
and the burners clean. 

To Protect Forests from Fires. 

Representative Shafroth has introduced a novel 
bill, which has gone to the House Committee on 
Public Lands. It is designed to protect forests on 
the public domain from destruction by fire. It au- 
thorizes and directs the Secretary of the Interior to 
lay out ways 1000 feet in width through such for- 
ests on public lands as are liable to destruction by 
fire, putting them at "intervals of from five to ten 
miles apart," so that when cleared they may be ef- 
fective for preventing the spreading of fires. The 
timber on these roads or ways is to be offered for 
sale at public auction, on the condition that each 
purchaser is to clear that part of the way of which 
the timber is bought by him. As to those parts 
which cannot be so cleared, bids are to be called for 
for clearing them. The purchaser or contractor, 
as the case may be, is to give a bond for the faithful 
execution of his work. Apparently, it is thought 
that a good deal of it must be done by contract, as 
the sum of $500,000 is appropriated by the act. 

It is provided that anybody who willfully sets fire 
or causes setting fire to any timber upon the public 
domain, or who negligently leaves a fire burning un- 
attended near any such timber, shall, upon convic- 
tion, be fined not less than $50 nor more than $5000, 
or be imprisoned not less than six months nor 
more than two years, or shall be both imprisoned 
and fined, as thus provided. Any person who builds 
a campfire or other fire near timber upon the public 
domain, and fails to extinguish it before leaving the 
place, is to be punished by a fine of not less than $25 
nor more than $1000, or imprisonment for not less 
than thirty days nor more than a year, or by both. 

It is provided that the Secretary of War shall, at 
the request of the Interior Department, detail sol- 
diers to patrol the forests, and that they shall have 
power to make arrests under this act. The Secre- 
tary of the Interior is authorized to make other pro- 
visions for protection also against fire. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

February J, 1896. 


From "The Garden That I Love. 

Had I a garden, it should lie 

All smiling to the sun, 
And after bird and butterfly 

Children should romp and run, 
Killing their little caps with flowers, 

The air with shout or song; 
While golden crests with guelder bowers 

Rippled the whole day long. 

Had I a garden, alleys green 

Should lead where none could guess 
Save lovers, to exchange unseen 

Sly whisper and caress. 
For them the nightingale should sing 

Long after it was June, 
And they should kiss and deem it spring. 

Under the harvest moon. 

Had 1 a garden, claustral yews 

Should shut out railing wind. 
That poets might on sadness muse 

With a majestic mind ; 
With ear attuned and godlike gaze, 

Scan heaven and fathom hell. 
Then through Life's labyrinthine maze 

Chant to us, "All is well.'" 

Had 1 a garden, it should grow 

Sheltered, where feeble feet 
Might loiter long, or wander slow. 

And deem decadence sweet: 
Pausing, might ponder on the past, 

Vague twilight in their eyes. 
Wane calmer, comelier to the last, 

Then die as autumn dies. 

—Alfred Austin. 

Open Secrets. 

The truth lies round about us, all 

Too closely to be sought: 
So open to our vision that 

'Tis hidden to our thought. 

We know not what the glories 
Of the grass, the flower, may be : 

We needs must struggle for the sight 
Of what we always see. 

Waiting for storms and whirlwinds. 

And to have a sign appear. 
We deem not Cod is speaking in 

The still, small voice we hear. 

In reasoning proud, blind leaders of 

The blind, through life we go, 
And do not know the things we see, 

Nor see the things we know. 

Single and indivisible, 

We pass from change to change, 
Familiar with the strangest things, 

And with familiar, strange. 

We make the light through which we see ! 

The light, and make the dark: 
To hear the lark sing, we must be 

At heaven's gate with the lark. 

— Alice Carv. 

Joel Dracutt's Intentions. 

il Oh, yes ! I know you intend to do 
things, Joel Dracutt ! " 

.Mrs. Dracutt's voice was high and 
shrill, her pale-blue eyes sparkled with j 
indignation. Her thin, sallow face had 
a careworn, fretful look. She had been 
called a pretty girl when she had mar- 
ried Joel Dracutt, but that was long 
ago, and her loss of bloom and spirit had 
been largely due to the way Joel had 
'• turned out." 

The cause of her unrealized expecta- 
tions can be inferred from the burning 
words in which she now addressed Joel. 

" You've always been intt tiding to do 
things. Joel Dracutt ! There's things 
you intended to do fifteen years ago 
that aint done yet ! You've intended to 
paint and fix up the house; you've in- 
tended to put in a cellar and build a 

"You've intended to sod the yard; 
3'ou've intended for years to dig a well; 
so we wouldn't have to carry all our 
water clear across from Simon Hill's 

" You've intended to fix up our 
smoking old chimneys, and put in 
window-lights and repair this leaky 
roof and fix up the fence and build a 
cow shed and get me a sewing machine, 
and goodness only knows what else 
you've intended to do. And have you 
done any of these things, Joel Dracutt, 
have you ? " 

The shiftless, good-natured looking 
man sitting on the kitchen doorstep, 
whit tling out a tiny basket out of a 
peach stone, made no reply. 

If Joel felt his guilt it did not disturb 
him overmuch, for there was no resent- 
ment in his twinkling blue eyes. There 
was dead silence for fully' a minute, 

then he looked up and said, gently and 

" Sho, Letty." 

"Is that all you've got to say. Joel 
Dracutt ? " 

" Yes, 'tis, Letty. I aint even intend- 
in to say anything more." 

"You'd never say it if it came out 
like the other things you've been in- 
tending to do. Just let me hear you 
say that you intend to do a thing, and 
I know it'll never be done. But now I 
infoid to do something, Joel ! 

She stopped rocking in the creaking 
old rocking-chair in which she was 
seated and leaned forward, shaking 
one finger warningly. 

" Yes, Joel Dracutt. I'm going to do 
something, and it's this: 

" I'm going to take the children and 
go back to father's to stay until you've 
done everything about this run-down 
old place that you've been intending to 
do for fifteen years." 

He looked up and said again, 

" Sho, Letty." 

" I mean every word of it, Joel. I'm 
simply ashamed to live this way any 
longer. I'm ashamed to fetch our chil- 
dren up in such surroundings. 

" Father will be glad enough to have 
me at home again, now that mother's 
dead, and he's no housekeeper but poor 
old Aunt Ann. Things are kept up in 
good shape at father's. 

" My father works, as it's the 
bounden . duty of ev'ry man to work. 
I'm going to let him rear my children, 
because their own father aint fit to do 

Her voice choked and she said slowly 
and sadly: 

" I never thought when we were 
married, Joel, that I'd have to leave 
you for very shame; 1 never thought 
when Joey and little Lucy were babies, 
that I'd have to take them away from 
their own father because he didn't pro- 
vide for them and because he wasn't 
fit to rear them as I intend my children 
shall be reared. I never once thought 
of it, Joel." 

He tossed the completed peach- 
stone basket into her lap and said: 

"There's something for you to re- 
member me by when you get to your 
father's, Letty." 

He rose from the doorstep, stretched 
his arms above his head, yawned and 

"You want me to go over to the 
river and ketch a mess o' fish for sup- 
per ? They say they're biting fine 

His wife made no reply, but he took 
a long fishing-rod from the wooden 
pegs on which it rested and went 
across the bare and unkept little door- 
yard and on down the dusty road until 
he was lost to view in the timber. 

His wife could hear him whistling 
cheerily after he was lost to view and 
she said sadly: 

" He thinks I don't mean it, but he'll 
find out that I do." 

There were tears in her eyes as she 
went about gathering up her own and 
her children's belongings, so few that 
it was easy to pack them all into one 
small battered old trunk. 

"And it took two trunks and a big 
box for all the things I fetched to this 
house," she said, bitterly. 

Her packing was done by the time 
Joey and Lucy, children of eight and 
ten years, came home from school. Her 
other preparations had been made the 
day before, and her father had sent her 
the money for her journey. 

When Joel came home in the evening 
he found his wife and children gone. 

Letty's last act had been to set out 
some food on the table in the kitchen 
for Joel. She had thrown a cloth over 
the table, because of the flies, and 
when Joel lifted the cloth he saw on the 
plate set for him a scrap of paper on 
which was written: 

"I meant every word I said this 
morning, and we have gone to my 
father's on the four o'clock train. We 
will come back again when you have 
done all the things so long 1 intended ' 
doing, and when you are prepared to 
provide for us as we have a right to 
demand and expect. Letty." 

Joel dropped into a chair, while the 
note fluttered from his fingers to the 
floor. His wife had been correct in her 

surmise that Joel had not thought that 
she had meant all that she had said to 
him that morning. Letty had made so 
many idle threats that Joel had ceased 
to heed them. 

The frugal meal she had set out for 
him remained untouched, although he 
had come home hungry. 

Letty's note had been a sharp check 
to his appetite. He picked up the bit 
of paper and read her lines again and 
again. Then he got up and walked 
from one to the other of the silent, 
deserted rooms in the little house. 

Letty might, he thought, be playing 
a trick on him, and ho called softly: 

"Letty ! Letty ! " 

He peered into closets and even 
looked under beds, saying as he did so: 

" You under there, Joey ? Where 
you hiding, Lucy ? " 

Night came on and he could not stay 
in the silent house. His wife and chil- 
dren had never before been away from 
him a single night. 

Idle and shiftless as Joel was, he had 
loved his family, and he had never been 
harsh to them. He had borne Letty's 
scolding and reproach meekly and had 
often tried to soothe her by saying: 

" You do have a good deal to put up 
with. Letty, and I intend to do better, 
1 swan if I don't ! " But his will had 
been too weak for him to keep his 

He wandered around in the unkept 
and unproductive little garden back of 
the house long after night had come on. 
It seemed to him that he could not go 
into the house and to his bed without 
his childrens' good-night kisses. 

He stumbled across something in one 
of the garden paths. It was a little 

I toy wagon belonging to Joey. One 
wheel was missing, and Joel said in self- 
reproach as he picked it up: 

"' The little feller asked me three or 

| four times to fix his wagon and I in- 
tended to. I've intended to do so many 
things I aint done. I'll do some of 

I them before I sleep and I'll begin on 
this wagon." 
He carried it into the house and 

j lighted a lamp, which was in itself ad- 
ditional evidence of the failure of some 
of his good intentions, for the bowl of 
the lamp wobbled around loosely ou 
the stand, and the burner needed re- 
pairs that he had been intending to 
make for weeks. 

He found a hammer and nails and 
spent an hour repairing the little wag- 
on, and then he hunted up a rocker 
that had long been missing from Lucy's 
little chair and fastened it securely in 
its place. 

Joel Dracutt was "handy" with 
tools of any kind, and about all the 
money he earned was the result of the 
' tinkering" he did throughout the 

Two weeks of active labor that he 
was perfectly capable of performing 
would have brought great changes in 
his home and lightened poor Letty's 

He spent most of the night in bitter 
self-reproach and when morning came 
he looked about the sadly neglected 
premises and said frankly: 

I swan if I blame Letty for goin' 
away from it all." 

This conviction strengthened when 
he undertook to get his own breakfast 
on a stove with a door that had to be j 
propped up with a crowbar, and a [ 
chimney that smoked steadily for near- 
ly an hour. 

He saw how poor Letty, who was not 
" handy " at making repairs, had tried 
to patch up this or that broken article 
in her kitchen and pantry. 

It was a raw morning, the rain came 
driving in under the kitchen door, be- 
cause the weather strip or doorsill had 
worn away. Joel realized that he 
could have put a new sill in its place in 
an hour and he had long intended doing 

"Letty's had her trials, that's sure," 
admitted Joel. 

Meanwhile, Letty was in the neat, 
pretty home of her childhood. Its con- 
trast to the home she had left was 
great, but she was far from happy 
amid her comfortable surroundings. 
With all his failings she loved Joel, and 
distance and absence magnified his 

She remembered that her husband 
had never spoken harshly to her in all 
their married life. Sometimes when 
she had been bitterest in her scolding 
reproaches, and had said all the sharp 
things her indignation could suggest 
or her tongue frame, he had listened 
in abashed silence and had put his arms 
about her and said contritely: 

" It's all true, Letty, and it's a pity 
you ever tied yourself to such a poor 

She remembered his unfailing kind- 
ness to his children, and how patient 
and gentle he had been with little Joey, 
who had been one of the most peevish 
of babies during the first two years of 
his life. 

She remembered how Joel had cared 
for the fretful child through many a 
long and weary night, that her own 
rest might be unbroken. 

And when Lucy had the diphtheria, 
Joel would allow no one but himself to 
care for her. He had even shut Letty 
out of the sick-room, because her throat 
was naturally sensitive, and he would 
not allow her to subject herself to the 

She remembered so many things she 
had not taken into account when she 
determined to leave Joel. She was not 
indifferent to his comfort and she 
thought of what a wretched time he 
must be having trying to "do for him- 

She found, too, that her active, noisy 
children disturbed her father. Tt had 
been years since there had been a child 
in his home, and he was what some 
people call "fussy." It annoyed him 
to see even a book out of its proper 
place, while order was an unknown 
quantit}' to his two harum-scarum 

There were times when their mother 
almost longed for the careless freedom 
of her own home, and she missed Joel's 
cheery laugh and his unfailing smile. 

She wrote to Joel frequently, but his 
replies were few and brief and he did 
not even suggest her return to her own 

At the end of six weeks she announced 
her intention of going to her own home, 
and her father did not oppose her. He 
admitted frankly that the children 
" worried " him, and that he was too 
old to adapt himself to this new order 
of things in his home. 

Letty could not tear her love for her 
children's father from her heart. She 
did not write to Joel of her intended re- 
turn. It was but a ten minutes' walk 
from the railroad station to her own 

She half feared that Joel might for- 
bid her return if he knew of it. and the 
surprise would be all the more complete 
and delightful if he wanted her to come 

It was about ten in the morning when 
she reached the station near her own 
home after an all-night ride. Her 
home was but half a mile from the 
station, and she had walked half the 
distance with her children when she 
suddenly met Joel face to face at a 
sharp turn in the road. It had been 
years since she had seen him so neatly 
dressed. He had a new satchel in his 
hand, and his first words were: 

Why, Letty, 1 was on my way to 
take the 10:35 train to fetch you home. " 

He knelt down in the dusty road with 

iighest Honors — World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 




Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 

February 1, 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


an arm around each of the children, 
and kissed them with tearful eyes. 

"I'm sorry I went away as I did, 
Joel," said Letty, quietly. 

" And I'm glad," said Joel. " You'll 
know why pretty soon." 

He put his arm around her as they 
walked homeward with the children 
running on before them. 

Another turn of the road brought the 
house into full view a few rods from 

" Why, Joel ! " said Letty, in the 
utmost surprise, lor the house she saw 
bore no resemblance to the house she 
had left. 

Behind a snowy white picket fence 
stood a little cottage shining in its new 
coats of white and straw-colored paint. 
A broad piazza ran along the entire 
front of the house, the dooryard was 
newly sodded, and all the unsightly 
litter of years had been removed. 

Under the old oak tree in the yard 
was a new pump, to prove that Joel's 
" long-intended" well had become a re- 

The house had a new roof, and not a 
pane of glass was missing. The out- 
building shad been repaired and painted. 

The interior of the house was in har- 
mony with the changed exterior. There 
was new paper on the walls, and every- 
thing was in perfect repair. 

"You see I've done all the things 
you said I must be before you'd come 
home," said Joel, "an' I did it about 
all myself. I aint furnished the house 
up any, because I reckoned you'd rather 
enjoy doing that yourself." 

" But the money, Joel ? It's all 
beautiful, but how could you afford to 
do it? " 

" Well, the day after you left, I got 
word that my Aunt Harriet had died 
over in Hawleyville, and left me eight 
hundred dollars, and I reckoned 1 
couldn't put it to better use than to do 
some o' the things I've intended to do 
for you. I've fixed things up to the 
best I could, and they're going to stay 
fixed up, Letty." 

" I've got a steady job over in Tay- 
lor's factory, and I've broken my old 
fishing rod and sold my shotgun, and it 
won't be my fault if you're ashamed of 
me hereafter." 

"I am ashamed of myself," said 

" You've no call to be," replied Joel, 
decidedly. "All the past is buried, 
and we won't rake it up. Come around 
to the back of the house and see how 
vou like the new cellar." — Household. 

Fashion Notes. 


"You don't call upon Miss Smarte 
as much as you did ? " " No. Fact is 
I have reasons for suspecting that my 
company is not as agreeable as it 
might be. The last time I was there I 
suppose I did stay rather long, and 
when I got up to go Miss Smarte said: 
' Must you go now ? I was in hopes 
you would stop for breakfast.' Some- 
how I got an idea that perhaps it 
would be just as well for me not i,o 
waste any more time at that house." — 
Boston Transcript. 

"I see," said Mrs. Hashcroft, "that 
they have passed an ordinance impos- 
ing a fine on any one who yells ' Fire ! ' 
in a church." "Oh, well," said the 
cheerful idiot, "that sort of preaching 
has pretty much gone out of date any- 
way " — Indianapolis Journal. 

Aunt Severia — Good gracious, Do- 
rothy, you're never going to wear that 
dress — and in a cold concert room, too; 
you'll catch your death. Dorothy — Oh, 
that's all right, auntie; when 1 wear 
this dress all the men blush so that the 
temperature of the room goes up ten 
degrees immediately. — Ally Sloper. 

He — Do you love me well enough to 
be my wife? She — More than that; I 
love you well enough to be your 
mother. Haven't you heard that I'm 
going to marry your father ?— Bos ton 

Bicycle Manufacturer — Where am 1 ? 
Nearest Angel — Why, this is heaven. 
Isn't it delightful ? Bicycle Manufac- 
turer — Yes, indeed. It's very pleas- 
ant. But, I say (looking around critic- 
ally), you ought to have better roads. 
— Somerville Journal. 

The empire style of dress is the 
favorite for little girls. A pretty 
model is of cream-white silk, and the 
accordion-plaited skirt is thirty-four 
inches deep and ten yards around. The 
deep yoke is covered with yellow lace, 
and the lace frills over the shoulders 
end in rosettes of cream satin ribbon 
with straps to the neck. The sleeves 
are caught up with a ribbon rosette 
and finished with deep frills of lace. 
Pale yellow silk, with frills of sheer 
fine white lawn edged with narrow 
cream Valenciennes lace over the 
shoulders makes a bewitching gown for 
a little brunette, and the ribbon should 
match the silk. Elbow sleeves are the 
I rule for these dressy gowns. 

Another suitable for a girl of twelve 
is carried out in flowered silk. The 
skirt is plain and the full waist is 
belted in with ribbon to match the pre- 
vailing color in the flowering. The 
square neck is finished with lace edging 
and insertion, and epaulets of silk fall 
over the sleeves. These are quite as 
pretty made of plain silk to match the 
ground of the other. The third gown 
is of red silk, and trimmed entirely 
with plaitings of the same. The Eliza- 
bethan collar is the novel feature, and 
it gives the little wearer a very quaint 

Embroidery is one of the features of 
seasonable costumes. There are many 
new dresses shown with skirt front, 
vest, collar, cuffs, wide revers and belt 
edged with needlework. This may be 
in the color of the fabric, or, what is 
better liked, in wreaths, garlands and 
bouquets in natural tints. 

A dress of biscuit-colored cloth has 
the edges of the front breadth em- 
broidered in a graduated design, wide 
at the hem and narrowing to a tiny 
vine at the belt. The vest is finished 
in narrow rows of embroidery, forming 
Vs, one above another, down the vest 
front. The revers that turn over upon 
the sleeve tops are edged with a slen- 
der vine, and on the corners over the 
shoulders there is a large design, 
almost covering the available space. 
The belt is almost of solid embroidery, 
and the cuffs have a vine around the 
wrists and a larger design extending 
up the outside of the arm. 

A dress of plain and striped poplin 
in blue and black has a plain waist, cut 
out in the neck over a vest of plaited 
crepon. Where the waist is cut out 
there is an edge of the embroidery all 
around, and this extends down the 
fronts, around the bodice point and the 
postilion at the back. A turned-over 
collar is embroidered, as are also the 
cuffs, the latter in a quite elaborate 

A tailor costume of navy blue cloth 
has the front breadth of the skirt well 
covered by a conventionalized design in 
crysanthemums with spreading foliage. 
The cuffs are similarly finished. The 
vest is of light tan-colored cloth with a 
collar. This is almost covered with a 
design to match, only in very small 

Don'ts for Housewives. 

Don't use napkins or tablecloths to 
wipe dishes with — don't. 

Don't let the ashes choke up your 
grate, and so burn it out. 

Don't let cheese mould— throw it out 
if you cannot use it up when fresh. 

Don't let vinegar weaken on your 
pickles, and don't let it eat them up. 

Don't put your clothes on the line 
and leave them to the mercy of the 

Don't dig with one side of your broom 
until it looks freakish, or use your best 
broom to scrub with. 

Don't kill yourself washing when a 
little washing powder or ammonia will 
help you so willingly. 

Don't let bread grow musty — make 
it up, before it grows past using, into 
puddings and bread cakes. 

Don't throw out a bag of stale soft 
crackers; put them into a big shallow 
pan and let them get crisp again in a 
moderate oven. 


Domestic Hints. 

Delicious Raised Buns. — Use one 
quart of milk; boil one pint of it. Add 
to the whole quart a piece of butter 
the size of an egg, two-thirds of a cup 
of sugar and two eggs beaten together, 
one-half a cup of black currants and 
one-half a cup of yeast. Let the mix- 
ture rise over night. 

Salmon Steaks. — Steep for an hour 
or so four middle-cut, good-sized salmon 
steaks with a glass of sweet oil, salt, 
pepper and the juice of a lemon. About 
half an hour before serving, broil them 
light brown over a charcoal fire, and 
garnish with quartered lemons and 
serve with a bowl of tartar sauce. 

Tartar Sauce. — Put in a salad bowl 
two egg yolks, salt, pepper and nut- 
meg. Mix thoroughly with a wooden 
spoon, while adding to this slowly and 
gradually a pint of sweet oil, dropping 
in a teaspoonful of vinegar at a time 
when the sauce is too thick. Add some 
finely chopped gherkins, capers, pars- 
ley and two tablespoonfuls of prepared 
mustard; mingle well and serve. 

Spiced Apple Pudding. — Three cups 
of breadcrumbs, one pint of boiling milk 
poured over them, three cups of 
chopped apples, one cup of seeded 
raisins, one cup of sugar, two eggs, 
one teaspoonful each of cloves, cinna- 
mon, mace and salt. Steam half an 
hour, then bake twenty minutes. 

Beefsteak and Kidney Pudding. — 
Two pounds of lean, juicy beef, free 
from gristle (the under side of the 
round or chuck is best). Cut it and 
two lamb kidneys into pieces no larger 
than the end of your thumb; roll each 
piece of meat in flour and season with 
pepper and salt. For the crust use 
one pint of sifted flour, three ounces of 
suet and water enough to make the 
dough soft enough to roll out. It 
should be at least half an inch thick. 
Grease a quart bowl well, preferably 
with dripping or suet, and lay the crust 
in it, bringing it well up on the sides 
and being careful not to cut it off so 
close that it may slip. Put in the 
meat, pour in a gill of cold water and 
cover the pudding exactly as you would 
a pie. Some line the bowl and allow 
the crust to turn over to form the top, 
but it is better to cut it off and put the 
top on separately, pinching it down 
well. Tie the bowl containing the pud- 
ding in a floured cloth and boil four 
hours, observing the same precaution 
as with other boiled puddings — that is, 
not removing the lid except to put 
more water into the pot, and this 
added water must always be briskly 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

Use milk puddings and stewed fruit 
for bilious dyspepsia. 

Try ordinary grated horse radish for 
the removal of the cough which usually 
follows the grip. Eat it at meals and 
between meals. 

Diluted carbolic acid should be 
poured at once on every part of a 
poisonous wound; afterward give in- 
ternal stimulants. 

Old feather beds, if left on a grass 
plot during a summer shower, and 
allowed to get thoroughly wet, will, 
when dry and beaten, seem fresh and 
new again. 

Whiten yellow linen by boiling half 
an hour in dne pound of fine soap 
melted in one gallon of milk. Then 
wash in suds, then in two cold waters 
with a little blueing. 

Even more than gloves, there should 
be a generous supply of shoes. A fair- 
weather boot should be left at home 
on a stormy day, as surely as a fair- 
weather bonnet. Rubbers ruin shoes, 
and if they must be worn it should be 
over a pair that has lost its freshness; 
much better, however, are the storm 
boots that are waterproof and need uo 
rubber protectors. Every woman 
should own a boot dryer, upon which 
to fit a wet shoe that it may dry in 
shape, the best substitute for such a 
convenience being loose oats, with 
which the shoe may be fined. 


For favors in 1895. 

Let our interests be mutual in 

We are going to move, you 
know, into new quarters more 
convenient to the buying public, 
better arranged for business, and 
better equipped in every way. 

Our removal sale will be 
something unheard of, and has 
already commenced. 


Ladies' Tipped Shoes for Sunday. 
Ladies' Plain Toe Shoes for Sunday. 
Ladies' Plain Toe Shoes for house wear 
Girls' School Shoes, from 11 to 4. 
Girls' Sunday Shoes, from 11 to 4. 
Girls' Plain Toe Shoes, n% to 3>/ 2 . 
Girls' Kangaroo Calf, 11 to 2, tipped. 
Boys' Heavy Everyday Shoes, 11 to a 
Boys' Neat Sunday Shoes. 13 to 5. 

Ladies' Faucy House Slippers. 

Men's Fancy Christmas Slippers. 

Ladies' High Grade Fashionable Oxfords. 
Ladies' Russet Color Oxfords. 

$1.25 Pair 

Buys any of the above. Mention Rurai, Phess, for 
few of them are offered elsewhere. Allow 15 cents 
extra for mailing (about one-half the cost), and we 
will send to any address in the U. S., prepaid, ex- 
cept boys' shoes: they are heavier, say 25 cents. 


In Ladies' Shoes are coming in fashion with many 
and they are the best bargains. Many among 
them aio $1.00 shoes, and even higher. 

All, or nearly all, are standard widths, very few 
narrow shoes among them, and none extra wide; 
for these see first page of February " Home Circle." 


We shall say nothing more about shoes for a 
month, but will talk about prices on other closing 
lots, such as 






And other items, now being forced. 




414, 416, 418 Front St., S. P., Cal. 

Envelopes 15 cents .box of 250. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

February 1, 1896. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

For Planting Season of 1896 

We offer for sale a choice lot of 

Budded Orange and 
Lemon Trees, 

One and two-year buds of the leading varieties, on 
sour or sweet stock. 

Trices to Suit the Times. 

SEEDLING ORANOE TREES at your own price. 

Correspondence solicited. 

Oroville Citrus Association, 

Oroville. Butte Co., Cal. 

Pacific Nursery 

Office and Greenhouses. 
Cot Maker and Lombard Sts., San Francisco. 

Nursery at Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 



Evergreens and Coniferous, Palms and Dracenu?s. 

Largest and best grown stock of Camellias, the 
best double sorts. Azaleas indica, double and 
single. Roses on own roots and grafted in the 
best varieties, and healthy, very strong plants. 

r. r.i i>i;m ANN. 

Established 1876. 

riyrobolan Nursery 


Offers for the season of 1895-6 a complete 
assortment of 

Fruit Trees. 

Plums, Prunes and Apricots on the true Myrobolan 
Root my specialty. No cut-backs or held over 
tree, dug-stock. No insect pests. 

.IAS. O'NEILL, Haynards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Australian Salt Bush Plants 

For alkali land, for sale by Lord & Walton, 
<!Oi) E. 2nd St., Eos Angeles. Cal. 


in your neighborhood this season 

all of which are described and illus- 
trated in our beautiful and entirely 
New Catalogue for 1896. A new 
feature this season is the Free de- 
livery of Seeds at Catalogue prices to 
any Post Office. This " New Cata- 
logue" we will mail on receipt of a 
2-cent stamp, or to those who will state 
where they saw this advertisement, the 
Catalogue will be mailed Free I 


■ 35 & 37 C ortlandt St. , New York. ■ 


■ "v for them- 
#M C mfl £ et them, plant* 
■"■^■V/thcni. They are the^ 
■ J f standard .seeds every- 
where ; sown by the 
largest planters in the world. 
'Whether you plant fjOsquare feet 
of ground or 50 acres, you should 1 
have Ferry's Seed Annual for "J6. 
The most valuable book for far- 
mers and gardeners ever given 
away. Mailed free. 
D. .11. FERRY At CO., M 
Detroit, Mich. 


Pear and Cherry Seedlings. 

No. 1, A and up. . $5.00 per 1000. 

No. 2, i to T »„ 2.50 

No. 3, tV to 1 1.50 " 

Terms cash before shipment. Mention this paper. 

H. FREE ItoROl Gil. 
Sunrise Nurseries Montavilla, Oregon, 


RIO BONIT0 NURSERIES, Bifgs, Butte Co., Cal. 



The most Complete Assortment of General Nursery Stock grown on the Pacific Coa»t. 

1,000,000 Trees for the Season of 1894-95 in Stock. 

Acknowledged everywhere to be equal to the best. Guaranteed to be healthy and free from 
cale or other pests. 

Send for Calalogue and Prices. Correspondence solicited. Address: 

Alexander & Hammon, 

Biggs, Butte County, Cal. 


( A triplfX sfmibaccat am) 

— — s E e d.- — 


Descriptive Circular sent on application. Correspondence invited. 



419-431 Sansome Street. San FraneUeo, Cal. 

The planter's success depends most upon good 
seed. The greatest measure of success comes 
from planting Gregory's Seeds. Better than 
others because Home grown and selected with 
greater care, from superior stock. All the 
newer varieties worth growing, all the old sorts 
r . that have proven best — vegetable and flower. 

ft J. 1. II. GKEKOKY A. BOH, Marblchead, Mm» 





from KANSAS SEED HOUSE^^™^ 00 --; 

Grass, Field, Garden/Tree and Flower-seed*, all espec- 
ially grown and selected for Western soil and climate. 
Alfalfa. Kaffircorn and other forage plants for dry cli- 
mate a specialty* Our elegant lift*, catalogue Is ready and 
will be mailed Free on application. Bend for one now 




Fruit Trees, Olive Trees, Grape Vines, 
Ornamental Trees and Roses, 



GEORGE C. ROEDIING, Proprietor. 

Special and Important to All Fruit Growers. 





Send for description and Special order blank at once. Only a limited number left. 

We have been 
appointed b y 
Stark Brow.. 
Louisiana, Mo.. 
Bole ..(rents for 
the Splendor 
Prune on the 
Pacific coast. 

Trees ffrOWIl 
by us at our 
nurseries here. 
i Every tree to 
I be sold under 
" their register- 
ed trade mark. 

The Splendor 
litis the sweet- 
ness of the 
D'Agen. but is 
several times 

We have a large list Of new varieties of Peaches. Plums and Prunes. Also a large list of Roses. 
Greenhouse Plants, etc. Catalogue and Price List sent upon application. 


Successors to Leonard Coates. 



Are YOU going to plant this season ? 

If you are, be fortunate enough to secure some of the following: 

Br K BANK . . I"" 

SIMON on Myrolmlan 



•T.KO the 10O 

S0.5O the IOO 

W5.oo the loo 

These trees have been grown without irrigation. 
WASHINGTON NAVELS and MED. SWEET ORANGE TREES at sneli hard times prices bh 

will meet your purse. 

Aloha Nurseries, 

FRED C. MILES, Manager. 




Trees! Trees! Trees! Trees! 


Get Our Prices Before Buying your Stock. 


Stockton, Ceil. 

■\ r y -T Have often »een seed come up poor Bnd sickly, without 

V/ I 111 sufficient vitality to produce a crop—that was an object 
I V J \^ J lesson that poor seeds produce poor crop*— but when 
you plant Salzcr's Northern thrown Seeds, for garden or 

farm, the scene change* as If by magic. Instead of poor yield. . 
get rousing crops, crops that will gladden your heart and Oil your purse, 
lor Sulzcr's Seeds are full of life, full of vigor, full of producing qualities. 

We pav this on (lain, Barley and Corn. 2<lfl hnshels silver- 
nine (Nameless Benutv) Oats gTOWHn on one acre in 1 Hih't. \ on 
en ii heal I hat ! It is I he greatest On Is of the century. No mnre 
irtl limes ilvon sow a plenty of Salzer's Barley, Oats, Pota- 
toes, Grass and Clovers! Have vou tried Teosinte, Snealine, 
Giant Spun v and Giant Quick-Growing German Clover f 
Catalogue tells all about these marvelously vvoiiderlul Fodder 


Large selections, many splendid sorts. Everything cheap. Onion Seed 
atuOc.pcrlbl lOpku Flower Seed. «."><■. 1 ,000.000 Hoses. PlunU and Small 
Fruits, hardy as Oaks. Send 2c. for Market CnrdrncrV \\ holcsnlc List. Our 
ltrr;.l Bee* and Plant llouk. Its pp., with 10 pkgs. brasses and Grain*. In- 
cluding above FrlzeOat*. Barley and Corn. I* sent upon receipt of 1 Oc- post- 
Culalog alone, 6c. Catalog and one pkg. Pumpkin Yellow Melon, 12c. 


February 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


California Floral Notes. 

The State Floral Society will meet 
henceforth on the second Friday of each 
month in the Marble Hall, Palace Ho- 
tel. All interested in floral affairs are 
invited to attend. Preparations for 
the spring rose show are in progress. 

The San Mateo County Floral Society 
is out with an announcement that it 
will hold its first rose show in May. As 
the first effort of this society last No- 
vember was so successful, it is to be 
hoped that this one will be a success. 

San Jose will have the greatest of all 
the floral carnivals this spring. Com- 
mittees have been at work for months, 
plants for decoration have been grown 
by the acre, and thousands of dollars 
have been subscribed for expenses. 

Distant readers may like to read of 
San Francisco flower prices during the 
holidays. "Meteor," correspondent of 
the American Florist, writes as follows: 
Christmas trade was far ahead of the 
previous year. On account of the un- 
usually cold weather for a couple of 
weeks preceding Christmas, there was 
quite a scarcity of flowers. For in- 
stance, chrysanthemums were very 
scarce, especially white. As for vio- 
lets, there was not one-half enough for 
the demand. Marie Louise and Czars 
went up to $2 per dozen, and Califor- 
nias, as u>ual, were on top at $3 per 
dozen. Roses were in fair supply. 
Beauties brought $2 and Testout 75 
cents per dozen. Brides and Brides- 
maid sold for 50 cents. There was a 
great scarcity of Harrisii lilies — in 
fact, there were none to be had to 
speak of. Romans sold very well, as 
did Narcissus. Quite a lot of Farley- 
ense ferns were sold also. Carnations 
had a big run. Portias sold at $3 per 
hundred, and were scarce at that. Mr. 
Lynch brought in some fine Wm. Scott, 
which sold for 50 cents per dozen. 
Daybreak was in fair supply. This 
variety does not seem to sell at all 
when there is Scott to be had. In 
plants quite a quantity of Kentias 
were sold in the smaller sizes. This 
variety of palm is rapidly becoming 
very popular. Taken as a whole, it is 
estimated that trade was fully twenty- 
five per cent above that of last year. 

Magnifying Power. 

Few persons have a clear notion of 
the magnifying powers that have been 
or can be obtained by means of the 
microscope. The following will be 
fouud trustworthy: A common hand 
magnifier, one-inch focus, magnifies 
ten times; very strong glasses, twenty 
times; small globule lenses, such as 
were sold for twenty-five cents, about 
fifty to seventy-five times; the most 
powerful single lenses that can be 
generally used, 150 times; the most 
powerful single lenses ever found avail- 
able, 300 times; ordinary compound 
microscopes, highest power, from 250 
to 500 times; highest power ordinarily 
obtained with the best microscopes, 
1,500 times; highest power yet obtained, 
giving fair light and definition, 15,000 
to 20,000 times. Claims have been 
made for much higher powers, but such 
claims are generally ignored by the 
best microscopists. By times, we 
mean in all cases, diameters. Sidewalk 
opticians generally mean areas when 
they speak of times. Areas are found 
by multiplying the diameters by them- 
selves. Ten times, mentioned above, 
is 100 areas. The cheap microscopes, 
said to magnify 1,000 times, magnify 
about 33 diameters. 


.'. . . Unequalled in 


♦ ♦ Fully Guaranteed. + ♦ 

Will be scut on trial to responsible people wishing 

to purchase. 
Catalogue* free oh application. 


338 Post Street San Francisco, Cal. 



"of 20 ROSES FOR $ 1. W 


The Rosea we send are on their own roots, from 10 to 15 inches 
high, and will bloom freely this Sr>mmer, either in pots or planted 
in yard. They are hardy ever-bloomers. Pleaso examine the below 
. list of 80 choice fri<^rant monthly Itt»«e(*, and pee If you can d upli- 
, cate them anywher*ef or an amount eo smnll as $1 • Theyare nearly 
all new kinds. We guarantee them to reach you in pood condition. 

Angu*ta Victoria, pure white, always in bloom. Champion 
of the World, (lSew) rich bright pink, finest rosogrown. Mar of 
Gobi, the queen of all yellow roses. Marlon Diiicec, richest velvty 
crimson in clusters. Colthllde Soupert, everybody's favorite, always in 
i bloom. Bridesmaid, rich pink, none better. Pearl of the Garden*, deep 

S olden yellow. Kurlet Redder, the richest of all red roses. Senator Me- 
lauffhton, lovely canary yellow. Snn«et, yellow, highly colored. FraneUka 
Kniffer. coppery yellow and peach. Marie Oulllot, the greatestof all pure white 
, roses. Pnehews ue Itrabnnt, amber rose, tinged apricot yellow. Mu<lumc Cainille, 
beautiful salmon and rosy flesh. Grace Darling* clear maroon red passing to hike, 
elegant. Catherine Mermet, everybody's favorite. Md. de Wnttev iIU>, rosy blush, 
bordered deep crimson. Rliclmrold, beautiful shades of suffron and tan. Md. 
Welehe, amber yellow, tinged with copper and orange. Md. IloMc, immense large 
double pure white, very fragrant. . 

We will also send our Iron Clad Collection of 1 4 Hardy Ro«c«, all different 
colors, $1. Try a set, SO Chrysanthemums, all prize w inners, 1 6 Gera- 

' alum*, double and single flowered, and scented, * 1 . 15 choice ISegonlns, differ- 
ent kinds, #il. 40 packets choice Flower Seeds, all different kinds, #1. Our handsome, illustrated Catalogue, de- 
scribing above Roses. Plants and all Seeds, mailed for 10 cts. stamps. Don't place your order before seeing our prices 
WE CAN SAVE YOU MON EY We h ive large two year old roses for Immediate effect. Lihensl premiums to club 
raisers, or how to get your seeds and plants free. We are the LARGEST ROSE GROWERS IN THE WORLD. Our 
■ales of Rose Plants alone last season exceeded a million and a half. v\ hen you order Hoses, Plants and Seeds, you 

¥;;'.."";:;:•"','- GOOD & REESE CO., Box H3 Champion City Greenhouses, Springfield, Ohio. 



What Venezuela Should Do. 

"Lay low" until the boundary line Is estab- 
lished, then put up a "Page," the only re- 
liable "Bull" proof fence. 

■ r 


r .__.. 


^ . 

i — | — 1 

Gabled Field and Hog Fence, 

24 to 58 Inches high; Steel Web Picket Lawn Fence; 
Poultry. Garden and 'tabbit Fence: Steel Gates. 
Steel Posts and Steel RailssTree.Klower and Tomato 
Guards; Sleet Wire Pence Board. etc. Catalotruefree. 

DeKALB FENCE CO., :i:t High St., DeKalb. III. 

JOHN W00DL0CK, General Agent, 

26 Keale Street San Francisco, Cal 



ami nil fence purposes. 

( iiuus, mds of Miles in Use. 
Always gives satisfaction. Sold by dealers. Freight 
paid. Take no other. Catalogue free. 

$75™ $100 SALARY 

and commission, paid to energetic young men 
and ladies to transact business for us in their own 
town orcounty; excellent chance for Teachers, 
Students andOlergymen ; business pleasant and 
permanent; splendid opportunity to make money; 
our new plan takes like wild-tire. Address at once 

National Library Association, Dept. A27 


For House, Barn, 
Buggy or Furniture. 
At Manufacturer's Lowest 

P»ices. Shipping Charges Prepaid. 

Sample cards and full information free for the 
asking. If you Intend to paint lot us hear from you. 
It will be mouey iu your pocket. 

f i«/ r»cvr)F ft CO 224 s - Clir,, <> n St., Chicago. 

SAMPLE American Bee Journal. 


All about Beea and Honey 


56 Fifth Ave. 

(Established 1861) 
Weekly, *1 a year. 7Editors. 
160 -page , " 
Bee-Book „ 
i Free! 

BK E EUR S Sample copPm 

A HandBomelT Illustrated nrr Oil DDI ICC 
Magazine, and Catalog. ofBttOUrTLI CO 
FKEE. THE A. I. ROOT CO.. McdlnfuO. 

For deep or shallow wells; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps: valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-iu. double-actiDg 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,U00 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A. T.AMES, Gait, Cal. 

This is a photograph of the Stump Puller at work 
on redwood stumps on the farm of C. E. Ogburu, 
Guerneville. California. 

In the improved form in which it is now offered 
to the public, it is universally admitted to be the 
most practical, powerful and successful machine of 
the kind in America, and t lie only machine in exist- 
ence that can be successfully operated on hill land. 

Send for catalogue to 

A. BARNES, Manager, 
82 and «4 Zoe Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

B f\ K. E R 

H A iV\ 1 L T O N. 


reverses without detaching; with or without Ex- 
tension heads. Write for Special Circular. 
San Francisco. Sacramento, Los Angeles. 


POTATO Cutter 


It marks, furrows, cuts, 
drops and covers all in one 

No more cutting; seed 
by hand. 

It cuts the potato the 
same as if done by band. 

It leaves the Held with 
Its work done complete. 

The only perfect potato 
planter made. 
Send for free catalogue to 


"o Castings to Break, NoWearoutto It. 

Adjustment oasiest operated. Rnve its C0Bt first sph- 
Bon. Aftaptfd to (rpneral farm purposes. HAS NO